Lesson Guides

Lesson Note – 2nd Term JSS 1 Computer Week 2

Introduction to Lesson Note – 2nd Term JSS 1 Computer Week 2

I wrote this Lesson Note – 2nd Term JSS 1 Computer Week 2 based on the newly revised Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (UBE Edition). Particularly, I used the New Junior Secondary School Teaching Schemes of Work. The various state ministry of education and the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed the teaching schemes between 2014 and 2016. Click here to download the most recent schemes of work for Pre-primary through Senior Secondary Schools. These schemes are the same for the 36 states of the federation and the FCT. Hence, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National Curriculum.

Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson notes, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the subject-specific modern teaching style in the FTS manual.

 Unlike most lesson notes which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor. This is to ensure a balanced learning experience for the learners.

Leading Guide To Adapting This Lesson Note

I wrote this lesson note in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this note for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to get our Lesson Plan Template. The layout of the template makes it easy for teachers to write a professional lesson plan and easily.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, click here to quickly read my article on their differences.

Term: Second Term

Class: Junior Secondary School (JSS) 1

Week: 2

Curriculum: NERDC Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC)

Topic: Data Processing

Sub-topic: Meaning of Data


At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:

  • state the meaning of data

Step 1: Introduction

The teacher introduces the lesson in the following steps:


  1. Formulate stimulating sentences that cut up into component words equal to the number of students in the class. For example, below are two sentences. The total number of words in both sentences is 17. Therefore, these sentences are ideal for a class of 17 students.
    1. There, is a packet of biscuits.
    1. The first person to reach my desk will have it all.

Note that none of the words in both sentences make total sense when you say only it to someone.

  • Write out each word in the sentences on a piece of card.


  • Tell the students that you will give them an instruction. Successful completion of the instruction has a reward. The first student to carry out the instruction wins the reward.
  • After that, randomly give a card on which you have written a word from the sentence(s) to each of the students. Then tell them that you have now given the instruction to them.
  • Give them a moment to figure out the instruction and to complete the task. This may be 2-3 minutes. You may act absent while the students attempt to do this.
  • Once the time elapse, recall the students’ attention. Then, ask if any of them was able to figure out the instruction in the information you gave them. It is very likely none will. So, request them to keep their card save and that by the time the lesson is ended, they would have figured it out.
  • Follow this up with by showing the students a live dataset for any daily transaction or activity. I recommend Binance market chart. Let the students watch the numbers for a while. Afterwards, ask them if they make a sense out of the number series. They probably will not. Therefore, proceed with the introductory explanation thus:
Introductory Text
Information we learn from Instruction

Information is part of our life. We receive countless amount of information every day. We get some kinds of information from the people that we live, meet and interact with. For example, when people ask us a question; or gives us instructions; tell us a meaningful story; or when they just let us to know something useful like a teacher.

Information we learn by deduction

However, there are other kinds of information that we do not get from people. Instead, we deduce (find them out) from our observations. For example, when you visit a friend and s/he does not want you around. That friend may not tell you to go, but you will deduce his/her intentions from what you observe – the body language.  Another example of information we deduce is your parents’ or siblings’ favourites. They may not tell you their favourite colour, food or drink. But after you observe their fondness of it, you know what they like and dislike.

Importance of Information

Both kinds of information are very important to us in life. Everything we know which helps us to become what we are today and what we will become in future is through the information that we get/have. Good kinds of information make us good and bad information makes us bad. Most importantly, having the right information helps us to make right decisions. Be it our choice of school, what we will buy, places to go or not to go, what to do or not to do, etc. are all as a result of the information we have.

Data Analyst & Data Analysis

In fact, life is almost impossible without information. As a result, we have to be able to get all the information we can. Getting the kind of information that people tell us is not difficult. But getting information from what we observe (just like the live dataset and card) has more work. Not many people can do it. In fact, we have to be trained to be able to do it easily and faster. The people that learn this skill of getting useful information from what we observe are called Data Analyst. So, Data Analysis is the “subject” that teaches us how to get useful information from pieces of observation. Data Analyst is one of the most in-demand and highest paying job in the world right now and will continue to be in future. As at January 2023, Data Analyst in Nigeria earn between 2 to 15 million naira per year or 150,000 to 1.2 million per month (Payscale).

Conclusion of Introduction

  • After the introductory explanation above, ask the students who would like to become a data analyst.
  • Further, tell the students that one of the things that data analyst do is called data processing. Hence, explain that data processing is the step-by-step work of getting useful information from the pieces of our observations.
  • Finally, tell the students that they shall learn about, and acquire the skill of data processing in the next 3 weeks. Tell that if they master the skills, you will teach them, they could even put up for part-time data entry jobs when they get to JSS 3. After that, tell them that the first thing they will learn about data processing is the meaning of key terms – data, data processing & information. Finally, list the objectives of the lesson on the screen/board and explain each to the students.

Step 2: Meaning of Data

  1. Briefly recap/describe the tasks of data scientist: getting useful information from our pieces of observations.
  2. Ask the students what they think data is in relation to the meaning above.
  3. At the end of the ensuing discussion, project/write the definition of data on the screen/board. Then, explain the definition thoroughly as follows:

Definition of Data

Data is a character or a collection of characters for expressing fact or a collection of raw facts; which may not make complete sense but can be processed to get better information.

Explanation of the meaning of data

  1. Read out the definition a few times.
  2. Help the students to memorize the definition. Ask them one after another or randomly (focusing more on average to slow learners).
    1. You may help them to be able to write it by dictating it while they write in their jotter.
    1. Tell them to write it down offhand.
  3. Once you ascertain that the students are able to say and write the definition of data, explain thoroughly. Below is the text of explanation to guide you.
A Character as Data to Computer

In computer, a character is a letter (alphabet), number or a mark (sign) that has a known meaning. A character is also called a symbol. Examples of characters are:

  1. Letters (alphabets) A – Z and letters a – z.
  2. All numbers including negatives and fractions
  3. Punctuation marks like comma, full-stop, question mark, etc.
  4. Special symbols like @, #, $, %, +, -, /, etc.
  5. Whitespace (empty spaces like when you press spacebar, tab and enter keys).

Data as a character means that any of the characters above is data to computer. When you press letter A on a computer, you have given it data. And a major characteristic of data is that it may not make a complete sense. In other words, we may not totally understand it until we have done some sort of work on it – that is processing. Similarly, computers do not instantly understand the letter A you pressed on the keyboard. As such, it cannot store or retrieve it until it has performed some sort of work on it.

In this case, the work that the computer performs on letter A is changing it to binary (zeros and ones). This is because binary is the only language the computer understands – the only thing it really knows and operate with. They will learn how the computer does this in JSS 2 – Data Representation.

A Character as Data to Human Being

Just as a character is data to computer, it is also data to human being. How? Imagine you just awake from sleep in the morning. Then a stranger hand you a character (say number 2) without saying any word. Will you be able to make sense out of it? Absolutely not or even if you do, not with certainty.

To make complete sense out of the character that the stranger gave to you, you have to do some sort of work on it. That work may be asking the stranger what the (number) character means or what it is for. It is only when the stranger has explained this that you will know that the character (number 2) which s/he gave to you represents 2 beautiful cars that s/he has just gifted you.

Hence, the character is data because to make complete sense out of it, we have to do some sort of work.

Data as a Collection of Characters

Not only is a single character data but a collection of characters also constitute data both to computer and to human being.

Examples of data as a collection of character are:
  1. Words and sentences – two or more letters written together. E.g., at, am, etc. It is important to note that computer understands a word different from how it understands each of the component letters in the word.
  2. Numbers (figures) – 20, 400, etc. Just as words, a two- or more-digit figure is different from its component digits to the computer.
  3. Alphanumeric characters – characters that contains a combination of alphabets, numbers and symbols. E.g., Vehicle plate number (RN234), Email (yourname@something.com), Units (100ºC).

Generally, a group of characters comprising of letters, numbers and special symbols are called a text. Each of these collections of characters are series on zeros and ones the computer.

Images, Audios & Videos as Data to Computer

When we talk of a collection of characters as data, this is how computer sees images, audios and videos. Computer does not see images as pictures like we do. More so, computers do not understand audio as sound nor video as sound and moving images.

Instead, within computers, each of these are huge collections of characters (zeros and ones). So, whenever you see/hear or work with images, audios and videos on a computer; the computer has to first of work on them – i.e., change to and from zeroes and ones – before the computer can understand and manipulate these kinds of data.

Hence, images, audios and videos are data in computers.

Similarly, images, audios and videos may be data to human beings. If they do not make complete sense but are expressing facts and can be processed to make more meaning out of them; then such is data.

For example, the sound produced by different rocks when a geologist hits them is data. Why? This is because the geologist listens to the sound to get more information about the rocks.

Other examples of images, audio and videos data are:

  1. Sound/images showed by reCAPTCHA which a user gets verification code from.
  2. Ultrasound scans and X-ray images which medical personnel study to understand a health issue better.
  3. CCTV footage (images/videos) which security agents watch to trace a breach.
  4. Murals or drawings on ancient walls and inside caves which an archaeologist studies to get information about something or a people.
  5. Evidence presented at a court proceeding which the jury listen to or watch to get more information about a situation.
  6. Etc.
Data as Representation of Facts

Now that you know what constitute data, it is also important to know that not all writings, sound, images and videos qualify as data to human beings. One cannot just formulate any arbitrary character or combination of characters to form valid data. Within human context, data has to express or represent facts or concepts that the originator observes.

A fact refers to anything whose existence or occurrence can be proven or is a consensus (known or agreed upon).

For example, X-ray images can be proven. Say when it shows a foreign object in a body, a surgeon proofs this when s/he performs operation on that part of the body and retrieves the foreign object.

NOTE: At this point, the teacher introduces an aspect of information literacy to the students by teaching them to verify new information before propagating it.

Therefore, whatever data you formulate for human consumption should be capable of producing more meaning. This means it should have some sort of explanations. For example, writing a thousand different numbers without telling what it represents may not fit in the definition of data. However, I can turn it into valid data by titling it as ages of 1,000 people. Of course, each of the ages is raw fact.

Data As a Collection of Raw Facts

So far, we have seen what data means to computer – just about anything you feed it and it has to work on. The general work that computer performs on all data is conversion to streams of zeros and ones (binary). It is only when computers convert data to binary that it understands it and it can save and retrieve it.

We know that data may be just one character like letter “A” alone. We also know that many characters like a words, letters, figures and sentences are also data. Finally, we learned that images, audios and videos are also data.

Now, we have to understand that data processing does not stop at the way computers process data internally – i.e., conversion to binary (and) for manipulation. In fact, what data means to computers is not the same as what it means to data analysts.

While computers consider just about any character or simple set of characters as valid data, data analysts see data differently.

To data analyst, and in general human business; data is a collection of raw facts which we can work on to get more meaning or better understanding. This means that to data analysts and in business, valid data may already have some sort of meaning. Basically, we have to know what the data represent. For instance, the various ages of all the people in a class is data.

Examples of valid data

Other examples of valid data to data analyst and in business are:

  1. The list of sports that a group of 50 students play.
    1. Gender of all the students in a school.
    1. Political parties of all senators in Nigeria.
    1. Number of times that each teacher goes to class in a day.
    1. The population of people in a country over a period of ten years. Etc.

All of these are valid data to a data analyst and in business.


After these examples, the teacher engages the students:

  1. First, ask if any student can tell at least two features that all these examples have in come. Once a they do, or if they couldn’t; point these out to them as features of valid data in business:
    1. Each of the examples is a collection. That is, each represent data we collect from many actors. For instance, the list of sports in the first example is collected from many (50) students not one student. Also, the gender in the second example is for many students; political parties in example 3 is from many senators.
    1. The second feature of valid data in business is that it has common definition. By this, I mean that even though the data is a collection from many actors; we still describe all of the collections under one title. For instance, in the first example; the 50 different collections are all list of sport. Also, in the second example; the collections from all the students are all gender.
  2. Basing on the features of valid data in business, ask the students to give more examples of valid data in business. You may need to re-elaborate the features of valid data in business as guide for the students to give more examples of.
  3. Subsequently, tell the students that their ability to state examples of data in business shows that they understand the meaning of data. Thus,
  4. Project/Write a brief note on the meaning of data on the screen/board for the students to copy into their notebooks – if applicable.

Check back for note summary

  • In conclusion, read the notes with the students and revisit any necessary explanations. Thereafter, reveal to the students that even though the examples of data they have seen makes some sense, we can obtain further understanding from the data after we work on it. So, display some data sample and ask the students to say what the data sample tells them.

Succeeding this, reiterate that to get more meaning from data, we have to do some work on it. Example of work we can perform on data is re-arranging or sorting. Then, reveal to them that if they put all the cards which you gave them at the introduction together and arrange it, they will make meaning of the data.


Prior to concluding the lesson, the assesses the students’ understanding of the lesson. Check back for evaluation questions.


Conclude the lesson by revising the contents and linking it to the next topic.

Lagos Amends 2022/2023 Harmonized Calendar

Press Release:

The Office of Education Quality Assurance (OEQA) has announced a change in the dates earlier slated for the mid-term break of the Second Term in the 2022/2023 Academic year from Friday, 24th February to Friday, 3rd March, 2023, as approved by the Honourable Commissioner for Education, Mrs Folasade Adefisayo.

The Director General, Office of Education Quality Assurance (OEQA) Mrs. Abiola Seriki-Ayeni disclosed at a Stakeholders’ meeting held recently on the review of the 2022/2023 harmonised academic calendar due to the forthcoming general elections.

She explained that the essence of the engagement is to ensure that everybody is on the same page as regards the second-term school activities and the need to accommodate the forthcoming general elections in its entirety.

The DG, who was represented by the Director, Planning, Research and Statistics (OEQA), Mr. Remi Abdul noted that the earlier dates for the mid-term break falls within the election period hence the need for a shift in the date for a week to allow parents pick up their wards from school without hindrance due to the restriction of movement associated with the election days.

It was also noted that another important reason for the change of dates bothers on safeguarding and child protection and convenience as a result of the presidential and National Assembly elections slated for Saturday, February 25, 2023, coinciding with the date boarding school students are expected to resume in the earlier in the schedule for the Second term harmonized 2022/2023 academic calendar.

In furtherance to the change, the first half of the second term is to hold from the 9th of January to Thursday, February 23, 2023, whilst Open Day for Primary schools will be on Wednesday, February 22nd, 2023, and Thursday, February 23rd, 2023 for Secondary Schools.

The mid-term break would hold from Friday, 24th of February to Friday, 3rd of March, 2023. While the second half of the second term is expected to hold from Monday, 6th of March to Thursday, 6th of April, 2023.

Lagos Amends 2022/2023 Harmonized Calendar
How to Become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher

How to Become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher

How to become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher in Brief

How to become or inspire a highly efficient teacher recommends ages-long approach to boosting employee work performance.

Every Employee Wants to Do a Good Job

Newsweek magazine once quoted the President of Hyatt Hotels in the following words: “If there is anything, I have learned in my 27 years in the service industry, it is this: 99 percent of all employees want to do a good job”. And this is true. Starting from ourselves, there is hardly any time when you and I deliberately decided to do a shabby job. Or can you remember any time that you said to yourself, “today, I will do this work so bad that my supervisor (employer) will be angry at it”? I believe there isn’t any of such time. Or if there is, it will be far too less often to be significant.

And this is same for the majority of employees. Most employees want to be among the favourite. They want to be commended for jobs well done. They want bonuses, salary increment, and promotion. Every leader can attest to the trueness of this because they have experienced it first-hand.  Therefore, with 99 percent of employees falling within this category; it is rather illogical to think that any employee will deliberately choose to do a bad job.

Yet, Many Employees Perform Badly

Yet, we see them. Workers with very low turnover. Those that fall short of standard in the discharge of their duties. They have not too good attitude to work. Still, they desire commendations, bonuses, salary increment and promotion.

Are you a leader in any organization? Can you think of any member(s) of your staff that falls within this category? How many are there, 1, 2, 3 or more? Note their names, I will tell you what to do.

Also, if you are an employee; do you always feel unappreciated even though you always try your best at work? You never get a commendation, no bonuses, no salary increments and no promotion. Then, this piece is yours too, keep reading.

To the leader, did it ever occur to you that those (annoying) members of your staff desiring commendations and reward while they perform below standard are actually unaware of their score? Let me tell you.

As a school administrator, I have had to interview a lot of applicants in the last 7 years. And there is one particular question that naturally pops up in my mind during interviews. After perusing the CV of someone that has worked in “too” many organizations within a short period of time, my curiosity always asks why such applicant keep leaving the different organizations.

Who’s To Blame?

The answer I got as reply to this question in January of 2022, is the same as I have received on many occasions over the years. The applicants faulted their employer’s lack of appreciation for their service although they always do their best. No doubt, this says a lot about the applicant.

But the frequency of that same answer also tells me something unique about all workers; an insight that is invariably helpful to all leaders. And it is that most of the under-performers in your team, do not know they are not performing up to expectation. As far as they are concern, they believe that they are doing their best. This is no speculation but a well-known fact. And to help you put a figure to your organization’s unique situation; have your staff take the Employee Self-Evaluation test.  The result of such exercise will lead you to your individual staff’s inner perception of their performance. In addition, it will also help you infer more accurately, what they expect of you to keep the organisation growing.

Misrepresentation Performance Index

However, the misrepresentation of an employee work performance goes in two ways. It is not only that the employer may wrongly assume that every of his or her employees can accurately place their individual work performance index corresponding to theirs. But the employees can as well develop inaccurate perception of their delivery – like feeling they are doing their best when in truth, they have not hit the boundaries. For this purpose, every employee that feels he or she is underappreciated at work should head for individual Employee Self-Evaluation test. Do this, and be as sincere during the test to yourself as possible. Then, discuss the result with your trusted colleague(s) and your superior. This should clear the cloud of insatiable expectations cast by unreal perception of one’s performance.

Whether an employer/a leader conducts this test, or an employee individually takes the evaluation test; the result may reflect one or more common factors. One of such common factors you will find out, is that one or more member of your staff is underperforming. This may not be deliberate. But that does not stop it from negatively affecting your organization. As result, it is important that you tackle underperformance headlong.

Tackling underperformance is a matter of urgency. And any organization that wants to attain sustainable growth, must approach it as such. The underperformance of one member of staff left unchecked, can influence the delivery of other staff. In addition, it automatically adds to the daily stress of the employer/leader. You must understand that evil more influential than good, wrong than right. So, the underperformance of one member of staff is enough to neutralize the hard work of the rest of the team.

Solving the Problem

The question is not whether or not to tackle underperformance. Instead, it is about how to tackle it. Knowing that “99 percent of all employee want to do a good job” but majority often fail, how do we help those that fall short of standard smash their goals?

The answer begins with knowing why people do not perform up to expectation. Thankfully, a lot of researchers, life coaches and authors have done great justice to this question. Ferdinand F. Fournies gave the best answer to this question in his bestseller, “Coaching for Improved Work Performance”. According to Fournies, there are four common reasons why people do not perform the way they should. The four major reasons people do not perform the way they should is because they do not know:

  1. what they are supposed to do
  2. how to do it
  3. why they should; and if
  4. there are obstacles beyond their control

Making Your Staff 100% Efficient: Teachers’ Induction Training

Since we have identified the reasons for underperformance among staff, solving the problem becomes easier. However, before we discuss the solutions to the problem of inefficiency among staff, let us consider a few realities that relates to the causes. This will help you to diagnose your organization first-hand.

Fact 1: Majority of Teachers do not read to understand their job description in detail

The first solution to the problem of staff inefficiency is giving a concise job description at engagement. Sadly, some organization with rather casual approach to business do not have any form of contract with their staff say less a job description. We will address this later.

But assuming that your organization does have contract agreement with detailed job description; one will expect that new employees will read to understand such document. Let’s not put a figure to this because we know the reality: majority of employees do not read their job descriptions to understand it. Instead, they browse through and toss it around. Afterall, they have done this before.  

It does not stop there. Among the few that read and understand their job description, some soon forgets.

For these reasons, it is not enough for you to give job descriptions. It is equally important for you to work them through it thoroughly.

Are you an employee, this is where you deliberately create a checklist against each item on your job description. Beyond that, create a system for rating your capability in handling each task in your assignment.

Fact 2: Papers and length of years does not always translate to efficiency

If you have being an administrator long enough, you will agree to this fact. Some people are just too good at crafting killer résumé and performing at interviews. But that is it.

I am talking about people that have the necessary qualifications (papers) and years of experience. Yet, after you employ them; their performance does not reflect their qualifications. This is a sad reality of our country today. The fact that people have the qualification does mean they know how to do the job. As a result, we have to amplify the second reason for staff inefficiency according to F.F Fournies.

As an employer, you have to make it part of your corporate culture to always give employees hands-on training on how to do their job.

As a staff, you should understand the concept of doing your job within context. You do this by enrolling and participating in quality training that uniquely adapts to your workplace.

Fact 3: Majority of Teachers Have Lost Touch of the Reason for Doing Their Jobs

This fact does not need elaboration. But I will explain it from another context. More and more teachers have to understand the business dimension of education. As such, majority demands commensurate financial rewards.

Unfortunately, it is difficult for schools to offer such rewards if the teachers are not efficient. And since the teachers seek the reward to be efficient, it is deadlock! The result is that teachers continue to not have reasons for them to be efficient.

The Solution: How to Become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher

So, schools must always lead the initiative. To attain sustainable growth like I discussed previously, schools must always give their teachers reasons to do their job efficiently. This does not necessarily mean financial rewards. In fact, before any financial reward, schools should first provide proper guidance. And the best way is through training.

Similarly, independent teachers that want to excel regardless of the school they work must continually seek reasons to do their job efficiently. They can do this by enrolling for relevant training.

All-in-One Teachers’ Induction Training

The LeadinGuides Teachers’ Induction Training is an all-in-one efficiency masterclass for teachers. Though, primarily targeted at new teachers, it is also a generic Continuous Professional Development programme for experienced teachers.

This training helps teachers and schools to directly and effectively tackle the problems of inefficiency at workplace.

In addition, it helps schools to align the minds of their teachers to the organization’s aspirations, draw out their untapped potentials and motivate them towards helping the school attain her goals and unlock unexploited growth channels.

Participants will develop “teacherpreneurship” mindset and improve on their practical teaching skills. At the end of the training, they will become top contributors to their organizations. Most importantly, they will learn how to establish themselves, to earn more and live a fulfilling life.

This is one of the highly valuable training programs we are delivering to the international audience at Northford Center for Advanced Studies, Abuja.

Click here to join LeadinGuides TIT today

Platform That Pays Teachers Real Money

Make no mistake about it, this is a new era. Technology have changed our world and the way we do things. It has changed us and will continue to do so. Education, being the originator of technology is not exempted from its twirl. In fact, it is at the forefront of its impact.

We have seen technology change how teachers teach and how students learn. Unlike in the past, one teacher can now teach unlimited number of students at once. Technology offers students wide range of choices for different kinds of learners. It is one of the major factors that affects students’ academic performance today – both negatively and positively.

Perhaps, the greatest impact of technology, especially the internet, on education is that it offers both teachers and students access to limitless number of resources as well as the opportunity for collaboration.

This way, the internet is solving the biggest limitation of education in the earlier centuries – i.e., lack of resources. Unfortunately, not enough number of teachers are taking advantage of this opportunity.

Many continue to constrain themselves to their textbooks and old strategies. To improve education, we must teach and encourage every teacher to take advantage of technology. It could be as simple as making them to research new resources.

As leaders in educational technology, LeadinGuides has launched the very first platform that pays teachers real money in 2023 and beyond.

What is the Platform That Pays Teachers Real Money?

The platform that pays teachers real money is a system that rewards teachers for website activities as encouragements to go technological. For each website activity, a teacher gains between 1 to 500 points which he or she can exchange for equal amount in local currency.

LeadinGuides designed the platform

What is the Limit of the Platform that Pays teachers Real Money?

Hypothetically, there is no limit to how much a teacher can earn from the platform. However, in reality, a teacher can currently earn up to ₦437 per day. This means you can earn up to ₦13, 110 per month.

How does a teacher earn from the platform?

There are many ways to earn from the platform. You earn for just visiting the website daily. You earn for using their lesson notes and even for connecting with other teachers.

We have listed out all the standard ways and how much you earn per activity on the Ways to Earn page.

Steps to join the platform

You can join the platform that pays teachers real money in Nigeria starting from January 2023 in 3 simple and free steps:

  1. Register on the website
  2. Confirm your registration
  3. Subscribe to a membership plan

How to register on LeadinGuides

  1. Visit the website – www.LeadinGuides.com
  2. On the website, check under membership at the top menu and click on register.
  3. This will take you to the subscription plans page. Under free member, click on the join now button.
  4. This will take you to the registration page. Fill in your details. Only your username and name will be displayed on public directory if you choose to allow it. See our privacy policy and terms and conditions of service.
  5. Submit

That is it!

However, to complete your registration, you have to confirm your email address. Hence, after the registration, check your email box immediately and confirm your registration by clicking the link that we will send to you.

That is all, you will start earning immediately after you register.

LeadinGuides Partners Northford

LeadinGuides Partners Northford

We are glad to announce the news our first partnership of the year 2023 with Northford Center for Advanced Studies, Abuja.

Northford Center for Advanced Studies is one of the most elite training and business development institutions in Nigeria.

It is an autonomous training, research and entrepreneurial development center in the country’s capital. In partnership with renowned universities and institutions from across the world, it offers both an in-campus and online training and certify graduates and industry professionals in different areas of specialization.

Its Executive Training programs serve leaders of top multinational companies as well as public office holders in Nigeria.

This partnership see to the standardization of our teachers’ training. As a result, we shall henceforth be offering these our short courses at the institution:

  • Teacherpreneurship Training
  • Teacher’s Induction Training
  • Instructional Design Training
  • Strategies for Sustainable School Growth – for School Executives & Administrators

We shall be announcing the schedule of these short courses in an ongoing basis.

Inside Northford Center
Northford Conference Room
Northford’s Conference Room
LeadinGuides Partners Northford
Northford Office – 4th Floor, Katsina House, Central Business District, Abuja – Nigeria

Questions Paper – Primary 1 First Term Basic Science Week 3

  1. The world as a whole (object/ball) is divided into 3. Which one is not among the 3?
    1. Air
    2. Water
    3. Land
    4. Layer
  2. The part of earth that contains different kinds of air is called ____________________.
    1. Atmosphere
    2. Crust
    3. Land
    4. Ground
  3. Pick the one that is not a natural water body?
    1. Lake
    2. Ocean
    3. River
    4. Tap
  4. Which one is not another name for the part of earth called land?
    1. Ground
    2. Sky
    3. Earth’s surface
    4. Earth’s crust
  5. When scientists draw the different parts of earth’s surface from top to the innermost part, what name do the scientists call each part?
    1. Layers
    2. Sand
    3. Dirt
    4. Soil
  6. Which is the first layer of the earth’s surface?
    1. Stone
    2. Soil
    3. Rock
    4. Water
  7. Whenever rocks break into smaller pieces, it forms ______________.
    1. Rock
    2. Soil
    3. Sky
    4. Atmosphere

Lesson 2 Stage Evaluation Questions

  1. The things that get mixed with, and are present in soil are what we call __________.
    1. Components of soil
    2. Layers of soil
    3. Soft part of soil
    4. Hard part of soil
  2. Many pieces of different kinds of rocks that form part of soil are called ______________.
    1. Minerals
    2. Micro-organisms
    3. Organic matter
    4. Air
  3. ___________ are the tiny remains of dead organisms in the soil.
    1. Minerals
    2. Micro-organisms
    3. Organic matter
    4. Air
  4. What do you call tiny living things in the soil?
    1. Minerals
    2. Micro-organisms
    3. Organic matter
    4. Air
  5. _____________ is not among the components of soil.
    1. Air
    2. Water
    3. Organic matter
    4. Atmosphere
  6. Which one is correct?
    1. All soil contains the same amount of the component of soil.
    2. Different kinds of soil do not have different names.
    3. We get silt soil when hard rocks break into many pieces by force.
    4. When smooth soft soil combines with remains of dead organisms for a very long time it forms sticky smooth soil.
  7. __________ is not a type of soil.
    1. Sandy
    2. Clay
    3. Silt
    4. Minerals
  8. When three other types of soil mix up, they form ____________ soil.
    1. Silt
    2. Loamy
    3. Sandy
    4. Clay

Lesson 3 Stage Evaluation Questions

  1. Which soil is best for making ceramics like pots, flower vase and tiles?
    1. Silt
    2. Loamy
    3. Sandy
    4. Clay
  2. ____________ is the best type of soil for farming.
    1. Silt
    2. Loamy
    3. Sandy
    4. Clay
  3. What can you use sandy soil to do?
    1. Farming
    2. Making pots
    3. Building
    4. Making tiles
  4. Which one is not among the uses of soil?
    1. Farming
    2. Making ceramics
    3. Building
    4. None of the options
  5. The things we make from clay are called ____________.
    1. Ceramics
    2. Organic matter
    3. Silt
    4. Layer

Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term Basic Science Week 3

Introduction to Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term Basic Science Week 3

I wrote this lesson note based on the latest Basic Science Scheme of Work for Primary 1.  The Scheme is based on the latest 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. You can download the scheme from our store on paystack or contact us on WhatsApp.

In a bid to keep this guide concise, I did not include some components of standard lesson plan. At the end of the week, I will provide links for you to download the ready-made lesson plan along with the recommended instructional materials. However, you have to register on this website and subscribe to our newsletter to access the lesson plan and instructional materials.

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If the term lesson plan and lesson note confuse you, click here to get clarification.

Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term Basic Science Week 3

CLASS: Primary 1

TERM: First

WEEK: 3rd

TOPIC: Soil – Types and Importance


At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

  • Define soil
  • Mention the types of soil
  • List the importance of soil



Instructional material:

  • A cupful each of sandy, loamy and clay soil neatly and separately packed into boxes/cartons. Label the boxes with either letters A, B, C or numbers 1, 2, 3.
  • Science workbook

Steps to introduce the lesson

  1. Divide pupils into group. Each group comprising of 3 pupils.
  2. To each group, give a set of concealed/packaged sand packs.
  3. Instruct them to identify the specimens, differentiate between them and decide an important thing to do with the specimen. For each exercise, guide them with the following instructions:
    Exercise A: Identification
    1. Go to your group table.
    2. Put these three boxes on top.
    3. Then, sit or stand round the table.
    4. Let the first member of the group open the first box (Box A or Box 1).
    5. All the group members should touch and fetch what is inside the box unto their palms.
    6. Tell each other what you think the material is.
    7. Once all the group members agree on what is inside the box, put the material back in the box then each of you should write the name in your book.
    8. Then do the same thing for the second and third boxes. The second group member is to open the second box while the third group member should open the third box.
    Exercise B: Differentiation
    1. Put the three opened boxes on the table.
    2. All the group members should look at the material inside the three boxes, touch it again and if any wants, smell it.
    3. Teach each other whether the materials in the three boxes are the same thing or not.
    4. If what is inside the three boxes are not the same, tell each other the difference between the three.
    EXERCISE C: Importance
    1. All group members should sit round the group table.
    2. First group member should remind other group members what was is in first box; second member, second box; and third member, box 3.
    3. Starting from first person, if the teacher gift (dash) the three packs to you; mention one way the content can help you.
  4. Recall the pupils from their groups and collect their workbook then keep them in a safe place for marking at a later time.
  5. Ask them the questions orally and receive attempts from willing pupils:
    1. What did you find inside box A, B & C?
    2. Are the contents of the three boxes the same?
    3. What are the differences between the content of the three boxes?
    4. If, I gift the three boxes to you; what important thing will you do with the contents, how are the contents useful to you?
  6. Here are the possible answers the pupils will give to each of the questions:
    1. The content of the boxes is sand or dirt.
    2. Yes, the three boxes all contain sand or dirt.
    3. There is no difference between the content of the three boxes.
    4. If you gift the content of the three boxes to me, I will play with it then throw it away.
  7. Start by hinting that the answers are not exactly correct though not particularly wrongs either.
  8. Tell them that they shall in the week’s lesson learn the correct answers to each of the questions.
  9. Thereafter, write/project the topic on the board and explain the lesson objectives.

Meaning of Soil

  1. Continue the lesson by providing the correct answer to the first question – content of the boxes.
  2. Tell the pupils that instead of sand or dirt, the content of the boxes is soil. Then explain the list and explain the l of soil as opposed to sand and dirt as follows. Use video, slides, posters or charts to aid faster comprehension. In-between the explanations, there are one or two questions. Use the question to induce interaction.

Earth as a whole (object) is divided into three parts.

The first part contains different kinds of air. This is called atmosphere. It starts from the sky above down to under our feet when we lift our legs.  Birds, bats and insects live in the air.

The second part of earth is water in natural places apart from the sky. This includes small water bodies like natural ponds, lakes, streams and large water bodies like rivers, seas and oceans. Fishes, turtles and frogs live in water – water is their home.

The third part of earth is land. Land is also called ground, earth’s surface or earth’s crust. It is the strong rocky surface that human beings can stand, walk, run, jump and live on. What other things live on land? Correct! Goats, dog, lizard and so on also live on land. Plants grow on land too.

Soil, is part of land. If you dug the ground down for 10 years without resting, what would you see?

Layers of Earth’s Land/Ground

Many scientists did the experiment many years ago. They found out that from the top where we walk, the ground is soft. Human beings, animals and plants can break the top soft part of the ground. The top soft part is mostly dark in color. After the soft part of the ground, there is the hard part. Human beings, animals and plants cannot easily break this hard inner part – but they still can with more effort or engine/machine. This part of the ground is usually brownish or reddish in color. After this part, there many harder parts deeper into the ground. The deeper you go, the harder until you hit the rocks. The rocks are followed by underground water. After the underground water, there is the hardest part of the earth. The last hardest part of the ground is very hot. In fact, the deeper you go from the top, the hotter it becomes.

When scientists draw the different parts of earth’s land/ground from the top to the innermost part, they call each part a layer. See the layers of earth’s land/ground below.

Source: World Atlas

Where is soil in all of these? What is soil?

Soil is the topmost layer of the earth surface. That means it is the top soft part of earth’s land that man and other animals live and plants grow. Whenever we dig a hole, scrub our feet against the ground or stamp our feet; we break the ground. The small piece that results from that breakage is what we call soil. Generally, whenever a stone or rock breaks, it forms soil – smaller pieces of that stone/rock. That is how we got the content of the three boxes in the earlier exercise. So, the content of the boxes is soil.

Stage Evaluation Question

  • End the lesson here for the first period.
  • Revise the entire lesson and assess their understanding of the lesson. Use number 1 to 7 in the accompanying question paper.
  • Don’t forget to give excellent feedback to the pupils. Where available, use reward stickers to this effect.

Second Period: Types of Soil

Continue the lesson with the following steps:

  1. Remind them of the earlier differentiation exercise and ask if them if the content of the three boxes is the same.
  2. After the discussion, clarify that the three boxes all contain soil.
  3. Thereafter, ask the pupils again if the different soils in the three boxes are the same. You may demand reasons for more interactivity.
  4. In the end, clarify again that the different soils in the three boxes are not the same – give one or two differences between the soil such as the color and how the soil feels when you touch them.
  5. Then ask them what they think made the soils to be different despite that all are same soil.
  6. Succeeding the discussion, explain that the soils are different because of where we get them from and also the condition that form them.

When a hard rock breaks by force into many pieces, it forms shiny and sharp soil. However, when a rock breaks into many small pieces by the smooth washing of fast-moving water, we get smooth soft soil. And when smooth soft soil combines with remains of dead organisms for a very long time, it gums together and become smooth sticky soil.

Components of Soil

  1. Explain that when the different kinds of soil form, they lie on top of the ground. So, when people walk on them, animals dig holes or rain drops and wind blows; soil gets mixed with other things. These things that get mixed with and are present in soil are what we call components of soil. The component of soil include:Many pieces of different kinds of rocks and these are called minerals.
    1. Tiny remains of dead organisms, and this is called organic matter.
    2. Very tiny living things called micro-organisms.
    3. Water
    4. Air

NOTE: Depending on your timetable, if you have up to 4 or 5 periods for this lesson; then carryout the experiment to demonstrate the presence of these components with the pupils. Click here if you need the guidelines.

What are the different kinds of Soil?

  1. After identifying/proofing the components of soil, explain that all soil do not contain equal samples of the components of soil.
  2. Further explain, with emphasis, that because all soil does not contain equal samples of the components of soil, and also because of how they are formed and what they have been through; there are different kinds of soil.
  3. Teach them that these different kinds of soil have names.
  4. Therefore, identify the names of the different kinds of soil with the pupils. Show them the sample of any kind you identify and give only one or two property to help them differentiate between them subsequently.
    1. The sharp shiny soil that forms when hard rocks forcefully break into pieces is called sandy soil. These are the kinds of soil with the largest particles/pieces.
    2. The soft smooth soil that forms when water gently and speedily washes rocks into pieces is called silt soil. The size of the particles/pieces of this type of soil is not too big or small.
    3. Finally, the smooth sticky soil that forms when smooth soft soil combines with remains of dead organisms for a very long time is called clay soil. This is the type of soil that has the finest or tinniest particles/pieces.
    4. Then, when the three kinds of soil mix together; they form loamy soil.

Therefore, the types of soil are:

  • Sandy soil
  • Silt soil
  • Clay soil and
  • Loamy soil

Tolerating Personal & Social Differences

  1. Give a brief talk on individual and social differences and the need for them to be tolerant towards all peoples. Teach them that at school and elsewhere, they meet different kinds of people. Some people looks dirty, others clean. Some are gentle, others rough. There are hungry people who are beggars, and there are others who have. Even our culture and religion is not all the same. Some cultures eat what other cultures don’t. Explain to them that just like soil, everybody is the way they are because of the environment they are from; or the things they have been through. Finally, encourage them to learn to tolerate differences. Teach them to relate to other people with their good behavior instead of reacting back with the bad way they are treated. Also, just  as they will not be happy when someone make jest of their culture and religion, that is how they must not do same to other people’s culture and religion.

Stage Evaluation Question

  • End the lesson here for the first period.
  • Revise the entire lesson and assess their understanding of the lesson. Use number 1 to 8 in the accompanying question paper.
  • Don’t forget to give excellent feedback to the pupils. Where available, use reward stickers to this effect.

Third Period: Importance of Soil

Follow these steps for the final part of the lesson:

  1. Revise the entire lesson so far:
    1. The earth as a whole (object) is divided into three major components – air (atmosphere), water and land.
    2. Land is also known as ground, earth’s surface or earth’s crust.
    3. Earth’s crust is divided into layers from the top to the innermost part.
    4. Soil is the topmost layer of the earth’s surface.
    5. Soil is made up of different components that include minerals, organic matters, micro-organisms, water and air.
    6. All soils are not the same. Soils are different because of how they are formed and the conditions they have undergone.
    7. The different kinds of soil are sandy, silt, clay and loamy soils.
    8. Just like soil, people and culture are different. We should respect our differences
  2. Refer to the third exercise at the introductory stage. Tell the pupils that since they now know more about soil, what would they do if someone gifts the different soil samples to them? You may expand the discussion by asking what if the soil samples span large fields.
  3. After the discussion, list and thoroughly explain the importance of soil. Use videos/slides or charts to illustrate each of the uses/importance of soil.
    1. Explain that a given type of soil is best suited for particular use.
      1. We use clay to ceramics like pots, plates, flower vase and tiles. Show videos/pictures of pottery making.
      2. We use sandy and clay soil to make blocks/bricks and build house. Show videos/pictures of block/brick making and brick layering.
      3. Silt and loamy are useful for farming. Loamy is the best of all the soil types for farming. Silt and loamy contains nutrients for plants and crops to grow and produce well. Show videos/pictures of farming.
    2. Teach the pupils that the amount of soil in a place is not endless. Soil gets finished. For example, if you start digging up the sand that is available in a place for a long time; the sand will finish up and you have to go look for it elsewhere.
    3. Explain that as a result, we have to take care of our soil. One way they can help to take care of soil is by not digging up soil everywhere.

    Evaluation (Summative Assessment)

    Before you conclude, summarize the entire lesson and revise it thoroughly. Then assess the pupils’ understanding by giving them all of the exercises in the accompanying question paper.

    Note that I expect you to conduct this assessment orally. In that case, I also encourage you to explain each question and option in local dialect for the pupils to understand before asking them to make a choice. However, this may not be necessary for some schools in the urban region.

    First, ask the questions serially. The, repeat it randomly.


    1. Mark pupils’ exercises, if you conducted the test other than orally.
    2. Record performance.
    3. Provide individual feedback.
    4. Revise the lesson and link it to next topic.

    Consulted Materials

    BYJUS. (n.d.). Types of Soil – Sandy Soil. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from BYJUS: https://byjus.com/biology/types-of-soil/#:~:text=Sandy%20soil%20is%20usually%20formed,like%20granite%2C%20limestone%20and%20quartz.

    Geological Survey Ireland. (n.d.). The Earth’s Structure. Retrieved from Geological Survey Ireland: https://www.gsi.ie/en-ie/education/our-planet-earth/Pages/The-Earth-structure.aspx#:~:text=%E2%80%8B%E2%80%8BThe%20earth%20is,the%20mantle%20and%20the%20core.

    ISRIC- World Soil Information. (n.d.). Why are soils important? Retrieved September 23, 2022, from ISRIC- World Soil Information: https://www.isric.org/discover/about-soils/why-are-soils-important

    Kids Encyclopædia Britannica. (n.d.). Soil. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica: https://kids.britannica.com/kids/article/soil/390622#:~:text=The%20Importance%20of%20Soil&text=Soil%20provides%20a%20place%20for,animals%20and%20other%20living%20things.

    Rutledge, K., McDaniel, M., Teng, S., Hall, H., Ramroop, T., Sprout, E., et al. (2022, July 15). Silt. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from National Geographic: https://education.nationalgeographic.org/resource/silt

    Taylor, G. (2020, February 28). All You Need to Know About Loamy Soil. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from Bob Vila: https://www.bobvila.com/articles/loamy-soil/#:~:text=Types%20of%20soil%20are%20classified,a%20mixture%20of%20all%20three.

    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Clay – Formation. Retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clay#:~:text=Clay%20minerals%20most%20commonly%20form,or%20released%20by%20plant%20roots.

    World Atlas. (n.d.). What Are The Layers Of The Earth? Retrieved from World Atlas: https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/the-layers-of-the-earth.html

Question Papers – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2

Introduction to Question Papers – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2

This is primary 1 History question paper for first term. It contains standard multiple-choice questions. You can use this for either Assessment for Learning (AFL) or examination.

However, we only recommend that you use these questions along with our History lesson plan. Otherwise, check the questions and be sure to pick only the questions on contents you have treated with your pupils. This is to avoid discrepancies.

To The History Teacher

Depending on your school, you may do the following exercises with your pupils orally. We recommend that you explain these questions and the options in local dialect before you ask the pupils to choose options.

—- Lesson 1 (First Period Assessment) Questions —-

  1. Napoleon Bonaparte was the emperor of ________________.
    1. France
    2. England
    3. America
    4. Nigeria
  2. Napoleon Bonaparte was a great ____________.
    1. Lawyer
    2. Doctor
    3. Soldier
    4. Teacher
  3. Which one of the following is not correct? If we know the history
    1. If we know the history behind important things, we will not respect them.
    2. If we know the history of good things, we will learn how to make them better.
    3. If we know the history of a problem, it will help us to solve it more easily.
    4. If we know the history behind our important culture, we will value it more.
  4. Which one is not a reason why we study history?
    1. To be able to solve present problem
    2. To value the time we have now
    3. To be able to make the future better
    4. So that we can revenge the past
  5. We become responsible members of the society by _____________________.
    1. solving the problems of the society to earn a living
    2. not following the rules of the society
    3. refusing to do our work
    4. creating problems for the society
  6. What is the first step to solve a problem?
    1. Understanding the problem
    2. Recreating the problem
    3. Avoiding the problem
    4. All the options are correct
  7. We understand a problem by ______________________.
    1. learning about its past
    2. forgetting about its past
    3. crying over it
    4. not thinking about it
  8. What is the meaning of past in history?
    1. The time since the beginning of the world.
    2. Everything that has happened since the beginning of the world.
    3. Places, people, animals and plants that existed since the beginning of the world.
    4. All of the above.
  9. Which one of the following does not belong to the meaning of history as the past?
    1. Your first day in Primary 1.
    2. The day you will finish University.
    3. Your best teacher in Kindergarten
    4. The time you were a baby that could not walk.
  10. An object or event in the present time which shows stories that happened in the past are called ___________.
    1. provable
    2. evidence
    3. story
    4. history
  11. Any story that does not have a proof is said to be a ______________.
    1. report
    2. rumor
    3. discussion
    4. preaching
  12. Learning about the provable stories of the past describes history as __________________.
    1. the past.
    2. study of the past.
    3. the present.
    4. study of the present
  13. What is the first thing to do if you hear a rumor of security threat?
    1. Ask for proof
    2. First avoid the threat
    3. Circulate the provable story
    4. Don’t believe the rumor

—- Lesson 2 (Second Period) Assessment Questions —-

  1. Those who study and write about history are called ______________.
    1. Archeologist
    2. Historians
    3. Old people
    4. Scientists
  2. Sources of history” mean ________________.
    1. Where historians work.
    2. Where historians live.
    3. Where historians get history from.
    4. Where historians teach history.
  3. How many major sources of history are they?
    1. 2
    2. 3
    3. 4
    4. 5
  4. What are the two major sources of history?
    1. Primary and secondary
    2. Nursery and primary
    3. Secondary and university
    4. Primary and university
  5. The time before human beings began recording history in writing is called ___________.
    1. historic time
    2. past time
    3. present time
    4. prehistoric time
  6. The study of human history by studying the things that ancient people made, used and left behind is called _____________.
    1. history
    2. archaeology
    3. proof
    4. evidence
  7. Which one is not among the primary sources of history?
    1. Artifacts
    2. Old letters
    3. Biographies
    4. Old drawings
  8. Which one is not among the secondary sources of history?
    1. Historical criticism
    2. Biography
    3. Documentary film
    4. Artifacts

Summative Assessment

We recommend that you ask the entire questions. First of all, do this serially – in the order of the lesson; then randomly.

Lesson Plan – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2

Lesson Plan For The First Week Ending Friday September 16, 202022

TermFirstWeek2Datewrite date here Teacherwrite your name here 
ClassBasic 1Age5 yearsPeriod write the periods hereDuration60 minutes
TopicMeaning of HistorySub-Topic Nil
Learning Objectives
  • Define History
  • State the sources of History
  • Mention the importance of history
  • Value Heritage
  • Demonstrate taking responsibility for actions
  • Solve the rope puzzle
    Previous KnowledgeEnter something here
    Resources & Teaching Aids
    • Slides/pictures of Napoleon Bonaparte and his sword, dinosaur & skeleton of a dinosaur
    • Several pairs of ready-made rope puzzles – entwined ropes
    • Charts of primary sources of history
    • Sample of historic music of the local people – music that tells a story of a people
    • Sample or image of local artifacts
    Method of TeachingInduction and DeductionDifferentiationSomething to be entered here
    Teacher’s ActivityLearners’ Activity
    • Prepare slides of required images for class presentation – may include printing some copies.
    • Setup display screen/projector or group pupils to carryout picture reading exercise.
    • Make a list of renowned successful people in the school locality and their business i.e., the societal problem they solve.
    • Improvise the rope puzzle tool – obtainable from LeadinGuides
    • Collate pictures of successful people in the locality
    • Identify pictures of sword & Napoleon Bonaparte in presentation or printed slides
    • Solve the rope puzzle – untie two wound ropes separately fixed unto a piece of wood.
    • Actively listen to the teacher, ask and answer questions
    • Copy down lesson the notes
    KeywordsNapoleon Bonaparte, Sword, Emperor, History, Evidence, Proof, Rumor, Speculation, Dinosaurs.
    Time______ to _______
    Stage/TimeContent/Teacher’s RoleLearner’s RoleComment/Resource
    Introduction: Set induction
    (5 minutes)
    • Show image of Napoleon’s sword and tell the story.
    • Show picture of Napoleon Bonaparte and narrate the story.
    • Relate both story to relevance of history.
    • Explain the objectives of the lesson.
    • Identify image of a sword.
    • Guess the worth of Napoleon sword.
    • Listen to teacher.
    • Slide/images of Napoleon Sword.
    • Slide/image of Napoleon Bonaparte.
    Meaning of History
    (10 minutes)
    • Inspire pupils on problem-solving.
    • Group pupils to practicalize problem-solving by doing the rope puzzle.
    • Explain/solve the rope puzzle for the pupils to see.
    • Projects/write on the board and read definition of history several times for the pupils to repeat.
    • Mention successful people in the locality and the problems each solves (their business).
    • Solve the rope puzzle in pairs or group.
    • Read/memorize definition of history.
    • Pictures of successful people in the locality.
    • Rope puzzles.
    • Digital display or chalk/marker and chalkboard/whiteboard.
    Explanation of the meaning of History
    (10 minutes)
    • Write the note on the board.
    • Read and explain the notes.
    • AFL.
    • Copy the notes into their notebooks.
    • Listen to the teacher.
    • Ask and answer questions.
    • Slide/image of dinosaur and skeleton of a dinosaur.
    (10 minutes)
    • Mark pupils’ exercise books.
    • Record marks.
    • Provide feedback.
    • Revise the lesson and link to topic for next week.
    • Submission of their exercise books.
    • Listening, asking and answering questions.
    • Pupils’ exercise book.
    • Digital display or chalk/marker and chalkboard/whiteboard.

    Meaning of History

    History is the past and the study of the past which helps us to understand the present and predict the future.

    Explanation of the Meaning of History

    History as the past means that all the things that have already happened, the places, things, people, animals, ideas and the time before NOW, the present time, are all history. This includes the food you ate this Morning and you can no longer go back to, the birthday you celebrated in the past, your old clothes that have worn out and you have thrown away, your pencil that has finished, etc.

    History as the study of the past

    History as the study of the past means that it is to learn about the provable stories of the past. That is, the provable stories of all the:

    • things that have happened on earth since its beginning,
    • people that have existed on earth since its beginning,
    • animals that have existed on earth since its beginning,
    • plants that have existed on earth since its beginning,
    • places that have existed on earth since its beginning.

    Provable means stories that have objects in the present time to show the past stories. Objects or events in the present time which shows stories that happened in the past are called evidences or proofs.

    Assessment for Learning (AFL)
    Classwork (Question or References)Homework (Questions or References)
    Questions 1 – 12 Questions 1 – 12 randomly (only for those that scores below pass mark in classwork)

    School Owner-Administrator Too Lenient? What to do

    A school owner-administrator too lenient? Yes, some are; and “uncontrollably” so. The problem is that been too lenient has repercussions, negative ones – for the administrator, staff and the organization. So, when a school owner-administrator is too lenient; what is the right thing to do? In this post, I discuss just that. In addition, I briefly discuss the possible reason for a school owner-administrator being too lenient and the negative effects it has in your school.

    Why a School Owner-administrator may be too lenient

    Answering the question, “what cause a school owner-administrator to be too lenient?”, may require deeper analysis. But one or two of the reasons is not far-fetched.

    For more than two years, a team of five organizational behaviour researchers conducted research into leniency at work place. The team included Marie Mitchell from University of Georgia; Kate Zipay from University of Oregon; Michael Baer from Arizona State University; Hudson Sessions from University of Oregon; and Robert Bies from Georgetown University. The team published the report of their research in 2021 in the Academy of Management journal. This report provides insight into the likely reason a school owner-administrator may be too lenient.

    According to the research, people who are lenient at the place of work are more likely to experience pride. In order words, you are too lenient because you want your employees to regard you as a kind person. It not necessarily about being kind. Instead, it may be about what they think of you. If you “punish” them for bad conduct, they will think you are wicked. As a result, you let them have their way every single time – this is what being too lenient means.

    But what’s in it for your school? No doubt, Ryan Holiday made a compelling case for empathy at work place. But Robert Kiyosaki once spoke on the brutal nature of the work place. Without throwing out the validity of the former, the later is proven in the negative effect of being too lenient as a school owner or administrator.

    Effect of being too lenient as a school owner-administrator

    Some of the negative effects of being too lenient as school owner or administrator include:

    • It causes conflicting emotions at work
    • Encourages misconducts
    • Lowers standards
    • Kills business

    Conflicting emotions at work

    Firstly, the earlier research showed that being lenient with misconduct leads to conflicting emotions at work. On the one hand, there is emotion of pride; then on the other, emotion of guilt. This is an unnecessary burden you carry as a school owner-administrator being too lenient. And with this, you cannot appropriately handle issues the right way. It is like when you are angry with someone but cannot talk it out. It fractures relationships and limits collaboration.

    Encouraging Misconducts

    If you do not discourage misconducts, then you encourage it. By failing to enforce the rule, you say it is ok not to break it. Therefore, it is no surprise that school owners-administrators too lenient experience frequent employee misbehaviours.

    Being Too Lenient Lowers Standards

    How does being too lenient lowers the standard of a school? It is simple. Standards are in themselves rules of what should be done and attained. So, if school staff have no reason to keep rules, it means they will not do what they ought to do. By extension, if staff do not perform their duties, then standards cannot be attained.

    Leniency Kills Business

    Lastly, a school owner-administrator too lenient has pronounced death sentence for his/her school. How? Majority of people patronize businesses for the quality they deliver. This is especially true for school business. Quality school attracts quality parents and students. This is one of the undeniable rules of sustainable school growth. Therefore, consistent drop in the standard of the school – due to the school owner or administrator being too lenient – leads inevitable loss of quality population.

    Over the last three months, more than about eight school owners and administrators have reached out to me. They have battled with the negative effects of being too lenient for long. Two of them said their staff usually take advantage of their leniency to misbehave at work. So, they sort advice on what to do in managing the situation.

    If you are a school owner or administrator who cannot help being too lenient, below are some suggestions for you.

    School Owner-Administrator Too Lenient? Things to do

    • Change your perspective on how you believe employees think of you
    • Create unique school policies
    • Delegate supervision and demand report

    Change your perspective on how you believe employees think of you

    According to the earlier research, the reason why some school owners-administrators are too lenient is because they believe it makes employees to think well of them. Such school owners/administrators believe that they do an erring employee a favour by helping them escape the responsibilities of their misconducts. Thus, they believe that in return of the favour, the employee should respect them.

    This may not be the case for every school owner or administrator that is lenient at the work. Some cite their temperament while others, their faith. Again, establishing what cause some school owners and administrators to be too lenient at work requires deeper analysis. But one thing is sure. This is the fact that you cannot attain genuine respect by being too lenient. It is rather ironical that you should expect an employee to obey you by encouraging him/her to break existing rules. Isn’t it? Well, things do not work that way.

    Common knowledge reveals that people respect the man of integrity more than they respect their accomplice. This is the first perspective you must change. If you are lenient because you believe your employees will like and respect you, you must understand that the opposite is the case.

    In addition, if you must command your employees’ respect by doing them favours; there are many right ways to do so. Compliment and reward their hard work, give them day(s) off or buy them gifts. These are more honourable and they will love you for it. But don’t be too lenient. Don’t be too quick to waive penalty for misconduct. Rather, always let the rules take its course.

    However, you should note that this does take away the place of empathy. There are one or two occasions where rare misconduct is excusable. Occasions such as when that punctual staff is late for a day in a blue moon; or when the most regular staff asks to be absent for a day, the natural thing to do is to be empathic. Find out what is wrong and help them through it.

    Create unique school policies to keep workplace misconduct at bay

    This is the one most important solution to the problems of being too lenient as a school owner or administrator. Good school policies are unique, that is, peculiar to your school. They contain what employees should do, procedures for doing them, what they cannot do and the repercussions of breaking rules.

    Talking of school policies, the problem is that many school owners and administrators tend to buy policies instead of drafting one. This is a bad practice. The policies you buy are often the product of another school. And while your school may have some things in common with other schools, it is also different in its own way. Policies are as complex and simple as the organization. Thus, it makes no sense for a simple school to buy the policies of a complex school. This is why some schools have challenges implementing policies.

    Draft policies that work for your school. It should carry the members of your staff along. Your policies may be working documents. Call a meeting. Table the misconduct you want to regulate and let the staff suggest the rules and regulations. Your duty will be to channel the discussion to what you want them to do. And you should do this intelligently. You shouldn’t do it in a way that seems like you are dictating for them. Let the staff feel they are part of the policy-making process. This way, when they default; they wouldn’t blame you for the penalty.

    The result of this is that it lifts the burden of guilt from you when you implement the rule. However, be sure that after making the policy; you see to its strict implementation. In doing so, bear in the brief talk on empathy.

    Maybe it is “your nature”. You just can’t let people bear the repercussions of their misconduct. It is a dilemma. You don’t want your staff misbehaving. But if they do, you also can’t punish them. So, how do you stop staff from misconduct? The next point is for you.

    Delegate supervision and demand report

    If you cannot enforce policies because you are too kind, you should delegate the responsibility to another worthy employee. It is not out of place to even hire an external supervisor, one of proven skill and character.

    The supervisor checks in from time to time to appraise the performance of the staff. However, if you can afford a full-time supervisor; it is all the better. The supervisor enforces the policies and furnishes report for you on periodic basis.

    Should any staff meet you with complaints, refer them to the supervisor. This is a pretty way of lifting the burden of guilt from yourself.

    Just these three ways, a school owner or administrator too lenient will be able to manage every situation.


    Melancon, M. (2021, October 21). Showing leniency with misconduct at work leads to conflicting emotions. Retrieved from Terry College of Business, University of Georgia: https://www.terry.uga.edu/news/stories/2021/showing-leniency-misconduct-work-leads-conflicting-emotions

    Zipay, K. P., Mitchell, M. S., Baer, M. D., Sessions, H., & Bies, R. J. (2021, April). Lenient Reactions to Misconduct: Examining the Self-Conscious Process of Being Lenient to Others at Work. Academy of Management, 351–377. Retrieved from https://journals.aom.org/doi/full/10.5465/amj.2018.0123

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