## INTRODUCTION TO – Lesson Note – Primary Three Third Term Mathematics Week 4

I wrote this note based on Primary 3 Mathematics Scheme of Work. . If you don’t have the scheme, please click here to get a copy. This is a free lesson note for Nigerian primary schools 3.

### Focus of this lesson note

Lesson Note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1 focuses on depth and pedagogy. This means it aims to provide an enriched lesson content. Then, suggest ways for teacher and parents to deliver the lesson.

### Turning this note to official lesson plan

Please note that I do not intend this lesson note to take the place of lesson plan. These two are different. I discussed the differences in an earlier post. If you haven’t done so already; click here to read up the differences between lesson plan and lesson note.

That aside, teachers can adapt this note into the lesson plan for the week. In fact, many teachers do. That is why we prepared a special lesson plan template for teachers.

It helps teachers to easily and professionally plan their lessons by filling in the lesson-specific values of the standard components of lesson plan, in a clean and professional layout. Click here to download the lesson plan template.

## OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

1. Define day, week, month and year as unit of time
2. Perform simple conversion between units.
3. Mention the days of the week and months of the year and tell their order.
4. Tell date from the calendar
5. Mention dates of key feasts and observances within the year
6. Appreciate the concept of planning/time management

## PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson in order of steps as follows:

### Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the distributes copies of printed calendar to the students. The calendar should contain all dates from January to December. Then, the teacher challenges the pupils to circle the dates that s/he will randomly call. They may also name the day of the week that each date falls. Another useful challenge that the teacher may give to the pupils include asking them how many days to certain feast or observance like Christmas and Id El-Kabir.

At the end of each challenge, the teacher retrieves the calendars. And tell the pupils that s/he will keep the calendars until the end of the lesson. By the end of the lesson, they will check to see whether or not they got it correctly.

Eventually, the teacher writes/projects the topic on the board/screen. Then s/he lists and explain the objectives to the pupils.

### Other Units of Time – Day, Week and Month

In continuation of the lesson, the teacher explains day, week and month as other units of time. First, s/he revises the previous lessons on time. The teacher can do this either deductively by means of interactive questions and answers. Or, s/he does so inductively by explicitly listing and briefly explaining the key points of the previous lessons on time. Interactive discussion is better. But induction is preferable if there is want of time. However, combining both methods is the best.

Following the revision, the teacher explains as follows:

Seconds, minutes and hours are not the only units of time. There are other units of time. These units are longer than seconds, minutes and hours. They include:

• Days,
• Weeks,
• Months and
• Year

A second is the shortest unit of time. While a year is the longest unit of time.

#### Time Metric System

The relationship between the units of time is given in time metric system. The time metric system is as follows:

1. 60 seconds make 1 minute
2. 60 minutes make 1 hour
• 24 hours make 1 day
1. 7 days make one week
2. 4 weeks make 1 month
3. 12 months make 1 year.

After the explanation, the teacher makes the peoples recite the metric system a few times for memorization. S/he follows this with simple exercises on how to convert between pairing units – e.g., from seconds to minutes & minutes to seconds; from minutes to hours and hours to minutes; etc.

#### Exercise Examples

##### Useful hints

Prior to the exercises, the teacher guides the pupils to highlight the following useful hints.

First, s/he leads the pupils to identify the sizes and order the various units.

Second → Minute → Hour → Day → Week → Month → Year.

The above means that second is shorter than minute; minute, shorter than hour; hour, shorter, shorter than day; day, shorter than week; week, shorter than month; and month, shorter than year. It is also true in reverse. That is, year is longer than month; month is longer than week; etc.

Secondly,

###### Exercises
1. Which one of the following is the shortest?
2. Day
3. Month
4. Minute

1. Select the longest among the following
2. Day
3. Week
4. Hour

1. If 60 seconds make one minute, 120 seconds will make how many minutes?

Explain to the pupils that if we are to change longer to shorter unit, we should multiply. And if they are to change shorter to longer unit, they should divide.

In this example, the question gave us 120 seconds to change to minutes. Since second is shorter than minute, we divide. Therefore, the

Answer is: 120  60 which is equal to 2. That means, 120 seconds will make 2 minutes.

1. 12 months make 1 year. How many months are there in 8 years?

The question wants us to change 8 years to months. This means we are changing from longer to shorter unit. And to change from longer to shorter unit, we multiply. Therefore, the

Answer is: 8  12 which is equal to 96. This means, there are 96 months in 8 years.

1. 24 hours make 1 day. And 7 days make 1 week. How many hours are there in 3 weeks?

This question wants us to change 3 weeks to hours. And a week is two units longer than an hour. So, we must first change from weeks to days. Then, we will change the days to hours.

Let’s change 3 weeks to days. 7 days make 1 week. A week is longer than a day. Since a week is longer than a day, to change weeks to days; we need to multiply. Therefore, 3 weeks = 37 = 21 days.

Now let us change 21 days to hours. 24 hours make 1 day. A day is greater than an hour. Again, since a day is longer than an hour, to change days to hours; we need to multiply. Hence, our final

Answer is: 21 days = 21  24 which is equal to 504.

The teacher gives as many examples as possible. Then s/he gives the pupils similar exercises – either as classwork or homework.

This concludes the lesson for the first day.

### Days of the Week

On the second day of the lesson, since the pupils now understand the concept of the other units of time; the teacher explains day in particular and guides the pupils to list the days of the week as follows:

A day is a period of 24 hours. This means from one 6am to another 6am is a day because it is 24 hours. From one 3pm to another 3pm is also a day because it is 24 hours. The teacher displays a clock on which s/he counts the hours with the class while resetting it.

The teacher explains that although a day can be within any given 24 hours; on a general basis, a day starts at 12 midnight and ends at the next 11:59 pm. This is why the current date on our calendar changes to the next at midnight (12:00 am).

The teacher explains further that people usually use events to differentiate one day from another. In fact, there are different names for different days. The names of the days in a week are:

1. Sunday
2. Monday
3. Tuesday
4. Wednesday
5. Thursday
6. Friday
7. Saturday

Teacher explains this thoroughly. Identify the days in local dialect, if necessary. S/he teaches the moral lesson of having different days of the week. This relates to planning and time management. After the explanation, the teacher leads the pupils to identify the days for common weekly activities.

S/he can do this through question and answer as follows:

#### Questions

1. How many days are there in a week?
2. Which is the first day of school every week?
3. Which is the last day of school every week?
4. Which days do you come to school?
5. On which days do you not come to school?
6. Which is the market day in your area?

Check back…

## Introduction to Lesson Note Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1

### Primary 5 Basic Science Scheme of Work

I wrote this Lesson Note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Wee 1 based on official primary 5 basic science scheme of work. If you don’t have the scheme, please click here to get a copy. This is a free lesson note for Nigerian primary schools 5.

### Focus of this lesson note

Lesson Note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1 focuses on depth and pedagogy. This means it aims to provide an enriched lesson content. Then, suggest ways for teacher and parents to deliver the lesson.

### Turning this note to official lesson plan

Please note that I do not intend this lesson note to take the place of lesson plan. These two are different. I discussed the differences in an earlier post. If you haven’t done so already; click here to read up the differences between lesson plan and lesson note.

That aside, teachers can adapt this note into the lesson plan for the week. In fact, many teachers do. That is why we prepared a special lesson plan template for teachers.

It helps teachers to easily and professionally plan their lessons by filling in the lesson-specific values of the standard components of lesson plan, in a clean and professional layout. Click here to download the lesson plan template.

Now the note…

## Lesson Note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1

### Topic

Rocks – Meaning and types

### Objectives

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

1. Define rocks
2. State the types of rocks
3. Give the properties of the different kinds of rock
4. Collect and classify rocks into the different types based on the properties

### Instructional Materials

To effectively deliver this lesson, teachers will require a collection of rock samples. I recommend the Toysmith Rock Science Kit. It is a pack with all the different types of rock. And it is cheap too. Click here to get it on Amazon at 29% discount.

### Presentation

The teacher delivers this lesson note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1 – in order of steps as follows.

#### Step 1 – Introduction

To introduce the topic, the teacher initiates discussions on rocks – as one of the first and key components of our world. S/he begins by displaying some prehistoric pictures of the earth. These should be images that highlight the rocky features. Afterwards, the teacher asks the pupils to identify the pictures – what pictures are these? What is common to all these pictures?

Following the brief discussion, the teacher identifies the images as well as the common features – rock. In addition, the teacher shows and identify images of some rock landmarks in the present time. S/he follows this with a short prologue in this manner:

Rocks are essential to our world, to understanding it and to live in it. Because rocks have been on earth for a long time, it helps us to understand even the past world. And not only our world, but the entire universe. Rocks from space and below the earth help scientists to learn more the universe. Rocks also make roads, bridges and buildings possible. Early men used rocks for almost everything – hunting, shaping woods, making fire, cooking, etc. We still use rocks for making ornaments and lots more things.

The questions are what exactly is rock? Where do rocks come from? How do we know which rock to use for which purpose? These and more questions about rock are what we will be learning this week.

Succeeding this short explanation, the teacher projects/writes the topic on the board. S/he concludes the introduction by listing and explaining the objectives of the lesson to the pupils.

### Step 2: What is rock? Where do rocks come from?

Furthering the of the lesson; the teacher correlates the meaning and origin of rocks to the geological history of the universe.

First, the teacher reveals that rocks are not only present on earth. Astronauts have come back with rocks from space (show picture). And rocks from space have fallen to earth many times.  In fact, scientist call rocks that fall from space to earth as meteorite – show images and illustration of latest meteorite, EB5.

Since rocks are present everywhere in the universe, to know what rocks are and where they come from; we have to study the origin of the universe as well.

The teacher revisits the meaning of universe. Then, s/he asks the pupils where did the universe come from? How did the universe begin?

#### Comment

This is for critical thinking. Hence, guide the discussion towards helping the pupils to think deeper. Some pupils may perfunctorily say the universe originates from God – or that God created it. In response, the teacher should try to channel their thinking in scientific light.

For instance, if a pupil say God created the universe; I will ask how did God went about it? If they say by His Word of mouth; I will say probably, if at all there was God’s Word; His command merely started the process; so, what processes did the universe take in its formation – following “God’s Words”?

The teacher’s role here is not to approve or disprove their religious belief. However, the essence of Basic Science is to equip pupils with basic scientific knowledge and skill.

So, the teacher must inspire in the pupils, scientific thinking instead of religious. To do this, the teacher first distinguishes between the two.

S/he teaches that religious belief is based on faith – believing without proof. On the contrary, scientists believe only what there is evidence of or proof for. Faith says God created rocks, and that is it. Science says how is rock created? What is rock made of? How can we use it for the right job?

Secondly, the teacher makes it explicit that some religious people do not believe in [some] scientific explanations – such as scientific explanation of how the universe formed. Also, some scientists do not believe in religious explanations. However, many people believe in both religious and scientific explanations. And they combine the two to better understand what they want to explain.

Following the explanation, the teacher reveals that they will learn how scientists explain the history of the universe – because they are in science class.

#### The Big Bang Theory

To start with, the teacher explains that the most popular scientific explanation of how the universe began is called the Big Bang Theory. The name of the scientist that started this Big Bang explanation is Georges Lemaitre.

##### The Big Bang Explanation

In 1927, Georges Lemaitre made some studies and formulated how the universe began. In his explanation, before everything started; the universe was in a hot dense state. This means that everything joined together into an infinitely small and infinitely hot point – like a dot. The point was smaller than atom and many million times hotter than the sun. This point was tiny particles mixed with light and energy.

Then the point suddenly expanded and stretched rapidly to form the universe – as large as it is today. The expansion happened so rapidly that scientists liken it to many million times the size of the biggest explosion today. This is why scientist called the expansion the Big Bang – as in big explosion.

During and immediately after the Big Bang, the universe was too hot for anything to exist – there was absolutely nothing except the particles.

But after thousands of years, when the heat in the universe has reduced; the tiny particles grouped together. They formed atoms. Then those atoms grouped together.  And after a long period of time, the group of atoms came together to form stars and galaxies.

###### Planet

From stars come star dust – which is formed when stars formed, aged and died. When star dusts combine with gas, collide with each other and stick together; they form a planet. The combination of gas and star dust to form planet takes millions of years to complete. First, it occurs under extremely high temperature – as hot gases and/or in molten (extremely heated and boiling rocks and metals in liquid) state. So, it takes millions of years to cool off. After cooling, some planets such as earth becomes solid. This is what we call rocks. It is the origin of rocks.

###### Asteroid

Not all the star dusts in space that are able to stick in forming a new planet. Some continue to float in space round the sun as rocky objects. This is what scientists called asteroid. When an asteroid falls and lands on earth, then scientist call it meteorite. Meteorite is also another origin of rocks.

#### Meaning of rock

Scientist call the chemical materials in star dust and gases which collects together to form planet and asteroid as minerals. So, in science, a rock is a collection of solid minerals that is strongly bound together.

To conclude the lesson on the meaning and origin of rocks, the teacher makes the pupils watch National Geographic documentary on the formation of earth. You can watch it free on Amazon free trial. Click here to register for 30 days free trial.

### Step 3: Types of Rocks

#### Discussion:

The teacher groups the class into small groups. Then, s/he gives each group different kinds of rock samples – from the Toysmith Rock Science Kit in the instructional material. The teacher also gives each group the following discussion questions:

1. Are all the rock samples the same?
2. What are the similarities and differences between each sample?
3. Why are the samples the same/different?

After the discussion, the teacher continues the lesson with types of rocks. To do this, the teacher explains that not all are the same. S/he explains further that rocks are different because not all rocks form in the same way – that is, from solidification of molten minerals.

Then, the teacher reveals that based on formation, scientists divide rocks into three types. S/he follows this by listing the types of rock; defining, and thoroughly explaining the formation of each.

### Step 4: Identification and Classification of rocks

In the final part of the lesson, the teacher teaches the pupils how to identify and classify rocks into the different types.

To do this, the teacher pairs or divides the pupils into small groups – as appropriate. Then to each group, s/he give a pack of Toysmith Rock Science Kit. Thereafter, the teacher leads them to follow the guide that comes with the kit to classify the rocks.

## Evaluation

Prior to concluding the lesson – primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1; the teacher asks or gives the pupils exercises to assess their understanding.

## Conclusion

The teacher concludes the lesson by revising the entire lesson. Then, s/he links the lesson to next

NOTE:

Step 2 and 3 covers the content for week 2 in the official Scheme of work. This is why I did not include the content. I will include the content for types and classification of rocks in next week’s note. You may stop at step for this first week altogether.

##### Keywords:
###### Universe

Everything in existence everywhere. This includes the sun and all the planets, stars, space, land, water, air, fire and everything else.

###### Astronaut

Scientist who acquires training for travelling in spacecraft into space.

###### Space

The empty area outside the Earth’s atmosphere, where the planets and the stars are.

###### Meteorite

A piece of rock or other matter from space that has landed on Earth.

###### Particles

Extremely small piece of matter smaller than an atom. Here, particles refer to the smallest known things in the world like quarks and photons.

###### Light

Electromagnetic emission. Here, it means emission or discharge of high-energy particles and gases.

###### Energy

Ability to do work. Here, it means the particles are capable of doing work such when it expanded.

###### Atom

An atom is the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are what combine to form all things including water, food, clothes, cars, human being and everything. Atom is a chemical substance. It is extremely small. So, we cannot see atoms with our eyes.

There are different types of atoms. Each type of atom is called an element. When an element divides, or when two or more combines; it forms a new kind of substance. Then, we say a chemical reaction has taken place.

###### Stars

A very large ball of burning gas in space which we usually see from Earth as a point of light in the sky at night. Stars are made up of hydrogen and helium gases. Hydrogen and helium are the simplest kinds of elements.

In stars, these two elements combine in a special and combustible chemical reaction. This keeps stars “burning” for a very long time – millions to trillions of years.

The burning fusion of hydrogen and helium in stars leads to the production of new heavy elements like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, etc.

Although these elements are molten (burning liquid or gas) in stars due to high temperature; they become solid when they cool. Also, as stars aged and dies; the heavy elements turn into dust or debris which float about in space. Scientists call this star dust.

###### Galaxy

A galaxy is a huge collection of gas, dust, and billions of stars and their solar systems. There are many galaxies – billions of them. Our galaxy, which is made of the sun, earth and other planets; is called the Milky Way. The nearest galaxy to our Milky Way is called Andromeda.

###### Planet

A Planet is an extremely large round mass of rock and metal, such as Earth, or of gas, such as Jupiter, which moves in a circular path around the Sun or another star.

###### Asteroid

Asteroids are rocky objects that orbit the Sun. Although asteroids orbit the Sun like planets, they are much smaller than planets.

## References

NASA Space Place. (2020, June 4). What Is a Galaxy? Retrieved from NASA Space Place: https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/galaxy/en/

NASA Space Place. (2021, March 17). What Is the Big Bang? Retrieved from NASA Space Place: https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/big-bang/en/

ZUCKERMAN, C. (2019, March 20). Everything you wanted to know about stars. Retrieved from National Geographic : https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/stars

[qsm quiz=3]

## Lesson Note – Primary 1 Third Term Computer Studies Week 2 in brief

Lesson Note – Primary 1 Third Term Computer Studies Week 2 is a free Computer lesson guide for schools, teachers and parents. Although, parents and teachers can use this guide to teach their child(ren) how to use digital wristwatch at any time; the purpose of this guide is for use in regular classrooms.

As such, I prepared this guide according to the latest 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum on Computer Studies for Primary 1. Specifically, I used the Primary 1 Teaching Schemes of Work that Education Resource Centre (ERC), Abuja developed.

### Scheme of Work

The Scheme of Work is a complete breakdown of how an adult may introduce Computer to the Nigerian child(ren). This breakdown is in terms and weeks for age 5 through age 17. The Computer Scheme of Work does not only describe how an adult may introduce Computer to Nigerian child(ren). It also, ensures safe technology environment foe the children.

The national curriculum developers took care to not bombard children with the overwhelming versatility of computer technology. Instead, at every stage of development through the Basic Education levels; the Scheme recommends computer skills necessary for appropriate digital learning and leisure activities. In addition; the curriculum ensures that children acquire knowledge necessary for them to pursue a career in Computer Science.

### Up to you

What is left is for adults to deliver the lesson in a manner good enough to attain the objectives for the every topic. But it is a common knowledge, that some teachers find it somewhat difficult to identify all the objectives that every topic intends for the pupils to learn. Fortunately, we have a guide on how to identify and set lesson objectives. Click here to check the guide on lesson objectives.

In addition, I prepared this lesson note to guide Computer teachers on how best to deliver the lesson to attain the objectives. Parents who homeschool their children and those who wishes to help their children stay ahead in school will find this really helpful too.

This, as with the rest of our lesson notes, is a comprehensive guide. But, kindly note that I do not intend for the teacher to deliver the entire content in one day/meeting. Instead, I assume that the teacher will deliver the lesson in at least 3 meetings.

### For School Teachers

While a lot of school teachers use our lesson notes, it is important you understand that this is not a lesson plan. This despite that I wrote this lesson note in outline of all STANDARD LESSON PLANS.

There is a differences between lesson plan and lesson note. You can click here to quickly read the differences between a lesson plan and lesson note.

If a school teacher intends to use this note to for their lesson plan as many do, to get our PROFESSIONAL LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE. The layout of the template makes it easy for teachers to write a professional lesson plan and easily.

## Now, Lesson Note – Primary 1 Third Term Computer Studies Week 2

### TOPIC:

Common IT Devices, Digital Wristwatch

### OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

Cognitive: define digital wristwatch and tell the time on a digital wristwatch

Affective: demonstrate (time consciousness) punctuality

Psychomotor: Set date, time and alarms on digital wristwatch

### PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson in order of steps as follows.

#### Step 1: Introduction

To introduce the topic, the teacher shows the pupils a clock and a wristwatch. Then s/he demands volunteers to identify the clock and watch. Also, the teacher asks the pupils to tell the time displayed by both the clock and the wristwatch.

The teacher may also ask the pupils in what ways is digital wristwatch like computer.

Following the discussion that will ensue, the teacher reveals the topic of the week’s lesson to the pupils. S/he reminds them that they learned the meaning of computer in the previous lesson. Additionally, they identified computer-related devices. Here, the teacher asks the following questions to review the previous lesson:

1. Computer is an/a _________________ machine
1. Electrical
2. Electronic
3. Mechanical
2. What a computer user input into the computer is called _______________
1. Information
2. Process
3. Data
3. Data is to input as _________________ is to output
1. Process
2. Information
3. Instructions
4. Play, cancel and print belong to the category of input called ________
1. Data
2. Instructions
3. Information
5. __________________ is used for making and accepting payment
1. Telephone
2. Fax machine
3. POS
6. Digital wristwatch is used for ________________________
1. Playing music
2. Telling time and date
3. Listening to news and music
7. Mention 5 computer-related devices
1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________

In conclusion of the introduction, the teacher discloses that having learnt computer-related devices, they shall now learn how to use each of the devices – starting with digital wristwatch. Hence, the teacher lists and explains the lesson objectives for the students.

#### Step 2 – Meaning of Digital Wristwatch

In continuation, the teacher displays a digital wristwatch. Then, s/he asks how the pupils will describe/define it. Succeeding the discussion, the teacher defines and explains the meaning of digital wristwatch:

Digital Wristwatch is a watch that displays the time in form of digits (numbers).

The teacher explains this in contrast to analogue clock. First, s/he displays a clock and explains the face – hands. The teacher teaches them to be able to tell the names of the different hands.

Once the pupils are able to differentiate between the hands of the clock, the teacher explains what each read:

1. Hour hand indicates or tells us the hour of the day;
2. Minute hand indicates or tells us the minute of the hour; while the
3. Second hand indicates the seconds
##### Telling O’clock times

After the teacher explains the clock face, s/he teaches the pupils how to tell time on the clock. To do this, the teacher explains the position of the minute and hour hands that makes an o’clock:

When the minute hand of a clock is on 12; then we say the time is exactly the number that the hour hand is at – on the clock.

The teacher explains further with illustrations. S/he sets the hour hand to 1, and the minute hand to 12; then explains that the time on the clock at that moment is 1 o’clock. Thereafter, the teacher repeats the process for 2 O’clock, 3 O’clock, 4 O’clock, 5 O’clock, etc. S/he makes it interactive and fun. After explaining one or two examples, the teacher may reset the clock and demands the pupils to tell the time. Alternatively, the teacher may give the pupil the clock to reset it to a given time.

NOTE: Teacher gives these to the pupils in order of 1 – 12 O’clock first, then randomise it.

##### Telling Time Past the Hour

After teaching the pupils how to tell time on the hour, the teacher teaches them how to tell time that is past the hour.

First, the teacher displays a clock like the ones above. After that, s/he explains that if the minute hand is in the part of the clock shaded yellow – right side of the clock face; then we say it is the minute past the hour – number in which the hour hand is pointing at. And we know the exact minute by counting from the first minute at 12 to where the minute hand is currently at.

###### Examples of time past the hour

Teacher teaches the pupils to tell the time interactively by through questions and answer:

• How many minutes does the minute hand indicates? Lead pupils to count

So, it is 7 minutes

• Is it 7 minutes past or to? Answer: The minute hand is at the right (yellow-shaded) side of the clock. So, it is 7 minutes past the hour.
• But it is 7 minutes past what hour? Answer: The hour hand is pointing at 11. So, it is 7 minutes past 11 O’clock.

The teacher resets the clock several times. Then, repeats the process – interactively – with the pupils until they are able to tell the time past the hour.

###### Half-Past & Quarter Past

Before proceeding to telling time to the hour, the teacher teaches the pupils half-past and quarter past the hour. S/he does this in the same manner as I have described above.

##### Telling Time to the Hour

After teaching the pupils how to tell time past the hour, the teacher teaches them how to tell time that is to the hour.

To do this, the teacher displays a clock like the ones above. After that, s/he explains that if the minute hand is in the part of the clock shaded white – left side of the clock face; then we say it is the minute to the hour – number in which the hour hand is pointing at. And we know the exact minute by counting from where the minute hand is currently at to the last minute at 12.

###### Examples of time to the hour

Teacher teaches the pupils to tell the time interactively by through questions and answers:

• How many minutes does the minute hand indicates? Lead pupils to count

So, it is 5 minutes

• Is it 5 minutes past or to? Answer: The minute hand is at the left (white-shaded) side of the clock. So, it is 5 minutes to the hour.
• But it is 5minutes to what hour? To explain this, the teacher first of all teaches the pupils with illustration that the hands of clock move in clockwise direction – top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back up to the top.

Having explain that the hands of clock move from left to right, the teacher helps the pupils to understand the hour that the hour hand is currently moving to.

Answer: In the example, the hour hand is moving to 2. So, it is 5 minutes to 2 O’clock.

The teacher resets the clock several times. Then, repeats the process – interactively – with the pupils until they are able to tell the time to the hour.

##### Stage Evaluation Question

Before the teacher proceeds to the remaining part of the lesson, s/he assesses the pupils’ understanding of the forgoing section.

#### Step 3 – Telling time from Digital Wristwatch

Once the teacher ascertains that the pupils are able to tell time from the clock, s/he teaches them to tell time from digital wristwatch.

First /she reminds the pupils that digital wristwatch displays time in form of digits instead of hands. Then, the teacher shows a poster of a time on a digital wristwatch and explain the different parts of the numbers.

Following identification of the hour and minute digits in a digital wristwatch, the teacher teaches the pupils how to tell the time.

S/he explains that telling time from a digital wristwatch is much easier than from a clock. To tell the time past the hour, we simply say the current minute past the current hour on the watch face.

For example, the time on the digital wristwatch below is 20 minutes past 4 O’clock.

The teacher resets the digital wristwatch and practice telling the time past the hour on digital wristwatch several times with the pupils.

##### Telling time to the hour on a digital wristwatch

Once the teacher ascertains that the pupils have understood how to tell time past the hour from the digital wristwatch, s/he teaches them how to tell time to the hour.

In doing this, the teacher first of all explains that if the minute on a digital wristwatch is more than 30; then we say it is to the hour.

And to know the exact minute to the next hour, we simply subtract the over-30 minutes from 60.

For example, in the digital clock below; the minutes (45) is more than 30. So, we say it is already to the next hour. But how many minutes to the next hour? To get this, we say 60 – 45; which 15 minutes. Hence, it is 15 minutes to the next hour.

Note that the next hour here is 6 because it is currently 5 and the next hour after 5 is 6.

Teacher carries out more exercises on this with the pupils resetting the digital wristwatch each time. S/he also makes it interactive:

• Reset the watch
• Ask if it is minutes to or minutes past; and why?
• Demand to know the exact minutes to or past
• Then as of the hour (current or next)
##### Stage Evaluation Questions

Before the teacher continues with the rest of the lesson, s/he asks the pupils based on what s/he has taught them so far – especially from the current section.

As part of the evaluation exercises, the teacher may carryout some time telling activities with the pupils – see references for link.

#### Step 4 – Setting time on digital wristwatch

In the final part of the lesson, the teacher teaches the pupils how to set time and date on digital wristwatch – by demonstration. WikiHow has a detailed guide on how to set time – see references for link.

Afterwards, the teacher also teaches the pupils how to set alarm.

### SUMMARY

Before the final assessment, the teacher summarizes the lesson into a concise note which s/he writes/prints for the pupils to copy into their exercise books. Afterwards, the teacher revises the entire lesson with the pupils.

### EVALUATION

After note copying and revision, the teacher evaluates the pupils’ overall understanding of the lesson by asking them questions and giving them exercises on the topic.

### CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by marking the pupils’ exercises, grading and recording their grades.

## REFERENCES

Staake, J. (2021, April 21). 15 Meaningful Hands-On Ways to Teach Telling Time. Retrieved from We Are Teachers: https://www.weareteachers.com/5-hands-on-ways-to-teach-telling-time/

wikiHow. (2021, September 16). How to Set a Digital Watch. Retrieved from wikiHow: https://www.wikihow.com/Set-a-Digital-Watch

## Introduction to Lesson Note Nursery One Third Term Mathematics Week 11

I wrote this Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 11; based on the Nigerian National Early Childhood Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Pre-Primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed. As a result, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National CurriculumNOTE:  I wrote an extensive article 0on the latest 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. If you haven’t read that, click here to read it up. Also, click here to check our official schemes of work based on the latest 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson note, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in Mathematics as NERDC specified. Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor.

### How to develop Lesson Plan from Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 11

I wrote this lesson note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 10; in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this notes for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to follow this guideline to writing standard lesson plan. To make it faster, click here to get my lesson plan template for N300 only. Or click here to get it from paystack.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, quickly read this article on their differences.

### To Children Mathematics Teacher

The teacher to deliver this lesson must understand that teaching numeracy at the early age entails much more than rote memorization and singing/demonstrating rhymes. Yes, these are effective tools for teaching the pupils how to remember what you have taught them. But much more, the question of numeracy – much as all of the topics at this level – serves as the foundation for the pupils’ progress in the subject in future academic engagements.

#### Major Cause of Mathematics Anxiety

After teaching Mathematics at pre-primary, primary, secondary as well as tertiary level; I can categorically say that the majority of the numerous issues that students have in Mathematics is due to poor foundation.

A common point that most early years’ teachers miss in teaching numeration and notation is the aspect of the concept of numerical values. Any Mathematics Teacher in higher classes starting from Primary 4 upward will attest to the fact that majority of the learners finds Number Bases difficult due to their lack of understanding the concept of values of numbers. Even now, you can take the percentage of the primary level learners upward that truly understands the concept of value of numbers above 10. A simple question to test this is: Why do we write 10 as 1 and 0?

#### What you should do?

Despite that many early years’ teachers are coming to understand this and consequently adjusting the focus of their classes, more are yet to. Consequently, you should not only measure the success of your class by how your Nursery One pupils are able to recite and perhaps identify and write numbers 1 – 500. You should also evaluate to see how many of them truly understands the underlying concept of every topic. It is in this regard that I urge you to also focus on the affective objective of this lesson.

## Lesson Note Nursery One First Term Mathematics Week 11

Class: Nursery One

Term: Third

Week: 11

Subject: Mathematics/Number Work

Topic: Counting and writing numbers 1 – 50

## OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• Cognitive:
• Count numbers 1 – 50
• Identify numbers 1 – 50
• Arrange numbers 1 – 50 in a given order
• Identify missing numbers
• Psychomotor:
• Write numbers 1 – 50
• Fill in missing numbers
• Affective
• Demonstrate/internalize the concept of numerical values of numbers 1 – 50

## PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The pupils had in the previous lesson learned the following:

1. Meaning of number
2. Patterns of writing numbers
3. Identification and counting of shapes
4. Copying numbers 1 – 10
5. Counting & identification of numbers 1 – 50

## INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Triangle, rectangle, square and circle model
2. Concrete writing patterns or equivalent cardboard cut-outs for vertical, horizontal, convex and concave
3. Number models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-outs – consisting of several 1’s through 9’s including 0’s
4. Stand counters of 50 beads
5. Several counters – bottle covers, blocks, pebbles, etc. in bundles of 10. I recommend bottle covers in tens packed into an improvised container that can contain no more than 10 counters – 4 and a half (i.e. 45) for each pupil
6. Chalk/Marker and black/white board
7. Number charts of 1 – 50
8. Flash Cards of numbers 1 – 50
9. Several (carton) boxes for each pupil
10. Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre.
11. Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department.
12. Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
13. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). (2012). Mathematics Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

## 1.             PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:

### i.      Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher does the following:

• Writes the topic on the board

#### Ø  Orally asks the pupils questions based on the previous lesson

1. What we say or write to tell people how many things we have is called ___

1. Number
2. Story

1. We have _____ numbers/How many numbers do we have?

1. 5
2. Many

1. Every number has different name and how to write it

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is nothing (in local dialect) in English?

1. Zero
2. One

1. How do we write zero?

1. 0
2. 2

1. One bundle of number is called ___________

1. Ten
2. Seven

1. How do we write one bundle and nothing?

1. 10
2. 13

1. Two bundles or two tens are called ____________

1. Twenty
2. Ten

1. 47 is called ____________

1. Fifteen
2. Twenty-five

1. 43 is called __________

1. Eighteen
2. Seventeen

1. Two tens and 7 is called __________

1. Twenty-seven
2. Seventeen

1. Which is more, 19 or 28?

1. 19
2. 28

1. If I give 12 sweets to Musa and 17 to Eze, who has more sweets?

1. Musa
2. Eze

1. If one bundle is called ten, then two bundles (twenty) is 2 tens

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is 46 in local dialect (call the language e.g. Hausa)?
2. Go and bring 3 packets of chalk
3. Count the pieces of chalk, how many are there in 1 packet?
4. Write 8
5. Write 9
6. Everyone (a row or pupil at a time) come and pick 45 counters
7. Which shape has 3 sides?
8. Which shape has 2 short sides and 2 long sides?
9. What is the name of the shape that has 4 equal sides?
10. Mention the shape that has no corner

#### Ø  S/he revises the previous lesson

1. A number is what tells us how many things we have
2. There are many numbers because we can have many things
3. Each of the many numbers has its special name and way it is written
4. Teacher writes different numbers (one at a time) between 1and 45; then asks the pupils the name of each.
5. Teacher displays chart of numbers 1 – 45, names a number and require a pupil to come point at it on the chart
6. One added to 9 makes a bundle. And a bundle is called ten
7. Ten is written as 10. 11 is called eleven and it means one bundle and one.
8. Two tens (bundles) is called twenty. Twenty is written as 20.
9. Three tens (bundles) is called thirty. Thirty is written as 30.
10. Four tens (bundles) is called forty. Forty is written as 40.
11. Shape means how something looks like when the out lines are joined
12. There are many types of shapes – that means, different things can look in different ways when their out lines are joined
13. Examples of shapes are rectangle (show), square (show), triangle (show) and circle (show)
14. Teacher concludes introduction by telling the pupils that they shall learn a few more numbers and revise how to write numbers 1 – 10. After this, s/he explains the objectives for the week and then proceeds as I describe below.

### i.      Recognizing Numbers 1 – 50

Following the introduction, the teacher revises the concept, values and symbols of numbers 1 – 50 as I discussed in the previous lessons.

### ii.      Counting Exercise

Succeeding the revision above, the teacher leads the pupils to repeat the counting exercises.

#### General counting with stand counters

After the revision, the teacher leads the pupils into general counting:

He or she puts up the stand of 50 counters. Then sliding each counter to the other side, s/he together with the pupils, counts until the counters finish from one side. The teacher repeats this by sliding each counter back to the original position and again – several times. The teacher may invite willing pupils to lead the counting by sliding the counters as the entire class counts.

#### Group and Individual Counting

After the general counting, the teacher further strengthens the pupil’s memorization of the names and order of numbers through group counting.

• The teacher groups the pupils into pairs
• Going to each group and while the pupils watch, the teacher counts different number of counters for each pupil
• Then the teacher directs each pupil to count differently given number out of his or her counter and give it to the partner
• Individual pupil counts the new number of counters in their possession and tells the teacher
• The teacher confirms the number then make the pupils to repeat the process – exchange some counters and count

#### Oral Counting without Counters

After the pupils are able to count very well with the counters, the teacher directs them to put the counters away. Then s/he leads them to count orally without using the counters. The teacher and the pupils do this several times. S/he may invite different willing pupils to lead the oral counting as well.

NOTE: The teacher may make the counting into rhymes to aid memorization. S/he may begin that with common counting rhymes such as one, two, buckle my shoes, one two three four five, once I caught a fish alive, etc.

### Evaluation

The teacher may assess the individual pupil’s counting ability by:

1. Asking them to orally count from a number that s/he states to another
2. Sending them to go and fetch a given number of item for him/her
3. Asking them to count the number of items in the class
4. Pick a currency note (one of N5, N10, N20 and N50), and ask the pupils how much is it.
5. Combine any two of the currency notes and ask the pupils how much is the two notes together
6. Get a voluminous book, open to certain page; ask the pupils what page is that?
7. Look out for numbers in everyday life and ask what number there are – clock, shoe size, etc.
8. Mix up several of the shapes you discussed in the last lesson and ask pupils to identify and count
9. Give them the exercises in the worksheet
1. Count and circle

### Revise recognition of the symbols of Numbers 1 – 50

After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each of the numbers has its own way that we write it. Thus, s/he explains that they are now going to learn how to we write each number – 1-50.

Consequently, the teacher starts from zero and forth; explains that:

• Zero means nothing and is written as 0
• One is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 1
• Two is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 2
• Ten (one bundle and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 10.
• Eleven (one bundle and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write 11
• – – –
• Twenty (2 tens and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 20
• Twenty-one (2 ten and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 21
• Twenty-five (2 ten and 5) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 25
• Thirty (3 tens and nothing) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 30.
• Thirty-one (3 and 1) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 31.
• Thirty-five (3 and 5) is a number which means ____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 35.
• Forty (4 tens and nothing) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 40.
• Forty-one (4 and 1) is a number which means _______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 41.
• Forty-five (4 and 5) is a number which means _________ (in local dialect) and we write it as 45.
• Forty-six (4 and 6) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 46.
• Fifty (5 and 0) is a number which means _________ (in local dialect) and we write it as 50.

NOTE: The teacher uses the concrete number models, charts and white/black board to demonstrate each number.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher writes the numbers 1 – 50, serially on the board or uses the large number chart, then points at each number and asks the pupils to name the number – then in reverse, the teacher calls the name of a number then calls pupils to points at each.

The teacher may call the local names of numbers and asks pupils to mention the English equivalents.

Following this, the teacher uses the number chart of 1 – 50, and lead the counting once again – several times. S/he may invite pupils to come, point at the numbers and lead the counting.

#### Evaluation

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ ability to recognize the numbers through physical exercise thus:

S/he places different number of counters into the boxes. Then gives the boxes to the pupils with the number models or cardboard number cut-outs. Thereafter, the teacher directs the pupils to open up each of the boxes, count the number of items in the boxes and then pick the corresponding number model/cut-out and place on/inside the boxes with the counters.

The teacher moves round or collects the boxes, confirms the counters and the number model/cut-out that is in it.

### Ordering of Numbers 1 – 50

Succeeding the revision of the symbols of numbers 1 – 50, the teacher teaches the pupils the concept of ordering of numbers.

S/he explains displays the number charts (1 – 50) and reminds the pupils that the numbers show the size – quantity – of things. The teacher explicitly explains that the size is according to the arrangements of the numbers.

#### Ascending Order

The teacher draws/displays the vertical number line and explains that the first number which is at the bottom – i.e. zero – is the smallest of all numbers. It means nothing – This means if you have zero, then you do not have anything at all.

Moving upward to number 1, the teacher explains that just as number one is above zero in the number line, so is the size more than zero. S/he repeats for subsequent numbers upward. This should lead to the general rule that as you move up, the size of number increases – from smallest to biggest.

#### Descending Order

Building on the concept of ascending order, the teacher explains that as you come down, the size of the numbers reduces. Hence, 50 is greater than 49; 49 than 48; 48 than 47; 47 than 46; etc.

#### Stage Evaluation

Before proceeding to the rest part of the lesson, the teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding of the order of numbers. The teacher does this through the following activities:

##### 1.  Find the number in wrong order

The teacher writes numbers 1 – 50 on the board but mixes up the order. Then s/he asks the pupils to find the numbers in the wrong order.

##### 2.  Rearrange the numbers in the correct order

S/he writes numbers within the range of 1 and 50 on the board but in the wrong order. Then asks the pupils to identify the numbers in the wrong order and also to say where the number (s) ought to be.

##### 3.  Fill in missing number

The teacher may write numbers within a given range – not more than 50 – but deliberately omitting some numbers within the range. Then s/he asks the pupils to asks the pupils to say the missing number – which either the pupil(s) or the teacher fills in the space(s).

NOTE: These exercises should first be done on the board several times. Also make it interactive and fun. The same exercise will be given in their workbook.

### i.      Writing numbers 1 – 50

In the final part of the lesson, the teacher teaches the pupils how to write numbers 1 – 50.

First, s/he revises the exercises on recognizing numbers 1 – 50; counting and recognition of the symbols in that order.

Next, the teacher makes the pupils to understand the general rule of progression in writing numbers – inductively:

1. Write numbers 1 – 50 in 10 by 5 table
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
1. Explain the pattern of the numbers – that they only have to remember 0 – 9; after 9, they simply write 1 bundle and nothing; then continue with 1 bundle and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, & 9 again. One more than 1 bundle and 9, they go to 2 bundles and nothing; then 2 bundles and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 & 9; and so on.

Once the pupils have understood the pattern, the teacher asks if any pupil could write 0 – 9 offhand. If there is volunteer, the teacher allows the pupil to write 0 – 9 on the board. Once the pupil has done this, the teacher applauds him/her then encourages and assures the entire class that they could as well. Hence, s/he makes all of the pupils to write numbers 0 – 9 on their paper offhand. The teacher ensures that every child participates – s/he supports those that may need assistance.

Then gradually, the teacher makes the pupils to write numbers 1 – 50 offhand after the style in 0 – 9 and in intervals of 0 – 9, 10 – 19, 20 – 29, 30 – 39, and 40 – 50.

## EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson by giving them the following exercises.

### Exercise 1: Oral counting

The teacher asks the pupils (either individually or in small groups) to count numbers 1 -50. S/he observes those that may have difficulty pronouncing or missing one or two numbers – so as to help them and/or recommend assistance for their parents.

### Exercise 2: Shape Recognition and Counting

1. Teacher draws or shows the pupils each of the shapes and asks them the name of the shapes – one at a time.
2. S/he shows the pupils common objects with the shapes that was discussed and demands the pupils to identify the shapes
3. Mix up many of the shape models and ask the pupils to pick and count all of a named shape
4. Show the car model below and ask the pupils to identify the shapes
5. S/he may give them to build
6. Give them the exercises in the accompanying worksheet
1. count shape and circle exercise
2. shape matching exercise
3. Which shape has 3 sides?
4. Which shape has 2 short sides and 2 long sides?
5. What is the name of the shape that has 4 equal sides?
6. Mention the shape that has no corner

### Exercise 3: Recognition of numbers 1 – 50

• The teacher uses a number chart or a handwritten numbers 1 – 50; points at each number and ask individual pupil to name it – then the reverse and randomly.
• The teacher calls the local names of numbers and demands pupils to mention the English equivalents.
• S/he gives the pupils the matching exercise contained in accompanying worksheet.
• Ask the pupils the names of numbers on common surfaces – book pages, clock, currency note, etc.

### Exercise 4: Numerical Values

• Teacher collects some items (recommended is biscuit or sweet); divides the items into two groups – one being more than the other.
• The teacher asks pupils to count each group; thereafter, reminds the pupil the number of each group, then asks the pupils to pick either the smaller or greater.
• Then the teacher gives the corresponding exercise in the worksheet
• The teacher gives pupils simple ordering of numbers – see worksheet
• Teacher gives pupils greater/less than exercises
1. count and circle the greater/lesser
• Fill in missing number

### Exercise 5: Writing Exercise

1. The teacher gives the pupils the writing exercise in the worksheet that comes with this note.

## CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance.

### Feedback format:

1. Starts from child’s strength – attentiveness in class, willingness to learn, happiness to participate in activities, participation in class discussion, numbers s/he has mastered – counting, recognition, value, writing, etc.
2. Express optimism in child’s ability to improve in all areas
3. Weak areas – numbers the child finds difficult to count, recall, recognize, conceptualize or write
4. State possible reasons for weakness or assure that the occurrence is natural
5. Suggest how the parents can help

## Introduction to Lesson Note Nursery One Third Term Mathematics Week 10

I wrote this Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 10; based on the Nigerian National Early Childhood Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Pre-Primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed. As a result, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National CurriculumNOTE:  I wrote an extensive article 0on the latest 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. If you haven’t read that, click here to read it up. Also, click here to check our official schemes of work based on the latest 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson note, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in Mathematics as NERDC specified. Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor.

### How to develop Lesson Plan from Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 10

I wrote this lesson note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 10; in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this notes for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to follow this guideline to writing standard lesson plan. To make it faster, click here to get my lesson plan template for N300 only. Or click here to get it from paystack.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, quickly read this article on their differences.

### To Children Mathematics Teacher

The teacher to deliver this lesson must understand that teaching numeracy at the early age entails much more than rote memorization and singing/demonstrating rhymes. Yes, these are effective tools for teaching the pupils how to remember what you have taught them. But much more, the question of numeracy – much as all of the topics at this level – serves as the foundation for the pupils’ progress in the subject in future academic engagements.

#### Major Cause of Mathematics Anxiety

After teaching Mathematics at pre-primary, primary, secondary as well as tertiary level; I can categorically say that the majority of the numerous issues that students have in Mathematics is due to poor foundation.

A common point that most early years’ teachers miss in teaching numeration and notation is the aspect of the concept of numerical values. Any Mathematics Teacher in higher classes starting from Primary 4 upward will attest to the fact that majority of the learners finds Number Bases difficult due to their lack of understanding the concept of values of numbers. Even now, you can take the percentage of the primary level learners upward that truly understands the concept of value of numbers above 10. A simple question to test this is: Why do we write 10 as 1 and 0?

#### What you should do?

Despite that many early years’ teachers are coming to understand this and consequently adjusting the focus of their classes, more are yet to. Consequently, you should not only measure the success of your class by how your Nursery One pupils are able to recite and perhaps identify and write numbers 1 – 500. You should also evaluate to see how many of them truly understands the underlying concept of every topic. It is in this regard that I urge you to also focus on the affective objective of this lesson.

## Lesson Note Nursery One First Term Mathematics Week 10

Class: Nursery One

Term: Third

Week: 10

Subject: Mathematics/Number Work

Topic: Counting numbers 1 – 50

Recognition of numbers 1 – 50

Copying Numbers 1 – 10

### OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• Cognitive:
• Count numbers 1 – 50
• Identify numbers 1 – 50
• Psychomotor:
• Copy numbers 1 – 10
• Affective
• Demonstrate/internalize the concept of numerical values of numbers 1 – 50

### PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The pupils had in the previous terms learned the following:

1. Meaning of number
2. Patterns of writing numbers
3. Identification and counting of shapes
4. Tracing numbers 1 – 10
5. Counting & identification of numbers 1 – 45

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Triangle, rectangle, square and circle model
2. Concrete writing patterns or equivalent cardboard cut-outs for vertical, horizontal, convex and concave
3. Number models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-outs – consisting of several 1’s through 9’s including 0’s
4. Stand counters of 45 beads
5. Several counters – bottle covers, blocks, pebbles, etc. in bundles of 10. I recommend bottle covers in tens packed into an improvised container that can contain no more than 10 counters – 4 and a half (i.e. 45) for each pupil
6. Chalk/Marker and black/white board
7. Number charts of 1 – 45
8. Several (carton) boxes for each pupil
9. Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre.
10. Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department.
11. Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
12. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). (2012). Mathematics Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

### PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:

#### Step 1: Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher does the following:

• Writes the topic on the board7
##### Ø  Orally asks the pupils questions based on the previous lesson
1. What we say or write to tell people how many things we have is called ___

1. Number
2. Story

1. We have _____ numbers/How many numbers do we have?

1. 5
2. Many

1. Every number has different name and how to write it

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is nothing (in local dialect) in English?

1. Zero
2. One

1. How do we write zero?

1. 0
2. 2

1. One bundle of number is called ___________

1. Ten
2. Seven

1. How do we write one bundle and nothing?

1. 10
2. 13

1. Two bundles or two tens are called ____________

1. Twenty
2. Ten

1. 25 is called ____________

1. Fifteen
2. Twenty-five

1. 18 is called __________

1. Eighteen
2. Seventeen

1. Two tens and 3 is called __________

1. Twenty-three
2. Thirteen

1. Which is more, 9 or 8?

1. 9
2. 8

1. If I give 12 sweets to Musa and 17 to Eze, who has more sweets?

1. Musa
2. Eze

1. If one bundle is called ten, then two bundles (twenty) is 2 tens

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is 8 in local dialect (call the language e.g. Hausa)?
2. Go and bring 3 pieces of chalk
3. Count numbers 1 – 25
4. Write 8
5. Write 9
6. Everyone (a row or pupil at a time) come and pick 45 counters
7. Which shape has 3 sides?
8. Which shape has 2 short sides and 2 long sides?
9. What is the name of the shape that has 4 equal sides?
10. Mention the shape that has no corner
##### Ø  S/he revises the previous lesson
1. A number is what tells us how many things we have
2. There are many numbers because we can have many things
3. Each of the many numbers has its special name and way it is written
4. Teacher writes different numbers (one at a time) between 1and 45; then asks the pupils the name of each.
5. Teacher displays chart of numbers 1 – 45, names a number and require a pupil to come point at it on the chart
6. One added to 9 makes a bundle. And a bundle is called ten
7. Ten is written as 10. 11 is called eleven and it means one bundle and one.
8. Two tens (bundles) is called twenty. Twenty is written as 20.
9. Three tens (bundles) is called thirty. Thirty is written as 30.
10. Four tens (bundles) is called forty. Forty is written as 40.
11. Shape means how something looks like when the out lines are joined
12. There are many types of shapes – that means, different things can look in different ways when their out lines are joined
13. Examples of shapes are rectangle (show), square (show), triangle (show) and circle (show)
14. Teacher concludes introduction by telling the pupils that they shall learn a few more numbers and revise how to write numbers 1 – 10. After this, s/he explains the objectives for the week and then proceeds as I describe below.

#### Step 2: Recognizing Numbers 1 – 50

Following the introduction, the teacher revises the concept, values and symbols of numbers 1 – 45 as I discussed in the previous lessons. Thereafter, the teacher progresses to numbers 46 – 50.

##### Number 46
1. The teacher directs each pupil to count 45 counters from the pack – as in the last exercise under introduction – question 20.
2. Thereafter, the teacher confirms the number of counters with each pupil.
3. The teacher gives each of the pupils five bundle packs and directs the pupils to arrange the counters in the packs. When done, they should have 5 filled packs and one half-filled pack.
4. Therefore, the teacher asks the pupils how many counters they have. The pupils may say 4 bundles and a half (or 5). In such case, the teacher asks further, what is another name for 4 bundles and 5– i.e. 4 tens and five or forty-five.
5. Following this, the teacher tells the pupils that if one already has 45 items and gets one more – s/he distributes one counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 4 bundles (tens) and 6. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 4 bundles (tens) and 6 as 46 – 4 and 6 close to each other. And we call it forty-six. S/he pronounces forty-six and makes the pupils to repeat after him/her – several times.
##### Number 47
1. After explaining number 46, the teacher asks the pupils how many counter have they now – the pupils should say 46!
2. Thence, the teacher teaches them that if one has 46 items and gets one more – the teacher distributes one more counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 4 bundles (tens) and 7. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 4tens and 7 as 47 – 4 and 7 close to each other. And we call it forty-seven. S/he pronounces forty-seven and tells the pupils to repeat after him/her – many times.
3. ##### Number 48 & 49

The teacher repeats the same steps for numbers 48 and 49.

###### Number 50
1. After the teacher has finished explaining number 49. S/he directs the pupils to arrange the 9 counters left in the fifth bundle pack.
2. Once the pupils have finished arranging, the teacher asks whether the pack is completely filled. The pupils should probably notice that the pack can still take one more counter. Hence, the teacher explains that since the fifth pack is not completely filled, they cannot say 5 bundles just yet. Instead, they count and say the incomplete counters individually – the teacher directs them to unpack the incomplete counters and count it once again. After counting it as nine, the teacher reminds them that they have 4 bundles and 9 – which is the same as 4tens and 9 or forty-nine.
3. Thereafter, the gives each of the pupils one more counter. After that, s/he directs them to refill the fifth bundle pack once more. Once the pupils have finished filling the fifth pack, the teacher asks the pupils if it is completely filled. The pupils should answer yes.
4. Hence, the teacher explains that since the fifth pack is now completely filled and there is nothing left, we say the total number of counters is 5 bundles and nothing. And 5 bundles are the same thing as four tens. S/he concludes that we write 5tens and nothing as 50 – 5 and 0 close to each other – and call it as fifty.
5. Thence, the teacher pronounces fifty and makes the pupils to repeat after him/her several times.

#### Step 3: Counting Exercise

Succeeding the revision above, the teacher leads the pupils to repeat the counting exercises.

##### General counting with stand counters

After the revision, the teacher leads the pupils into general counting:

He or she puts up the stand of 50 counters. Then sliding each counter to the other side, s/he together with the pupils, counts until the counters finish from one side. The teacher repeats this by sliding each counter back to the original position and again – several times. The teacher may invite willing pupils to lead the counting by sliding the counters as the entire class counts.

##### Group and Individual Counting

After the general counting, the teacher further strengthens the pupil’s memorization of the names and order of numbers through group counting.

• The teacher groups the pupils into pairs
• Going to each group and while the pupils watch, the teacher counts different number of counters for each pupil
• Then the teacher directs each pupil to count differently given number out of his or her counter and give it to the partner
• Individual pupil counts the new number of counters in their possession and tells the teacher
• The teacher confirms the number then make the pupils to repeat the process – exchange some counters and count
##### Oral Counting without Counters

After the pupils are able to count very well with the counters, the teacher directs them to put the counters away. Then s/he leads them to count orally without using the counters. The teacher and the pupils do this several times. S/he may invite different willing pupils to lead the oral counting as well.

NOTE: The teacher may make the counting into rhymes to aid memorization. S/he may begin that with common counting rhymes such as one, two, buckle my shoes, one two three four five, once I caught a fish alive, etc.

##### Evaluation

The teacher may assess the individual pupil’s counting ability by:

1. Asking them to orally count from a number that s/he states to another
2. Sending them to go and fetch a given number of item for him/her
3. Asking them to count the number of items in the class
4. Pick a currency note (one of N5, N10, N20 and N50), and ask the pupils how much is it.
5. Combine any two of the currency notes and ask the pupils how much is the two notes together
6. Get a voluminous book, open to certain page; ask the pupils what page is that?
7. Look out for numbers in everyday life and ask what number there are – clock, shoe size, etc.
8. Mix up several of the shapes you discussed in the last lesson and ask pupils to identify and count
9. Give them the exercises in the worksheet
1. Count and circle

#### Step 4: Revise recognition of the symbols of Numbers 1 – 50

After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each of the numbers has its own way that we write it. Thus, s/he explains that they are now going to learn how to we write each number – 1-50.

Consequently, the teacher starts from zero and forth; explains that:

• Zero means nothing and is written as 0
• One is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 1
• Two is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 2
• Ten (one bundle and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 10.
• Eleven (one bundle and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write 11
• – – –
• Twenty (2 tens and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 20
• Twenty-one (2 ten and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 21
• Twenty-five (2 ten and 5) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 25
• Thirty (3 tens and nothing) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 30.
• Thirty-one (3 and 1) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 31.
• Thirty-five (3 and 5) is a number which means ____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 35.
• Forty (4 tens and nothing) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 40.
• Forty-one (4 and 1) is a number which means _______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 41.
• Forty-five (4 and 5) is a number which means _________ (in local dialect) and we write it as 45.
• Forty-six (4 and 6) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 46.
• Fifty (5 and 0) is a number which means _________ (in local dialect) and we write it as 50.

NOTE: The teacher uses the concrete number models, charts and white/black board to demonstrate each number.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher writes the numbers 1 – 50, serially on the board or uses the large number chart, then points at each number and asks the pupils to name the number – then in reverse, the teacher calls the name of a number then calls pupils to points at each.

The teacher may call the local names of numbers and asks pupils to mention the English equivalents.

Following this, the teacher uses the number chart of 1 – 50, and lead the counting once again – several times. S/he may invite pupils to come, point at the numbers and lead the counting.

##### Evaluation

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ ability to recognize the numbers through physical exercise thus:

S/he places different number of counters into the boxes. Then gives the boxes to the pupils with the number models or cardboard number cut-outs. Thereafter, the teacher directs the pupils to open up each of the boxes, count the number of items in the boxes and then pick the corresponding number model/cut-out and place on/inside the boxes with the counters.

The teacher moves round or collects the boxes, confirms the counters and the number model/cut-out that is in it.

### Step 5: Copying Numbers 1 – 10

Succeeding the counting/recognition exercises, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall now revise how to write numbers 1 – 10.

The teacher first revises the writing patterns. S/he may give the pupils a quick exercise to make the patterns.

REMARK: Take note of the pupils that have difficulty with the patterns. And endeavour to take any child back to the needed prerequisite skills for the writing exercise. DO NOT HOLD THE CHILD’S HANDS – it is outdated. With the right basic skills, most children of 3 to 3.5 years are able to form and write numbers on their own.

Following the writing pattern exercise above, the teacher proceeds with the tracing exercises thus.

For each number:

1. Identify the patterns that forms the number
2. Reminds the pupils the steps to form and join the patterns to form the number
3. Make the pupils write the number on air/in sand
4. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
1. Join the dots to form the number
2. Trace the outline of the numbers
5. Following the tracing exercise, the teacher gives them the copying exercise in their workbook
1. Copy down

### EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson by giving them the following exercises.

#### Exercise 1: Oral counting

The teacher asks the pupils (either individually or in small groups) to count numbers 1 -50. S/he observes those that may have difficulty pronouncing or missing one or two numbers – so as to help them and/or recommend assistance for their parents.

#### Exercise 2: Shape Recognition and Counting

1. Teacher draws or shows the pupils each of the shapes and asks them the name of the shapes – one at a time.
2. S/he shows the pupils common objects with the shapes that was discussed and demands the pupils to identify the shapes
3. Mix up many of the shape models and ask the pupils to pick and count all of a named shape
4. Show the car model below and ask the pupils to identify the shapes
5. S/he may give them to build
6. Give them the exercises in the accompanying worksheet
1. count shape and circle exercise
2. shape matching exercise
3. Which shape has 3 sides?
4. Which shape has 2 short sides and 2 long sides?
5. What is the name of the shape that has 4 equal sides?
6. Mention the shape that has no corner

#### Exercise 3: Recognition of numbers 1 – 50

• The teacher uses a number chart or a handwritten numbers 1 – 50; points at each number and ask individual pupil to name it – then the reverse and randomly.
• The teacher calls the local names of numbers and demands pupils to mention the English equivalents.
• S/he gives the pupils the matching exercise contained in accompanying worksheet.
• Ask the pupils the names of numbers on common surfaces – book pages, clock, currency note, etc.

#### Exercise 4: Numerical Values

• Teacher collects some items (recommended is biscuit or sweet); divides the items into two groups – one being more than the other.
• The teacher asks pupils to count each group; thereafter, reminds the pupil the number of each group, then asks the pupils to pick either the smaller or greater.
• Then the teacher gives the corresponding exercise in the worksheet
• The teacher gives pupils simple ordering of numbers – see worksheet
• Teacher gives pupils greater/less than exercises
1. count and circle the greater/lesser
• Fill in missing number

#### Exercise 5: Tracing Exercise

1. The teacher gives the pupils reasonable tracing exercise for number for numbers 1 – 10 followed by copying

### CONCLUSION of Lesson Note Nursery One Third Term Mathematics Week 10

The teacher concludes the lesson by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance.

#### Feedback format:

1. Starts from child’s strength – attentiveness in class, willingness to learn, happiness to participate in activities, participation in class discussion, numbers s/he has mastered – counting, recognition, value, writing, etc.
2. Express optimism in child’s ability to improve in all areas
3. Weak areas – numbers the child finds difficult to count, recall, recognize, conceptualize or write
4. State possible reasons for weakness or assure that the occurrence is natural
5. Suggest how the parents can help

## Introduction to Lesson Note Nursery One Third Term Mathematics Week 9

I wrote this Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 8; based on the Nigerian National Early Childhood Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Pre-Primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed. As a result, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National CurriculumNOTE:  I wrote an extensive article 0on the latest 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. If you haven’t read that, click here to read it up. Also, click here to check our official schemes of work based on the latest 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson note, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in Mathematics as NERDC specified. Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor.

### How to develop Lesson Plan from Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 9

I wrote this lesson note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 8; in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this notes for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to follow this guideline to writing standard lesson plan. To make it faster, click here to get my lesson plan template for N300 only. Or click here to get it from paystack.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, quickly read this article on their differences.

### To Children Mathematics Teacher

The teacher to deliver this lesson must understand that teaching numeracy at the early age entails much more than rote memorization and singing/demonstrating rhymes. Yes, these are effective tools for teaching the pupils how to remember what you have taught them. But much more, the question of numeracy – much as all of the topics at this level – serves as the foundation for the pupils’ progress in the subject in future academic engagements.

#### Major Cause of Mathematics Anxiety

After teaching Mathematics at pre-primary, primary, secondary as well as tertiary level; I can categorically say that the majority of the numerous issues that students have in Mathematics is due to poor foundation.

A common point that most early years’ teachers miss in teaching numeration and notation is the aspect of the concept of numerical values. Any Mathematics Teacher in higher classes starting from Primary 4 upward will attest to the fact that majority of the learners finds Number Bases difficult due to their lack of understanding the concept of values of numbers. Even now, you can take the percentage of the primary level learners upward that truly understands the concept of value of numbers above 10. A simple question to test this is: Why do we write 10 as 1 and 0?

#### What you should do?

Despite that many early years’ teachers are coming to understand this and consequently adjusting the focus of their classes, more are yet to. Consequently, you should not only measure the success of your class by how your Nursery One pupils are able to recite and perhaps identify and write numbers 1 – 500. You should also evaluate to see how many of them truly understands the underlying concept of every topic. It is in this regard that I urge you to also focus on the affective objective of this lesson.

## Lesson Note Nursery One Third Term Mathematics Week 9

### OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• #### Cognitive:

• Count numbers 1 – 45
• Identify numbers 1 – 45
• Identify triangle, rectangle, square and circle
• #### Psychomotor:

• Tracing numbers 1 – 10
• Arrange the shapes to build a house
• #### Affective

• Demonstrate/internalize the concept of numerical values of numbers 1 – 45
• Demonstrate orderliness

### Previous Knowledge

The pupils had in the previous terms learned the following:

1. Meaning of number
2. Patterns of writing numbers
3. Tracing numbers 9 & 10
4. Counting & identification of numbers 1 – 45

### Instructional Materials

1. Triangle, rectangle, square and circle model
2. Water gum
3. Concrete writing patterns or equivalent cardboard cut-outs for vertical, horizontal, convex and concave
4. Number models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-outs – consisting of several 1’s through 9’s including 0’s
5. Stand counters of 45 beads
6. Several counters – bottle covers, blocks, pebbles, etc. in bundles of 10. I recommend bottle covers in tens packed into an improvised container that can contain no more than 10 counters – 4 and a half (i.e. 45) for each pupil
7. Chalk/Marker and black/white board
8. Number charts of 1 – 45
9. Several (carton) boxes for each pupil
10. Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre.
11. Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department (KERD).
12. Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
13. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). (2012). Mathematics Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

### PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:

#### Step 1: Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher does the following:

• Writes the topic on the board
##### Ø  Orally asks the pupils questions based on the previous lesson
1. What we say or write to tell people how many things we have is called ___

1. Number
2. Story

1. We have _____ numbers/How many numbers do we have?

1. 5
2. Many

1. Every number has different name and how to write it

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is nothing (in local dialect) in English?

1. Zero
2. One

1. How do we write zero?

1. 0
2. 2

1. One bundle of number is called ___________

1. Ten
2. Seven

1. How do we write one bundle and nothing?

1. 10
2. 13

1. Two bundles or two tens are called ____________

1. Twenty
2. Ten

1. 25 is called ____________

1. Fifteen
2. Twenty-five

1. 18 is called __________

1. Eighteen
2. Seventeen

1. Two tens and 3 is called __________

1. Twenty-three
2. Thirteen

1. Which is more, 9 or 8?

1. 9
2. 8

1. If I give 12 sweets to Musa and 17 to Eze, who has more sweets?

1. Musa
2. Eze

1. If one bundle is called ten, then two bundles (twenty) is 2 tens

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is 8 in local dialect (call the language e.g. Hausa)?
2. Go and bring 3 pieces of chalk
3. Count numbers 1 – 25
4. Write 8
5. Write 9
6. Everyone (a row or pupil at a time) come and pick 30 counters
##### Ø  The teacher explains that before they proceed however, they have to revise what they learned in the previous lesson and also a few new things. Hence, s/he revises the previous lesson
1. A number is what tells us how many things we have
2. There are many numbers because we can have many things
3. Each of the many numbers has its special name and way it is written
4. Teacher writes different numbers (one at a time) between 1and 45; then asks the pupils the name of each.
5. Teacher displays chart of numbers 1 – 45, names a number and require a pupil to come point at it on the chart
6. One added to 9 makes a bundle. And a bundle is called ten
7. Ten is written as 10. 11 is called eleven and it means one bundle and one.
8. Two tens (bundles) is called twenty. Twenty is written as 20.
9. Three tens (bundles) is called thirty. Thirty is written as 30.
10. Four tens (bundles) is called forty. Forty is written as 40.
11. Teacher concludes introduction by telling the pupils that they shall practice more of how to write numbers 9 and 10. After this, s/he explains the objectives for the week and then proceeds as I describe below.

#### Step 2: Revising Numbers 1 – 45

Following the introduction, the teacher revises the concept, values and symbols of numbers 1 – 45 as I discussed in the previous lessons.

#### Step 3: Counting Exercise

Succeeding the revision above, the teacher leads the pupils to repeat the counting exercises.

##### General counting with stand counters

After the revision, the teacher leads the pupils into general counting:

He or she puts up the stand of 45 counters. Then sliding each counter to the other side, s/he together with the pupils, counts until the counters finish from one side. The teacher repeats this by sliding each counter back to the original position and again – several times. The teacher may invite willing pupils to lead the counting by sliding the counters as the entire class counts.

##### Group and Individual Counting

After the general counting, the teacher further strengthens the pupil’s memorization of the names and order of numbers through group counting.

• The teacher groups the pupils into pairs
• Going to each group and while the pupils watch, the teacher counts different number of counters for each pupil
• Then the teacher directs each pupil to count differently given number out of his or her counter and give it to the partner
• Individual pupil counts the new number of counters in their possession and tells the teacher
• The teacher confirms the number then make the pupils to repeat the process – exchange some counters and count
##### Oral Counting without Counters

After the pupils are able to count very well with the counters, the teacher directs them to put the counters away. Then s/he leads them to count orally without using the counters. The teacher and the pupils do this several times. S/he may invite different willing pupils to lead the oral counting as well.

NOTE: The teacher may make the counting into rhymes to aid memorization. S/he may begin that with common counting rhymes such as one, two, buckle my shoes, one two three four five, once I caught a fish alive, etc.

##### Evaluation

The teacher may assess the individual pupil’s counting ability by:

1. Asking them to orally count from a number that s/he states to another
2. Sending them to go and fetch a given number of item for him/her
3. Asking them to count the number of items in the class
4. Pick a currency note (one of N5, N10 and N20), and ask the pupils how much is it.
5. Combine N5 and N10 and ask the pupils how much is the two notes together
6. Get a voluminous book, open to certain page; ask the pupils what page is that?
7. Look out for numbers in everyday life and ask what number there are – clock, shoe size, etc.

#### Step 4: Identification of shapes

Subsequent to the counting exercise, the teacher teaches the pupils to identify the shapes for the week. S/he displays the house model once more – the model should be made of the shapes in such manner that each shape has different colour from every other.

Upon displaying the model, the teacher asks the pupils what was used to build the house – probably cardboard paper, plastic or similarly and suitable material. After, identifying the material; the teacher makes the pupils how many pieces of the material was used – this, s/he invites the pupils to come up and count the parts (pieces of material) of the model.

After counting the parts of the model, the teacher asks the pupils which of the parts look alike. The pupils may identify the like either by colour or shape. Whichever, it is the same and acceptable: 6 & 4 are alike while 5 and 1 are also alike.

Succeeding this grouping, the teacher asks how the pupils identified the parts that are the same – what makes them realize that the parts are the same? They should say colour or shape – how the parts look or something in the manner. Once this happens, the teacher appreciates the pupil(s) and then explains the meaning of shape as in the following:

##### What is shape?

The teacher explains shape means how something looks like when the out lines are joined. To further demonstrate the meaning of shape, the teacher takes a rectangular object, places it on the board and draw the outline – the line round it. Thereafter, s/he tells the pupils – pointing to the outline on the board – that the look of that outline is called shape.

##### Types of shapes

After explaining the meaning of shape, the teacher explains further that there are many types of shapes – that means, different things can look in different ways when their out lines are joined. S/he continues that the different kinds of shape have different names. Hence, the teacher tells the pupils that the name of the shape on the board – outline of the rectangular object – is called rectangle.

Succeeding this, the teacher identifies the other kinds of shapes in steps thus:

###### Rectangle
1. Pick a perfect rectangular object
2. Place it on the board
3. Trace the outline
4. Tell the pupils that the shape – outline – is called rectangle
5. Pronounce rectangle many times and let the pupils pronounce after you each time
6. Tell the pupils that a rectangle has 2 long sides and 2 short sides
###### Square
1. Pick a perfect square object
2. Place it on the board
3. Trace the outline
4. Tell the pupils that the shape – outline – is called square.
5. Pronounce square many times and let the pupils pronounce after you each time
6. Tell the pupils that a square has 4 equal sides
###### Differentiate between Rectangle and Square
1. While both rectangle and square are on the board, the teacher asks the pupils if both are the same
2. S/he clarifies that the two shapes are not the same
3. Therefore, the teacher asks the pupils what make the two shapes different
4. After taking enough attempts – of which there may be correct answer, s/he tells the pupils the differences between rectangle and square:
1. The two shapes are alike because both have 4 sides
2. However, the shapes are different because while, all the 4 sides of a square are equal; those of rectangle are not.
3. Square has 4 equals sides
4. Rectangle has 2 long sides and 2 short sides
###### Triangle
1. Pick a triangular object
2. Place it on the board
3. Trace the outline of the object
4. Tell the pupils that the shape – outline – is called
5. Pronounce triangle many times and let the pupils repeat after you each time
6. Tell the pupils that a triangle has 3 sides
###### Circle
1. Pick a circular object
2. Place it on the board
3. Trace the outline of the object
4. Tell the pupils that the shape – outline – is called circle.
5. Pronounce circle many times and let the pupils repeat after you each time
6. Tell them that a circle is one closed curve and that it has no corners

After teaching the pupils all of the shapes, s/he may make it into rhymes which s/he sings with the pupils.

#### Step 5: Recognizing and Counting Shapes

After identifying the types of shapes, the teacher teaches the pupils to identify and count the number of shapes.

First, s/he refer to the house model; picks one of the shapes – i.e. part of the model – and asks the pupils to identify the shape by calling the name. Thereafter, the teacher asks the pupils how many of each shape is in the model.

##### Shapes in common objects

Subsequent to the pupils’ identifying and counting the shapes that make up the model, the teacher shows them everyday objects that have the shapes discussed; then s/he asks the pupils to identify the shapes and count how many of them are there. Examples of such things include door, books, windows, white/black board, desk, tin and cans, candy cubes, the classroom, etc.

##### Building Exercise

Succeeding the counting of the parts of the models, the teacher gives the pupils a pack of the shape models then directs the pupils to count each of the shapes that is present in the mix.

Following this, the teacher re-displays the house model. Thence, s/he explains that when we arrange things, they become beautiful. referencing the house model, the teacher explains that the model is beautiful and become useful only because the shapes are well arranged. The teacher continues that therefore; the pupils should learn to arrange things that are useful to them. The teacher stresses this and then leads the pupils to create the house model.

###### Steps to build the house model
1. Count the number of shapes that is in the model
2. Pick the shapes from the pack
3. Arrange the shapes as in the model
4. Gum the arrangement

After demonstrating the steps to build the house, the teacher directs and guide the pupils to do the same. The teacher ensures that the activity is interactive.

##### Stage Evaluation

Before proceeding to the rest part of the lesson, the teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding of the concept of shapes. S/he does this by asking/giving them the following questions/exercises:

1. Teacher draws or shows the pupils each of the shapes and asks them the name of the shapes – one at a time.
2. S/he shows the pupils common objects with the shapes that was discussed and demands the pupils to identify the shapes
3. Mix up many of the shape models and ask the pupils to pick and count all of a named shape
4. Show the car model below and ask the pupils to identify the shapes
5. S/he may give them to build
6. Give them the exercises in the accompanying worksheet
1. count shape and circle exercise
2. shape matching exercise
3. Which shape has 3 sides?
4. Which shape has 2 short sides and 2 long sides?
5. What is the name of the shape that has 4 equal sides?
6. Mention the shape that has no corner

#### Step 6: Revise recognition of the symbols of Numbers 1 – 45

After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each of the numbers has its own way that we write it. Thus, s/he explains that they are now going to learn how to we write each number – 1-45.

Consequently, the teacher starts from zero and forth; explains that:

• Zero means nothing and is written as 0
• One is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 1
• Two is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 2
• Ten (one bundle and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 10.
• Eleven (one bundle and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write 11
• – – –
• Twenty (2 tens and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 20
• Twenty-one (2 ten and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 21
• Twenty-five (2 ten and 5) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 25
• Thirty (3 tens and nothing) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 30.
• Thirty-one (3 and 1) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 31.
• Thirty-five (3 and 5) is a number which means ____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 35.
• Forty (4 tens and nothing) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 40.
• Forty-one (4 and 1) is a number which means _______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 41.
• Forty-five (4 and 5) is a number which means _________ (in local dialect) and we write it as 25.

NOTE: The teacher uses the concrete number models, charts and white/black board to demonstrate each number.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher writes the numbers 1 – 45, serially on the board or uses the large number chart, then points at each number and asks the pupils to name the number – then in reverse, the teacher calls the name of a number then calls pupils to points at each.

The teacher may call the local names of numbers and asks pupils to mention the English equivalents.

Following this, the teacher uses the number chart of 1 – 45, and lead the counting once again – several times. S/he may invite pupils to come, point at the numbers and lead the counting.

##### Evaluation

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ ability to recognize the numbers through physical exercise thus:

S/he places different number of counters into the boxes. Then gives the boxes to the pupils with the number models or cardboard number cut-outs. Thereafter, the teacher directs the pupils to open up each of the boxes, count the number of items in the boxes and then pick the corresponding number model/cut-out and place on/inside the boxes with the counters.

The teacher moves round or collects the boxes, confirms the counters and the number model/cut-out that is in it.

#### Step 7: Tracing Numbers 1 – 10

Succeeding the counting/recognition exercises, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall now revise how to write numbers 1 – 10.

The teacher first revises the writing patterns. S/he may give the pupils a quick exercise to make the patterns.

REMARK: Take note of the pupils that have difficulty with the patterns. And endeavour to take any child back to the needed prerequisite skills for the writing exercise. DO NOT HOLD THE CHILD’S HANDS – it is outdated. With the right basic skills, most children of 3 to 3.5 years are able to form and write numbers on their own.

Following the writing pattern exercise above, the teacher proceeds with the tracing exercises thus.

For each number:

1. Identify the patterns that forms the number
2. Reminds the pupils the steps to form and join the patterns to form the number
3. Make the pupils write the number on air/in sand
4. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
1. Join the dots to form the number
2. Trace the outline of the numbers
5. ### EVALUATION of pupils’ understanding of Lesson Note Nursery One Third Term Mathematics Week 9

The teacher assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson by giving them the following exercises.

#### Exercise 1: Oral counting

The teacher asks the pupils (either individually or in small groups) to count numbers 1 -45. S/he observes those that may have difficulty pronouncing or missing one or two numbers – so as to help them and/or recommend assistance for their parents.

6. #### Exercise 2: Shape Recognition and Counting

1. Teacher draws or shows the pupils each of the shapes and asks them the name of the shapes – one at a time.
2. S/he shows the pupils common objects with the shapes that was discussed and demands the pupils to identify the shapes
3. Mix up many of the shape models and ask the pupils to pick and count all of a named shape
4. Show the car model below and ask the pupils to identify the shapes
5. S/he may give them to build
6. Give them the exercises in the accompanying worksheet
1. count shape and circle exercise
2. shape matching exercise
3. Which shape has 3 sides?
4. Which shape has 2 short sides and 2 long sides?
5. What is the name of the shape that has 4 equal sides?
6. Mention the shape that has no corner
7. #### Exercise 3: Recognition of numbers 1 – 45

• The teacher uses a number chart or a handwritten numbers 1 – 45; points at each number and ask individual pupil to name it – then the reverse and randomly.
• The teacher calls the local names of numbers and demands pupils to mention the English equivalents.
• S/he gives the pupils the matching exercise contained in accompanying worksheet.
• Ask the pupils the names of numbers on common surfaces – book pages, clock, currency note, etc.

#### Exercise 4: Numerical Values

• Teacher collects some items (recommended is biscuit or sweet); divides the items into two groups – one being more than the other.
• The teacher asks pupils to count each group; thereafter, reminds the pupil the number of each group, then asks the pupils to pick either the smaller or greater.
• Then the teacher gives the corresponding exercise in the worksheet
• The teacher gives pupils simple ordering of numbers – see worksheet
• Teacher gives pupils greater/less than exercises
1. count and circle the greater/lesser
• Fill in missing number

#### Exercise 5: Tracing Exercise

1. The teacher gives the pupils reasonable tracing exercise for number for numbers 1 – 10

### CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the Lesson Note Nursery One Third Term Mathematics Week 9 by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance.

#### Feedback format:

1. Starts from child’s strength – attentiveness in class, willingness to learn, happiness to participate in activities, participation in class discussion, numbers s/he has mastered – counting, recognition, value, writing, etc.
2. Express optimism in child’s ability to improve in all areas
3. Weak areas – numbers the child finds difficult to count, recall, recognize, conceptualize or write
4. State possible reasons for weakness or assure that the occurrence is natural
5. Suggest how the parents can help

## Lesson Note Nursery One Third Term Mathematics Week 8

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## Introduction to Lesson Note Nursery One Third Term Mathematics Week 8

I wrote this Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 8; based on the Nigerian National Early Childhood Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Pre-Primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed. As a result, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National CurriculumNOTE:  I wrote an extensive article 0on the latest 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. If you haven’t read that, click here to read it up. Also, click here to check our official schemes of work based on the latest 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson note, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in Mathematics as NERDC specified. Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor.

### How to develop Lesson Plan from Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 8

I wrote this lesson note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 8; in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this notes for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to follow this guideline to writing standard lesson plan. To make it faster, click here to get my lesson plan template for N300 only. Or click here to get it from paystack.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, quickly read this article on their differences.

### To Children Mathematics Teacher

The teacher to deliver this lesson must understand that teaching numeracy at the early age entails much more than rote memorization and singing/demonstrating rhymes. Yes, these are effective tools for teaching the pupils how to remember what you have taught them. But much more, the question of numeracy – much as all of the topics at this level – serves as the foundation for the pupils’ progress in the subject in future academic engagements.

#### Major Cause of Mathematics Anxiety

After teaching Mathematics at pre-primary, primary, secondary as well as tertiary level; I can categorically say that the majority of the numerous issues that students have in Mathematics is due to poor foundation.

A common point that most early years’ teachers miss in teaching numeration and notation is the aspect of the concept of numerical values. Any Mathematics Teacher in higher classes starting from Primary 4 upward will attest to the fact that majority of the learners finds Number Bases difficult due to their lack of understanding the concept of values of numbers. Even now, you can take the percentage of the primary level learners upward that truly understands the concept of value of numbers above 10. A simple question to test this is: Why do we write 10 as 1 and 0?

#### What you should do?

Despite that many early years’ teachers are coming to understand this and consequently adjusting the focus of their classes, more are yet to. Consequently, you should not only measure the success of your class by how your Nursery One pupils are able to recite and perhaps identify and write numbers 1 – 500. You should also evaluate to see how many of them truly understands the underlying concept of every topic. It is in this regard that I urge you to also focus on the affective objective of this lesson.

## Lesson Note Nursery One Third Term Mathematics Week 8

Class: Nursery One

Term: Third

Week: 8

Subject: Mathematics/Number Work

Topic: Counting numbers 1 – 45

Copying numbers 9 & 10

Recognition of numbers 1 – 45

### OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• Cognitive:
• Count numbers 1 – 45
• Identify numbers 1 – 45
• Psychomotor:
• Copy numbers 9 & 10
• Affective
• Demonstrate/internalize the concept of numerical values of numbers 1 – 45

### PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The pupils had in the previous terms learned the following:

1. Meaning of number
2. Patterns of writing numbers
3. Tracing numbers 9 & 10
4. Counting & identification of numbers 1 – 45

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Concrete writing patterns or equivalent cardboard cut-outs for vertical, horizontal, convex and concave
2. Number models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-outs – consisting of several 1’s through 9’s including 0’s
3. Stand counters of 45 beads
4. Several counters – bottle covers, blocks, pebbles, etc. in bundles of 10. I recommend bottle covers in tens packed into an improvised container that can contain no more than 10 counters – 4 and a half (i.e. 45) for each pupil
5. Chalk/Marker and black/white board
6. Number charts of 1 – 45
7. Several (carton) boxes for each pupil
8. Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre.
9. Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department.
10. Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
11. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). (2012). Mathematics Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

### PRESENTATION

#### Step 1: Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher does the following:

• Writes the topic on the board
##### Ø  Orally asks the pupils questions based on the previous lesson
1. What we say or write to tell people how many things we have is called ___

1. Number
2. Story

1. We have _____ numbers/How many numbers do we have?

1. 5
2. Many

1. Every number has different name and how to write it

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is nothing (in local dialect) in English?

1. Zero
2. One

1. How do we write zero?

1. 0
2. 2

1. One bundle of number is called ___________

1. Ten
2. Seven

1. How do we write one bundle and nothing?

1. 10
2. 13

1. Two bundles or two tens are called ____________

1. Twenty
2. Ten

1. 25 is called ____________

1. Fifteen
2. Twenty-five

1. 18 is called __________

1. Eighteen
2. Seventeen

1. Two tens and 3 is called __________

1. Twenty-three
2. Thirteen

1. Which is more, 9 or 8?

1. 9
2. 8

1. If I give 12 sweets to Musa and 17 to Eze, who has more sweets?

1. Musa
2. Eze

1. If one bundle is called ten, then two bundles (twenty) is 2 tens

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is 8 in local dialect (call the language e.g. Hausa)?
2. Go and bring 3 pieces of chalk
3. Count numbers 1 – 25
4. Write 3
5. Write 4
6. Everyone (a row or pupil at a time) come and pick 30 counters
##### Ø  Revises the previous lesson
1. A number is what tells us how many things we have
2. There are many numbers because we can have many things
3. Each of the many numbers has its special name and way it is written
4. Teacher writes different numbers (one at a time) between 1and 40; then asks the pupils the name of each.
5. Teacher displays chart of numbers 1 – 40, names a number and require a pupil to come point at it on the chart
6. One added to 9 makes a bundle. And a bundle is called ten
7. Ten is written as 10. 11 is called eleven and it means one bundle and one.
8. Two tens (bundles) is called twenty. Twenty is written as 20.
9. Three tens (bundles) is called thirty. Thirty is written as 30.
10. Four tens (bundles) is called forty. Forty is written as 40.
11. Teacher concludes introduction by telling the pupils that they shall learn how to write numbers 9 and 10. After this, s/he explains the objectives for the week and then proceeds as I describe below.

#### Step 2: Recognizing Numbers 1 – 45

Following the introduction, the teacher teaches the pupils how to count and identify numbers 1to 45. S/he first revises numbers 1 – 40 as I discussed in the previous week’s lesson.

##### Numbers 41 – 45

After explaining numbers 40, the teacher continues to numbers 41 – 45 as follows:

###### Number 41
1. The teacher directs each pupil to count 40 counters from the pack – as in the last exercise under introduction – question 20.
2. Thereafter, the teacher confirms the number of counters with each pupil.
3. The teacher gives each of the pupils five bundle packs and directs the pupils to arrange the counters in the packs. When done, they should have 4 completely filled packs.
4. Therefore, the teacher asks the pupils how many counters they have. The pupils may say 4 bundles. In such case, the teacher asks further, what is another name for 4 bundles– i.e. 4 tens or forty.
5. Following this, the teacher tells the pupils that if one already has 40 items and gets one more – s/he distributes one counter each to the pupils; then we say the person now has 4 bundles (tens) and 1. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 4 bundles (tens) and 1 as 41 – 4 and 1 close to each other. And we call it forty-one. S/he pronounces forty-one and makes the pupils to repeat after him/her – several times.
###### Number 42
1. After explaining number 41, the teacher asks the pupils how many counter have they now – the pupils should say 41!
2. Thence, the teacher teaches them that if one has 41 items and gets one more – the teacher distributes one more counter to each of the pupils; then we say the person now has 4 bundles (tens) and 2. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 4tens and 2 as 42 – 4 and 2 close to each other. And we call it forty-two. S/he pronounces forty-two and tells the pupils to repeat after him/her – many times.
###### Number 43 to 45

The teacher repeats the same steps for numbers 43 to 45.

##### Stage Evaluation Question

Before proceeding to the other part of the lesson, the teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding of the concept of numbers 1 – 45. S/he does this by giving the pupils the following oral exercises:

1. The teacher asks the pupils how many counters they have altogether.
2. Two tens are called ____________
3. 40 is called _________
4. 43 is called ___________
5. How do we write 2tens and 4? ___________
6. How is 3tens and 4 called? _______________
7. Franca has 41 oranges. Judith has 31. Who has more? __________
8. Franca gave one of his oranges to Judith. How many has Franca left? How many has Judith now?
9. What is 42 in local dialect?
10. What is forty-four (teacher says in local dialect) in English Language?
11. 4 tens and nothing is called __________
12. Which is greater/less?
13. Circle the greater
14. Teacher asks the pupils to look under their shoes and see their shoe sizes. Then then compare with other pupils.
15. Play Shopping Game:
1. Items – box of model items in children store (that cost not more than N45), model wallet, and model mint in common denomination not more than 45 – i.e. N5, N10 & N20
2. One student acts as storekeeper, when others buy from the student. This will enable them to put the concept of number into practice.

Reminder: For oral questions, you may reword the question into a form that will be easiest understood by the pupils – you may translate to local dialect. But insist the pupils give answers in English except where you want otherwise. That being said, sometimes the pupils may know the answer in local dialect but not in English. You should apply leniency.

##### Revision

After the teacher had finished explaining the concept of the values of number thirty-five, s/he revises the numbers 1 – 45 all over again. The teacher focuses on helping the pupils to identify the numbers, their names and symbols (how each is written) as well as to understand the concept of the value of each.

#### Step 3: Counting Exercise

##### General counting with stand counters

After the revision, the teacher leads the pupils into general counting:

He or she puts up the stand of 45 counters. Then sliding each counter to the other side, s/he together with the pupils, counts until the counters finish from one side. The teacher repeats this by sliding each counter back to the original position and again – several times. The teacher may invite willing pupils to lead the counting by sliding the counters as the entire class counts.

##### Group and Individual Counting

After the general counting, the teacher further strengthens the pupil’s memorization of the names and order of numbers through group counting.

• The teacher groups the pupils into pairs
• Going to each group and while the pupils watch, the teacher counts different number of counters for each pupil
• Then the teacher directs each pupil to count differently given number out of his or her counter and give it to the partner
• Individual pupil counts the new number of counters in their possession and tells the teacher
• The teacher confirms the number then make the pupils to repeat the process – exchange some counters and count
##### Oral Counting without Counters

After the pupils are able to count very well with the counters, the teacher directs them to put the counters away. Then s/he leads them to count orally without using the counters. The teacher and the pupils do this several times. S/he may invite different willing pupils to lead the oral counting as well.

##### Evaluation

The teacher may assess the individual pupil’s counting ability by:

1. Asking them to orally count from a number that s/he states to another
2. Sending them to go and fetch a given number of item for him/her
3. Asking them to count the number of items in the class
4. Pick a currency note (one of N5, N10 and N20), and ask the pupils how much is it.
5. Combine N5 and N10 and ask the pupils how much is the two notes together
6. Get a voluminous book, open to certain page; ask the pupils what page is that?
7. Look out for numbers in everyday life and ask what number there are – clock, shoe size, etc.

#### Step 4: Recognition of the symbols of Numbers 1 – 45

After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each of the numbers has its own way that we write it. Thus, s/he explains that they are now going to learn how to we write each number – 1-45.

Consequently, the teacher starts from zero and forth; explains that:

• Zero means nothing and is written as 0
• One is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 1
• Two is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 2
• Ten (one bundle and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 10.
• Eleven (one bundle and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write 11
• – – –
• Twenty (2 tens and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 20
• Twenty-one (2 ten and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 21
• Twenty-five (2 ten and 5) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 25
• Thirty (3 tens and nothing) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 30.
• Thirty-one (3 and 1) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 31.
• Thirty-five (3 and 5) is a number which means ____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 35.
• Forty (4 tens and nothing) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 40.
• Forty-one (4 and 1) is a number which means _______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 41.
• Forty-five (4 and 5) is a number which means _________ (in local dialect) and we write it as 25.

NOTE: The teacher uses the concrete number models, charts and white/black board to demonstrate each number.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher writes the numbers 1 – 45, serially on the board or uses the large number chart, then points at each number and asks the pupils to name the number – then in reverse, the teacher calls the name of a number then calls pupils to points at each.

The teacher may call the local names of numbers and asks pupils to mention the English equivalents.

Following this, the teacher uses the number chart of 1 – 45, and lead the counting once again – several times. S/he may invite pupils to come, point at the numbers and lead the counting.

##### Evaluation

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ ability to recognize the numbers through physical exercise thus:

S/he places different number of counters into the boxes. Then gives the boxes to the pupils with the number models or cardboard number cut-outs. Thereafter, the teacher directs the pupils to open up each of the boxes, count the number of items in the boxes and then pick the corresponding number model/cut-out and place on/inside the boxes with the counters.

The teacher moves round or collects the boxes, confirms the counters and the number model/cut-out that is in it.

#### Step 5: Copying Numbers 9 and 10

Succeeding the counting/recognition exercises, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall now continue to learn how to write two more numbers – 9 and 10.

The teacher first revises concave (outside) curves as well as vertical and horizontal lines writing patterns. S/he may give the pupils a quick exercise to make the patterns.

REMARK: Take note of the pupils that have difficulty with the patterns. And endeavour to take any child back to the needed prerequisite skills for the writing exercise. DO NOT HOLD THE CHILD’S HANDS – it is outdated. With the right basic skills, most children of 3 to 3.5 years are able to form and write numbers on their own.

Following the writing pattern exercise above, the teacher proceeds with the tracing exercises thus:

##### Copying number 9
1. The teacher identifies the patterns that forms number 9:

Number 9 has two patterns – a curve and a vertical line.

[/vc_column_text][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][vc_single_image image=”3544″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][vc_single_image image=”3545″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_column_text]NOTE: The teacher shows the pupils each concrete pattern as s/he identifies it. Also, the nine could be two curves but the one above will be far easier for the pupils to form.

1. Reminds the pupils how to make and join the patterns to form the number

After the teacher has identified and demonstrated the patterns, s/he explains that to form number nine, they first make the curve; then the a vertical[/vc_column_text][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][vc_single_image image=”3546″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][vc_single_image image=”3547″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_column_text]NOTE: The teacher arranges the concrete patterns to form the number as s/he explains

1. Thereafter, s/he makes the pupils to write the number in the air/on sand
2. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
3. The teacher first supervises the pupils to trace the number individually before letting them do more on their own
4. Then the teacher makes three points at each of the joints/vertexes of the number and asks the pupils to join them with appropriate pattern
5. Succeeding this exercising, the teacher gives the pupils their 2D copying exercise on number 5.
##### Copying Number 10
1. The teacher identifies the patterns that forms the number:

Number ten is two different numbers written close to each other. One is a single vertical line and zero is a closed curve. Zero could also be two curves. 0[/vc_column_text][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][vc_single_image image=”3548″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][vc_single_image image=”3549″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/3″][vc_gallery interval=”3″ images=”3550,3551″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_column_text]NOTE: most children are able to form zero as continuous curve. However, forming it as two curves produces better zero for beginners. You should start with the continuous curve. If you find any child finding it difficult, then you may introduce the child to the two curves.

1. Reminds the pupils how to make and join the patterns to form the number

After the teacher has identified and demonstrated the patterns, s/he explains that to form number ten, first of all make the vertical line, give just a little space and then the zero as I show below:[/vc_column_text][vc_row_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][vc_single_image image=”3552″][/vc_column_inner][vc_column_inner width=”1/2″][vc_single_image image=”3553″][/vc_column_inner][/vc_row_inner][vc_column_text]

1. Thereafter, s/he makes the pupils to write the number in the air/on sand
2. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
3. The teacher first supervises the pupils to trace the number individually before letting them do more on their own
4. Then the teacher makes points at each of the vertexes of the number and asks the pupils to join them with appropriate pattern
5. Succeeding this exercising, the teacher gives the pupils their 2D copying exercise on number 5.

### EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson by giving them the following exercises.

#### Exercise 1: Oral counting

The teacher asks the pupils (either individually or in small groups) to count numbers 1 -45. S/he observes those that may have difficulty pronouncing or missing one or two numbers – so as to help them and/or recommend assistance for their parents.

#### Exercise 2: Recognition of numbers 1 – 45

• The teacher uses a number chart or a handwritten numbers 1 – 45; points at each number and ask individual pupil to name it – then the reverse and randomly.
• The teacher calls the local names of numbers and demands pupils to mention the English equivalents.
• S/he gives the pupils the matching exercise contained in accompanying worksheet.
• Ask the pupils the names of numbers on common surfaces – book pages, clock, currency note, etc.

#### Exercise 3: Numerical Values

• Teacher collects some items (recommended is biscuit or sweet); divides the items into two groups – one being more than the other.
• The teacher asks pupils to count each group; thereafter, reminds the pupil the number of each group, then asks the pupils to pick either the smaller or greater.
• Then the teacher gives the corresponding exercise in the worksheet
• The teacher gives pupils simple ordering of numbers – see worksheet
• Teacher gives pupils greater/less than exercises
1. count and circle the greater/lesser
• Fill in missing number

#### Exercise 4: Copying Exercise

1. The teacher gives the pupils reasonable tracing exercise for number 9, 1 and zero before 10

### CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance.

#### Feedback format:

1. Starts from child’s strength – attentiveness in class, willingness to learn, happiness to participate in activities, participation in class discussion, numbers s/he has mastered – counting, recognition, value, writing, etc.
2. Express optimism in child’s ability to improve in all areas
3. Weak areas – numbers the child finds difficult to count, recall, recognize, conceptualize or write
4. State possible reasons for weakness or assure that the occurrence is natural
5. Suggest how the parents can help

## Introduction to Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 7

I wrote this Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 7 based on the latest Nigerian National 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Primary 3 Teaching Schemes of worked prepared by Education Resource Centre Abuja. Since this scheme is based on the latest 9-YEAR BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM by NERDC, schools and teachers from all 36 states of the federation uses the scheme as well as our lesson notes.  Click here to get the Scheme.

### The Focus of Our Lesson Notes

We pride ourselves as the publisher of Nigeria’s #1 free and most comprehensive lesson guide for teachers. Our lesson notes are absolutely free. Note however that the primary focus of our lesson notes is to present an enriched content for every topic; as well as to provide guidelines for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

Have you heard Mathematics teachers say “I am not here to talk, but to calculate” before? They do so to imply that Mathematics is all about crunching numbers, not giving moral lectures.

But that is where the uniqueness of our lesson notes lies. As professionals, we understand that with every topic in the classroom; there is new knowledge to impart; new skill for the students to acquire; and new moral character to imbibe. This is true for Mathematics as it is for other subjects.

Many teachers are not able to fish out the specific cognitive, physical and moral objectives for every topic. But we are. Hence, you will find in this Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 7 – as in the rest of our lesson note; specific cognitive, psychomotor and affective objectives for the topic. Additionally, we provide professional guidelines on how to deliver the lesson so as to attain each of the objectives.

## Guidelines to Adapting Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6 into you Lesson Plan

I wrote this lesson note in outline of all STANDARD LESSON PLANS. However, I advise teachers that want to use this note for official purpose – i.e. to create the lesson plan which they will submit to their supervisors – to get our PROFESSIONAL LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE. The layout of the template makes it easy for teachers to write a professional lesson plan and easily.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, CLICK HERE TO QUICKLY READ OUR ARTICLE ON THEIR DIFFERENCES.

For a quality blog like ours that pay attention to all important details, we understand that our articles are mostly necessarily lengthy. Hence, starting from May 7, 2021; we added a new feature to make reading of our articles more enjoyable for all our site users.

We henceforth break lengthy articles into pages. As you read, you will be able to navigate between pages and even pick off from where you stopped if you are unable to read everything at once. Accordingly, you will find page numbers at the bottom of every article. You can click on the numbers to move between pages of the articles.

## Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 7

Topic: Standard Measurement of Length

## OBJECTIVES

At the end the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

### A.      Cognitive:

1. State the standard units of length
2. State the standard metric units of length involving mm, cm, m & km
3. Convert between units of length mm, cm, m & km
4. Add and subtract measurements of length in mm, cm, m & km

### B.      Affective

1. Demonstrate the ability to make accurate estimates standard units of length
2. Value the need for standard units

### C.      Psychomotor

1. Measure the lengths of an object using standard methods
2. Construct ruler

## PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

• The pupils can identify a ruler is.
• They can define length; and
• measure/estimate length using non-standard way

# REFERNCE MATERIALS

## ENTRY REQUIREMENT

This lesson assumes that the pupils are able to perform vertical addition and subtraction of ordinary numbers.

## PRESENTATION

### INTRODUCTION

In continuation of the Week 6 lesson, the teacher teaches the pupils the need for, and how to carry out standard measurement (units) of lengths.

S/he begins this by telling them that there are some problems with non-standard measurements of length. Therefore, the teacher asks the pupils’ opinion of possible problems of non-standard measurement of length.

After receiving as many as possible, the teacher lists and explains the following as the problems of non-standard measurement of length and the need for standard measurements – units.

#### 1. Uniformity or Inequality

Because non-standard measurements of length are different from person to person; it makes it difficult to replicate equal measure of length by different people.

The teacher explains this further by referring to the introductory scenarios in week 6 lesson. Ocheme could not replicate goalposts of equal width as Alechenu; just as Nafisat could not replicate exactly the length of rope as the hairdresser.

#### 2. Verifiability

Another problem of non-standard measurement of length is that it is difficult to verify. To verify means to check and see if it is as someone said it is.

For example, if a tailor in Sokoto measures and cut 20 armlength of a piece of cloth and sends it to someone in Port Harcourt; the person in Port-Harcourt may not be able to verify that the piece of cloth is truly 20 armlength since his armlength may not be the same as that of the tailor in Sokoto.

#### 3. Inaccuracy

Non-standard measures of length are not accurate. Accurate means to be exactly equal or the same as one said it is.

If you measure the length of your desk for the first time and opened your fingers very wide; you may get 10 handspans. But if you try measuring the length of the same desk again, you may get 9 ½, 9 ¼, 10 ½ or 10 ¼. This makes non-standard measures of length not to be very accurate.

#### 4. Not Scientific

Something that is not verifiable and not accurate is not scientific. Scientific means something that scientists can use and make. Scientists want something that is very accurate and verifiable.

Because non-standard measurements of length are not scientific, we cannot use them to make things like chairs, fans, windows, desks, duster, board, cars, computer, etc.

But we need to use length to make all these things and even many more things. That is why we need standard measurements of length.

After the forgoing explanations, and any ensuing discussion; the teacher may ask the pupils the following questions as revision:

#### Stage Evaluation Questions

1. What is length?
2. Mention 3 non-standard ways of measuring length
3. John is 3 years old. And James is 7 years old. John measured the length of their dining table and it is 20 cubits. But James measured the same dining table and got 17. Both of them have been arguing that they are correct
4. a) Who do you think is correct?
5. b) How will you settle the argument?
6. Mention 4 problems of non-standard measurements of length
7. Mention 3 reasons why we need standard measurement of length

### Step 2: Standard (Units) Measures of Length

Succeeding the revision as in the stage evaluation questions above, the teacher informs the pupils that they shall from then learn how to measure length in the standard way.

#### Meaning of Standard (Units) Measures of Length

First, the teacher explains that standard measurement of length is the measurement of length that is accepted and the same all over the world.

The teacher continues that in standard measurement, there are sta2ndard sizes of length and instruments for measuring these sizes. To conclude the preliminary explanation, the teacher reveals that the standard sizes have names to make it very easy for people to know the size whenever it is mentioned. Each of the named sizes of length is called the unit of length.

#### Standard (S.I) Unit of Length

Thereafter, showing the meter rule, the teacher tells the pupils that that is the size (measure or unit) of length that is accepted all over the world – this is known as the S.I (Système International) unit of length.  S/he also explains that that size (unit) of length is called a meter (one meter). The short form of meter is m. Hence, 1m = 1 meter.

Therefore, whenever anyone in the world say 1 meter of wood, glass or clothe, people that understands SI units will also know how long the material they talking about is.

The teacher may concretize this concept by asking the pupils if they have ever seen a real one-meter-long candy/biscuit before. Repeat this for as many common objects as possible: a meter-long phone, key, desk, TV, Radio, Speaker, bread, book, pencil, pen, etc.

#### Other Units of Length

To conclude the discussion on the units of length, the teacher explains that some things are several thousand meters and other things are far less than a meter.

For example, it is difficult to say the length of one’s fingers in meters because fingers are far less than a meter.

Consequently, there are divisions of meter to use in standard measurement of length. These include:

##### 1. Millimetre –

Millimetre is the length you get when you divide 1 meter into 1000 equal places. The teacher shows the pupils the equivalent of a millimetre on a ruler. S/he tells the pupils to bring out their ruler. Then, the teacher shows them the millimetre graduation scale and the amount of gap equivalent to 1 millimetre.

The teacher may help the pupils in further conceptualizing the size of millimetre by asking them to guess how many millimetres make up objects. The teacher applauds probable guesses and allows for retry for non-probable guesses.

S/he finalizes on millimetre by revealing that the short form of millimetre is mm.

##### 2. Centimetre

Centimetre is the length that you get when you divide 1 metre into 100 equal parts. The teacher shows the pupils the equivalent of 1 centimetre on a ruler. S/he tells the pupils to bring out their ruler. Then, the teacher shows them the centimetre graduation scale and the amount of gap equivalent to 1 centimetre.

The teacher may help the pupils in further conceptualizing the size of centimetre by asking them to guess how many centimetres make up objects. The teacher applauds probable guesses and allows for retry for non-probable guesses.

S/he finalizes on centimetre by revealing that the short form of centimetre is cm.

##### 3. Kilometre

Kilometre is the length that you get when you put 1000 metres together – i.e. when you multiply 1m by 1000.

The teacher helps the pupils to conceptualize the size of kilometre by giving them instances of the distance between two places that the teacher knows will be within 1 kilometre.

Alternatively, if there are marked measurements of up to 1km within the school, the teacher may refer to it.

Succeeding, teacher may help the pupils in further conceptualizing the size of kilometre by asking them to guess how many kilometres will the distance between given places will be. The teacher applauds probable guesses and allows for retry for non-probable guesses.

#### Metric Charts of Length

Following the identification of the standard units of length, the teacher leads the pupils to memorize the metric units.

First, s/he engages the pupils in a brainteasing exercise with the following questions:

1. If 1mm is 1m divided into 1000; and 1cm is 1m divided into 100; how many mm makes 1cm?
2. How many cm makes 1 metre?
3. If 1km is 1m times 1000; and 1cm is 1m divided into 100; how many cm makes 1km?

Eventually, the teacher displays the metric chart of length. Then, s/he makes the pupils to read/recite the charts any times:

The unit of length is centimetre (cm):

1000m = 1km

1m  100 = 1cm

1m  1000 = 1mm

10mm = 1cm

100cm = 1m

1000m = 1km

#### Stage Evaluation Questions

Before the teacher continues to the remaining part of the lesson, s/he assesses the pupils’ understanding of the concepts in this stage. S/he does this by asking them the following questions:

1. What is the full meaning of S.I?
2. The measurements of length that is accepted and the same all over the world are called ______
3. What is the S.I unit of length?
4. Which unit of length is abbreviated as cm?
5. In units of length, m­m means ___________ while km means ___________
6. A metre in a 1000 place is called _______________________
7. One part of a metre shared into 1000 parts is called ______________
8. How many centimetres make a metre?
9. How many millimetres make a metre?
10. _____________ metres make a kilometre

### Step 3: Instruments for Standard Measurement of Length

To continue the lesson, the teacher teaches the instruments for standard measurement of length. S/he begins by initiating discussion – in non-standard measurement of length, we use arm to know the length in cubit or armlength; legs for foot/feet & pace; and fingers to know the length in handspan. But how do we know how many millimetres, centimetres, metres or kilometres are there in a given (measurement of) length?

Succeeding the resulting discussion, the teacher explains that there are different instruments for measuring lengths in standard way. These include:

1. Ruler
2. Tape

Thereafter, the teacher shows and explains the graduation of each to the pupils. Afterwards, /she teaches the pupils how to use ruler to measure length:

1. Pick the object that you want to measure. Or mark off the points that you want to measure.

1. Pick the ruler and identify the side with the graduated unit of measurement that you intend to use. Then note the origin of the unit.

1. Accurately place the mark of origin on one point of the object that you want to measure. Do this such that the other side of the ruler lies on the remaining part of the object.

Avoid reading error by looking directly on the measurement instead of from an angle.

The teacher practically demonstrates this by using ruler to measure the length of different objects for the pupils to see.

#### Group Activity

Once the teacher has demonstrated how to use ruler for the class to see, s/he groups the pupils. Then calling the attention of the group leaders, s/he repeats the demonstration once again.

Finally, s/he gives an item to each pupil and directs the group leaders to lead the members in measuring and recording the length of their items. The group leader and/or other members are to verify each member’s reading before such a member records the reading.

#### Stage evaluation exercise

After the group activity, the teacher gives the pupils individual activities:

1. Use your ruler to measure and label the length of the following lines in centimetres (cm):

2) Use your ruler to measure and label the length of the following lines in millimetres (mm):

3) Write all your answers from 1 and 2 above in the table below. Compare the measurements then complete the table:

 Measurement from 1 (cm) Measurement from 2 (mm) a b c d Now study the patterns of your measurement above and complete the following 8 cm _______________________________mm _________________cm 50mm 10 cm _______________________________mm _________________ cm 100mm

4) Use the diagram below with your ruler to measure and record/answer the questions that follows:

The length from:

1. M to N = ______________________________
2. L to M = ______________________________
• L to N = _______________________________
1. W to X = ______________________________
2. X to Y = ______________________________
3. Y to Z = _______________________________
• P to Q = ______________________________
• P to R = ______________________________

SELECT THE CORRECT OPTION IN THE FOLLOWING

Which of the following is correctly the height of the building?

1. W to Z
2. W to X
3. X to Y
4. Y to Z

The width of the door is ______________

1. RS
2. PR
3. QS
4. QR

### Step 4: Estimating Standard Measurement of Length

Following step 3, the teacher guides the pupils to estimate standard measurement of length as in the following steps:

1. Revise the meaning of estimation from the previous week
2. Pick the object to estimate
• Look at the size of the standard unit
1. Imaginatively mark the size standard unit along the object
2. Count the imaginary markings and write down the result
3. Carryout the actual measurement of the object and tabulate your readings as in the table below
 Item/Object My estimate Actual measurement The difference

The teacher does this estimation on different objects for the pupils to see. Thereafter, s/he groups the pupils and make them estimate standard measurement of length in group as they did for non-standard measurement of length.

#### Stage Evaluation

Before proceeding to the remaining part of the lesson, the gives the pupils the following exercises either as individual homework or classwork to assess their understanding:

1. Page 145 of MAN Mathematics Book 3
2. Using a pair of dividers, your fountain pen, a ruler, a plywood, sand paper, hand saw and the instruction below; create and graduate a ruler in cm.
##### Instruction
1. Use the hand saw to cut the plywood to the size of a ruler – 15cm or 30cm
2. Choose the smooth side of the plywood and use the sand paper to smoothen it further
• Pick the pair of dividers and extend it against 1cm gap on the ruler
1. Keep the extension the same and mark off the same gaps on the plywood to create the graduation
2. Use the fountain pen to trace the markings/graduation
3. Write your name at the opposite side of your new ruler.

The teacher may demonstrate this with the pupils prior to the individual project

## Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6

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## Introduction to Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6

I wrote this Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6 based on the latest Nigerian National 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Primary 3 Teaching Schemes of worked prepared by Education Resource Centre Abuja. Since this scheme is based on the latest 9-YEAR BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM by NERDC, schools and teachers from all 36 states of the federation uses the scheme as well as our lesson notes.  Click here to get the Scheme.

### The Focus of Our Lesson Notes

We pride ourselves as the publisher of Nigeria’s #1 free and most comprehensive lesson guide for teachers. Our lesson notes are absolutely free. Note however that the primary focus of our lesson notes is to present an enriched content for every topic; as well as to provide guidelines for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

Have you heard Mathematics teachers say “I am not here to talk, but to calculate” before? They do so to imply that Mathematics is all about crunching numbers, not giving moral lectures.

But that is where the uniqueness of our lesson notes lies. As professionals, we understand that with every topic in the classroom; there is new knowledge to impart; new skill for the students to acquire; and new moral character to imbibe. This is true for Mathematics as it is for other subjects.

Many teachers are not able to fish out the specific cognitive, physical and moral objectives for every topic. But we are. Hence, you will find in this Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6 – as in the rest of our lesson note; specific cognitive, psychomotor and affective objectives for the topic. Additionally, we provide professional guidelines on how to deliver the lesson so as to attain each of the objectives.

## Guidelines to Adapting Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6 into you Lesson Plan

I wrote this lesson note in outline of all STANDARD LESSON PLANS. However, I advise teachers that want to use this note for official purpose – i.e. to create the lesson plan which they will submit to their supervisors – to get our PROFESSIONAL LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE. The layout of the template makes it easy for teachers to write a professional lesson plan and easily.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, CLICK HERE TO QUICKLY READ OUR ARTICLE ON THEIR DIFFERENCES.

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We henceforth break lengthy articles into pages. As you read, you will be able to navigate between pages and even pick off from where you stopped if you are unable to read everything at once. Accordingly, you will find page numbers at the bottom of every article. You can click on the numbers to move between pages of the articles.

## Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6

Topic: Length, making estimates of lengths and distances

## OBJECTIVES

At the end the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

### A.      Cognitive:

1. Define length
2. Differentiate between length and distance

### B.      Affective

1. Demonstrate the ability to make accurate estimates non-standard units of length
2. Value other people’s opinion

### C.      Psychomotor

1. Measure the lengths of an object using non-standard methods

## PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The pupils know what a ruler is. The boys might have measured the length of goalposts & line of defence in domestic football. While the girls have measured the length of plaiting thread.

# REFERNCE MATERIALS

Mathematical Association of Nigeria (MAN). (2008). MAN Primary Mathematics UBE Edition Book 3. Ibadan: University Press Plc.

## ENTRY REQUIREMENT

This lesson assumes that the pupils are able to perform vertical addition and subtraction of ordinary numbers.

## PRESENTATION

The teacher presents this Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6 – in order of steps as follows:

### Step 1:  Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher begins from the previous knowledge. S/he does this by presenting the following scenarios – each for boys and girls.

#### Boys Scenario:

Once, some ten boys went to play football. They decided to have two teams of five members each. For each team, one member will be the goalkeeper. Four people will play from each side. The goalkeeper of the first team is called Alechenu. And the goalkeeper of the second side is called Ocheme.

They went to the field. But there were no goalposts. So, each goalkeeper made the goalpost of 12 feet for their team.

When it was half-time, the other team scored Alechenu 5 goals. But Ocheme did not concede even a goal. Immediately the game began after half-time, they scored Ocheme 2 goals. So, Ocheme wondered why they were now scoring him easily. He later found out that the goalposts in their new side are wider than those of their previous side. Hence, Ocheme raised alarm. The two teams game together. They checked the goalposts at both sides. And they confirmed that it was true. The goalposts were not equal. There was disagreement.

Alechenu’s team said the earlier 5 goals against them must be cancelled. But Ocheme’s side refused.

##### Questions:
1. The goalposts at both sides are 2 feet each. Why was one wider than the other?
2. After Ocheme raised alarm, the players confirmed that the goalposts were not equal. How do you think the players did this?
3. How can they players have made goalposts that are exactly equal?

#### Girls Scenario:

Once, Ogwa went to plait her hair. The hairdresser gave her the thread to hold and cut for her. Ogwa cut the first set of thread and gave them to the hairdresser. But the hairdresser said it was too short. Then, Ogwa cut the second set of thread longer than the first set. She gave the second set to the hairdresser. Yet, the hairdresser said the second set of thread were too long.

So, the hairdresser showed Ogwa how she wants the thread to be using her armlength. Once Ogwa cut the thread at her armlength, there were still not up to the ones the hairdresser cut.

##### Questions:
1. Both Ogwa and the hairdresser cut the thread at an armlength. Why were the threads not equal?
2. How can Ogwa cut thread that is exactly equal to the hairdresser’s?

After the discussion that will ensue from the pupils’ attempts to answer the questions, the teacher informs the pupils that they shall in the week’s lessons; learn how to accurately measure the length of an object. Thereafter, the teacher writes/projects the topic on the board and explains the lesson objectives to the pupils

### Step 2: Meaning of Length and Distance

To continue the lesson, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall begin with the meaning of length & distance. Hence, the teacher asks the pupils’ opinion of the meaning and differences between both.

After receiving several attempts, the teacher thoroughly explains the meaning and differences between length and distance is as simple terms as possible as below:

Length is the amount of gap between the beginning and the end of an object or the amount of gap between two points along the longest side of an object.

#### Examples of Length

Teacher illustrates the meaning of length with examples such as the following:

1. The length of a pencil is the gap between the beginning and the end of the pencil.
2. The length of the board is the amount of gap from the beginning to the end of the board.
3. We can measure the length (amount of gap) from the beginning to the end of middle of a desk.
4. There is the length of one’s trousers from waist to the feet.

#### Activity 1

After the teacher had thoroughly explained the meaning of length with many examples, s/he gives the pupils this activity:

##### Stage Evaluation Questions
1. Invite pupils to step forward to place their hands to show the length of a given object – duster, desk, piece of chalk, stick, shoes, piece of cloth, door, window, etc. – note that length is along the longest side of the object.
2. Exercise: Following the physical activity in (1) above, the teacher gives the pupils these simple exercises in their workbook.

Instruction: Draw a straight line to show the length of each of these items:

1. Fish
2. Earthworm
3. Belt
4. Bottle
5. Block
6. Extension box
7. Eraser
8. Pineapple
9. Boy
10. Height

#### Differences between Length and Distance

Soon as the teacher ascertains that the pupils have understood the meaning of length, s/he differentiates between length and distance thus:

Length and distance are similar but slightly different. Length is the amount of gap between two points along the longest part of an object. Whereas, distance is mostly the amount of gap from one place to another. In a nutshell, distance is a longer length (amount of gap) between two points while length is a short amount of gap between two points.

##### Exercise

Succeeding the explanation above, the teacher carries out the following activities with the pupils:

Instruction: state whether each of the following amount of gap is a length or distance

1. The gap from one end of a piece of cloth to the other end.
2. Amount of gap from Lagos to Enugu.
3. Amount of gap between ends of a biscuit
4. The amount of gap from one block of classroom to another block in the school.
5. Amount of gap around or between the ends of the school football field. Etc.

In addition to the forgoing explanation, the teacher teaches the pupils the meaning of the following associated terms:

Width – is the amount of gap across and object from one side to the other. Width may mean the same thing as breadth.

Height – is the amount of gap from the top to the bottom of an object.

##### Exercise

The teacher follows the preceding with exercises for pupils to identify the length, width and height of different real objects. I recommend that the teacher uses cubes and cuboids.

### Step 3: How to measure Length

After the exercise on the meaning of length, the teacher applauds the progress of the pupils. Thereafter, the teacher asks how we may measure the length of an object. S/he receives as many attempts as possible. Subsequently, the teacher explains that there are many ways of measuring length. These many ways of measuring length are grouped int two categories:

1. Non-standard means of measuring length; and
2. Standard means of measuring length.

#### Non-Standard Measurement of Length

S/he explains further that non-standard ways of measuring length are the ways whose result may not be the same for everybody but may be different from one person (that measured the length) to another. This is because it involves the use of body parts that may be longer or shorter from person to person.

Non-standard Measures of Length includes:

Handspan
 Non-standard unit of Length – Handspan – Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
Cubit
 Non-standard unit of Length – cubit – Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
Armlength, arm span or fathom
 Non-standard unit of Length – armlength or fathom- Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
Foot length
Pace

The teacher explains what each of the above means. Then, s/he demonstrates and guides the pupils to measure given items by each of the methods.

Board – handspan

Rope – armlength

Length of classroom – foot

Distance from one classroom block to another – pace

Desk – cubit

#### Activity 1

The teacher groups the pupils. Then, s/he shows the class how to measure the objects I have mentioned above using the stated non-standard ways. S/he also teaches the pupils to tabulate his measurements. Then makes each group leader to do the same after the teacher. Each group leader should also record their measurements.

So, at the end; the tabulated measurements should be as follows:

##### Desk
Teacher15 hs5ams25fts10pcs3cubits

#### Activity 2: Group

Succeeding activity 1 above, the pupils separates into their various groups with the group leader. Then, for each group; the leader leads the group members to do their own measurements. The leader tabulates the measurements as follows. Thereafter, the group members copy the record into their notes.

Group member 1
Group member 2
Group member n

### Step 4: Analysis of Reports and Valuing Individual Differences

In continuation of the lesson, after the teacher had marked the pupils reports from the previous activity; s/he once again draw the pupils’ attention to the differences in the reading. The teacher enquires why the readings are different despite that all the members of the same group measured the same item.

After receiving attempts/answers; s/he reiterates that the readings are different because the means the pupils used to measure the length of the objects depends on the size of the individual’s legs and hands – which are different. And because these means yield different results; we say handspan, cubit, armlength, foot and pace are non-standard means of measuring length.

In addition, the teacher hinges on the difference in measurement to teach the pupils the value of individual differences as follows.

#### Valuing Individual Differences

The teacher displays the tabulated non-standard measurements of length with the group leaders. Then s/he explains the uniqueness in the differences of every individual.

The teacher teaches that we are all different from all other people in many ways such as shown in the table. These individual differences are what make every human being unique (special). We are all special in our sizes – sizes of our body parts; in how we do things; in what we like and what we do not like; in what we think; in how we speak; in our environment, languages, culture and religions.

##### No superiority in difference

Nobody is bad or backward because of these differences that make us special. When people ask or interact with other people; they do so with their differences. Therefore, do not expect everybody to answer or relate with you in the same way. Instead, expect different answers and different way of interaction with different people. This is because we are different and special.

Do not laugh at anybody because of how they answer questions or interact. Son not easily get offended by other people’s differences. Instead, always remember your own differences – your culture; your religion; and the good behaviours you have learned from your home, churches, mosques and school. So that when you see someone behaving in a way that you know is bad, you can help the person.

Every society put laws and norms to help us know when someone’s behaviour is bad – that is, bad differences. You can help people to solve the problem of their differences that are not good in two ways:

1. Talking to them if they are not dangerous or can overpower us
2. Telling a trusted adult like teachers and parents to help them

When you want to talk to them, tell that them that you had learned that what they are doing is not good. Then tell them why it is not good. And if they continue to do the bad thing, you should tell an adult. If they will not stop their bad behaviour; you may stop interacting with them so that they won’t teach you the bad behaviour as well.

#### Affirmation

After the talk, the teacher makes the pupils to copy and affirm the following sentences, several times:

I am different. I am special

Everybody is different. Everybody is special.

I will always contribute my answer even if it is different.

I will also allow everybody to contribute their answer even if it is different.

Because we are all different. And we are all special

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ assimilation of this by constantly observing how the pupils adjust in allowing their mates’ opinion during subsequent class discussion.

### Step 4: Estimating Non-Standard Measurement of Length

Following step 3 above, the teacher teaches the pupils how to estimate non-standard measurement of length.

First, s/he explains that to estimate means to make calculated guess of the measure of an item. For example, we can estimate the number of people in a room after we hear their voices. Also, after we count how many times a pupil drank water on Monday, Tuesday & Wednesday; we can estimate how many times such pupil will drink water on Thursday.

Same also is estimating non-standard measurement of length. If we know the size of our handspan, cubit, armlength, foot and pace; we can estimate/calculate/guess the non-standard length of an object.

Succeeding this, the teacher displays some objects and demonstrate how to estimate to the pupils:

1. Pick or observe the object
2. Look at the non-standard measure
3. Imaginatively mark the non-standard measure along the object
4. Count the imaginary markings

After this, the teacher leads the pupils in estimating his/her length measurement of the objects at hand. Thereafter, the teacher performs the actual measurement and compares the accuracy of the estimation.

#### Group Activity

The teacher guides the pupils to carryout the non-standard estimation of length in groups:

1. Group the pupils into 5 – 10
3. Demonstrate how to estimate to the pupils
 NAME Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Estimate Actual Estimate Actual Estimate Actual

## SUMMARY of Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6

Prior to ending the lesson on Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6; the teacher summarizes the entire class which s/he reviews with the pupils.

1. Length is the amount of gap between the beginning and the end of an object or the amount of gap between two points along the longest side of an object.
2. Length and distance are similar but slightly different. Length is the amount of gap between two points along the longest part of an object. Whereas, distance is mostly the amount of gap from one place to another. In a nutshell, distance is a longer length (amount of gap) between two points while length is a short amount of gap between two points.
3. Width – is the amount of gap across and object from one side to the other. Width may mean the same thing as breadth.
4. Height – is the amount of gap from the top to the bottom of an object.
5. There are many ways of measuring length. All the ways are grouped into two categories. These are the standard and the non-standard categories of measuring length.
6. Non-standard ways of measuring length are the ways whose result may not be the same for everybody but may be different from one person (that measured the length) to another.
7. The non-standard ways of measuring length include handspan, cubit, armlength, foot, and pace.
8. Measurement of length using non-standard ways give different result because we are different. And our individual differences make us special.
9. Estimation means the calculated guess of the measure of an item.

## EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding of the lesson by asking them questions based on the lesson; giving them practical exercises as well as exercises from their recommended textbooks.

## CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by marking the pupils’ note, recording their scores and providing adequate feedback. Thereafter, s/he links the current topic to the following week’s topic. To do this, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall in the following week discuss standard measurement of length.

## Introduction to Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 7

I wrote this Lesson Note Nursery 1 First Term Mathematics Week 7; based on the Nigerian National Early Childhood Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Pre-Primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed. However, this scheme is the same as those of the other 36 states’ education resource development centre. Nonetheless, I only crosschecked this topic in that of Lagos, Kano and FCT only. Regardless, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National Curriculum.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this Lesson Note Nursery 1 First Term Mathematics Week 7; is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson note, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in Mathematics as NERDC specified

Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor.

### How to adapt Lesson Note Nursery 1 First Term Mathematics Week 7

I wrote this lesson note Nursery 1 First Term Mathematics Week 7; in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this notes for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to follow this guideline to writing standard lesson plan. To make it faster, click here to get my lesson plan template for N300 only or click here to chat with me on WhatsApp.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, quickly read this article on their differences.

## OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• Cognitive:
• Count numbers 1 – 40
• Identify numbers 1 – 40
• Psychomotor:
• Trace numbers 9 & 10
• Affective
• Demonstrate/internalize the concept of numerical values of numbers 1 – 40

## Previous Knowledge

The pupils had in the previous terms learned the following:

1. Meaning of number
2. Patterns of writing numbers
3. Copying numbers 7 & 8
4. Counting & identification of numbers 1 – 40

## INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Concrete writing patterns or equivalent cardboard cut-outs for vertical, horizontal, convex and concave
2. Number models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-outs – consisting of several 1’s through 9’s including 0’s
3. Stand counters of 40 beads
4. Several counters – bottle covers, blocks, pebbles, etc. in bundles of 10. I recommend bottle covers in tens packed into an improvised container that can contain no more than 10 counters – 4 (i.e. 40) for each pupil
5. Chalk/Marker and black/white board
6. Number charts of 1 – 40
7. Several (carton) boxes for each pupil

## REFERENCES

1. Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre (ERC).
2. Kano Education Resource Department (KERD) (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department.
3. Lagos State Ministry of Education (OEQA) (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
4. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). (2012). Mathematics Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).
5. ## PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:

### Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher does the following:

• Writes the topic on the board
• #### Ø  Orally asks the pupils questions based on the previous lesson

1. What we say or write to tell people how many things we have is called ___

1. Number
2. Story

1. We have _____ numbers/How many numbers do we have?

1. 5
2. Many

1. Every number has different name and how to write it

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is nothing (in local dialect) in English?

1. Zero
2. One

1. How do we write zero?

1. 0
2. 2

1. One bundle of number is called ___________

1. Ten
2. Seven

1. How do we write one bundle and nothing?

1. 10
2. 13

1. Two bundles or two tens are called ____________

1. Twenty
2. Ten

1. 25 is called ____________

1. Fifteen
2. Twenty-five

1. 18 is called __________

1. Eighteen
2. Seventeen

1. Two tens and 3 is called __________

1. Twenty-three
2. Thirteen

1. Which is more, 9 or 8?

1. 9
2. 8

1. If I give 12 sweets to Musa and 17 to Eze, who has more sweets?

1. Musa
2. Eze

1. If one bundle is called ten, then two bundles (twenty) is 2 tens

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is 8 in local dialect (call the language e.g. Hausa)?
2. Go and bring 3 pieces of chalk
3. Count numbers 1 – 25
4. Write 3
5. Write 4
6. Everyone (a row or pupil at a time) come and pick 30 counters

#### Ø  Revises the previous lesson

1. A number is what tells us how many things we have
2. There are many numbers because we can have many things
3. Each of the many numbers has its special name and way it is written
4. Teacher writes different numbers (one at a time) between 1and 35; then asks the pupils the name of each.
5. Teacher displays chart of numbers 1 – 35, names a number and require a pupil to come point at it on the chart
6. One added to 9 makes a bundle. And a bundle is called ten
7. Ten is written as 10. 11 is called eleven and it means one bundle and one.
8. Two tens (bundles) is called twenty. Twenty is written as 20.
9. Three tens (bundles) is called thirty. Thirty is written as 30.
10. Teacher concludes introduction by telling the pupils that they shall learn how to write numbers 7 and 8. After this, s/he explains the objectives for the week and then proceeds as I describe below.

### Recognizing Numbers 1 – 40

Following the introduction, the teacher teaches the pupils how to count and identify numbers 1to 30. S/he first revises numbers 1 – 35 as I discussed in the previous week’s lesson.

#### Numbers 36 – 40

After explaining numbers 35, the teacher continues to numbers 36 – 35 as follows:

##### Number 36
1. The teacher directs each pupil to count 35 counters from the pack – as in the last exercise under introduction – question 20.
2. Thereafter, the teacher confirms the number of counters with each pupil.
3. The teacher gives each of the pupils four bundle packs and directs the pupils to arrange the counters in the packs. When done, they should have 3 filled packs and one half-filled pack.
4. Therefore, the teacher asks the pupils how many counters they have. The pupils may say 3 bundles and a half (or 5). In such case, the teacher asks further, what is another name for 3 bundles and 5– i.e. 3 tens and five or thirty-five.
5. Following this, the teacher tells the pupils that if one already has 35 items – s/he distributes one counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 3 bundles (tens) and 6. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 3 bundles (tens) and 6 as 36 – 3 and 6 close to each other. And we call it thirty-six. S/he pronounces thirty-one and makes the pupils to repeat after him/her – several times.
##### Number 37
1. After explaining number 36, the teacher asks the pupils how many counter have they now – the pupils should say 36!
2. Thence, the teacher teaches them that if one has 36 items and gets one more – the teacher distributes one more counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 3 bundles (tens) and 7. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 3tens and 7 as 37 – 3 and 7 close to each other. And we call it thirty-seven. S/he pronounces thirty-seven and tells the pupils to repeat after him/her – many times.
##### Number 38 & 39

The teacher repeats the same steps for numbers 33 to 35.

##### Number 40
1. After the teacher has finished explaining number 39. S/he directs the pupils to arrange the 9 counters left in the fourth bundle pack.
2. Once the pupils have finished arranging, the teacher asks whether the pack is completely filled. The pupils should probably notice that the pack can still take one more counter. Hence, the teacher explains that since the fourth pack is not completely filled, they cannot say 4 bundles just yet. Instead, they count and say the incomplete counters individually – the teacher directs them to unpack the incomplete counters and count it once again. After counting it as nine, the teacher reminds them that they have 3 bundles and 9 – which is the same as 3tens and 9 or thirty-nine.
3. Thereafter, the gives each of the pupils one more counter. After that, s/he directs them to refill the fourth bundle pack once more. Once the pupils have finished filling the fourth pack, the teacher asks the pupils if it is completely filled. The pupils should answer yes.
4. Hence, the teacher explains that since the four pack is now completely filled and there is nothing left, we say the total number of counters is 4 bundles and nothing. And 4 bundles are the same thing as four tens. S/he concludes that we write 4tens and nothing as 40 – 4 and 0 close to each other – and call it as forty.
5. Thence, the teacher pronounces forty and makes the pupils to repeat after him/her several times.

#### Stage Evaluation Question

Before proceeding to the other part of the lesson, the teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding of the concept of numbers 1 – 40. S/he does this by giving the pupils the following oral exercises:

1. The teacher asks the pupils how many counters they have altogether.
2. Two tens are called ____________
3. How do we write 3tens and 4? ___________
4. How is 3tens and 4 called? _______________
5. Emeka has 31 oranges. Inogwu has 28. Who has more? __________
6. Emeka gave one of his oranges to Inogwu. How many has Emeka left? How many has Inogwu now?
7. What is 35 in local dialect?
8. What is twenty-five (teacher says in local dialect) in English Language?
9. 4 tens and nothing is called __________
10. Which is greater/less?
11. Circle the greater
12. Teacher asks the pupils to look under their shoes and see their shoe sizes. Then then compare with other pupils.
13. Play Shopping Game:
1. Items – box of model items in children store (that cost not more than N40), model wallet, and model mint in common denomination not more than 40 – i.e. N5, N10 & N20
2. One student acts as storekeeper, when others buy from the student. This will enable them to put the concept of number into practice.

#### Reminder:

Questions 1 – 8 are oral. You may reword the question into a form that will be easiest understood by the pupils – you may translate to local dialect. But insist the pupils give answers in English except where you want otherwise. That being said, sometimes the pupils may know the answer in local dialect but not in English. You should apply leniency.

#### Revision

After the teacher had finished explaining the concept of the values of number thirty-five, s/he revises the numbers 1 – 35 all over again. The teacher focuses on helping the pupils to identify the numbers, their names and symbols (how each is written) as well as to understand the concept of the value of each.

### Counting Exercise

#### General counting with stand counters

After the revision, the teacher leads the pupils into general counting:

He or she puts up the stand of 40 counters. Then sliding each counter to the other side, s/he together with the pupils, counts until the counters finish from one side. The teacher repeats this by sliding each counter back to the original position and again – several times. The teacher may invite willing pupils to lead the counting by sliding the counters as the entire class counts.

#### Group and Individual Counting

After the general counting, the teacher further strengthens the pupil’s memorization of the names and order of numbers through group counting.

• The teacher groups the pupils into pairs
• Going to each group and while the pupils watch, the teacher counts different number of counters for each pupil
• Then the teacher directs each pupil to count differently given number out of his or her counter and give it to the partner
• Individual pupil counts the new number of counters in their possession and tells the teacher
• The teacher confirms the number then make the pupils to repeat the process – exchange some counters and count

#### Oral Counting without Counters

After the pupils are able to count very well with the counters, the teacher directs them to put the counters away. Then s/he leads them to count orally without using the counters. The teacher and the pupils do this several times. S/he may invite different willing pupils to lead the oral counting as well.

### Evaluation

The teacher may assess the individual pupil’s counting ability by:

1. Asking them to orally count from a number that s/he states to another
2. Sending them to go and fetch a given number of item for him/her
3. Asking them to count the number of items in the class

### Recognition of the symbols of Numbers 1 – 40

After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each of the numbers has its own way that we write it. Thus, s/he explains that they are now going to learn how to we write each number – 1-40.

Consequently, the teacher starts from zero and forth; explains that:

• Zero means nothing and is written as 0
• One is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 1
• Two is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 2
• Ten (one bundle and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 10.
• Eleven (one bundle and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write 11
• – – –
• Twenty (2 tens and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 20
• Twenty-one (2 ten and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 21
• Twenty-five (2 ten and 5) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 25
• Thirty (3 tens and nothing) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 30.
• Thirty-one (3 and 1) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 31.
• Thirty-five (3 and 5) is a number which means ____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 35.
• Forty (4 tens and nothing) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 40.

#### Succeeding

the explanation, the teacher writes the numbers 1 – 40, serially on the board or uses the large number chart, then points at each number and asks the pupils to name the number – then in reverse, the teacher calls the name of a number then calls pupils to points at each.

The teacher may call the local names of numbers and asks pupils to mention the English equivalents.

Following this, the teacher uses the number chart of 1 – 40, and lead the counting once again – several times. S/he may invite pupils to come, point at the numbers and lead the counting.

#### Evaluation

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ ability to recognize the numbers through physical exercise thus:

S/he places different number of counters into the boxes. Then gives the boxes to the pupils with the number models or cardboard number cut-outs. Thereafter, the teacher directs the pupils to open up each of the boxes, count the number of items in the boxes and then pick the corresponding number model/cut-out and place on/inside the boxes with the counters.

The teacher moves round or collects the boxes, confirms the counters and the number model/cut-out that is in it.

### Tracing Numbers 9 and 10

Succeeding the counting/recognition exercises, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall now continue to learn how to write two more numbers – 9 and 10.

The teacher first revises concave (outside) curves as well as vertical and horizontal lines writing patterns. S/he may give the pupils a quick exercise to make the patterns.

REMARK: Take note of the pupils that have difficulty with the patterns. And endeavour to take any child back to the needed prerequisite skills for the writing exercise. DO NOT HOLD THE CHILD’S HANDS – it is outdated. With the right basic skills, most children of 3 to 3.5 years are able to form and write numbers on their own.

Following the writing pattern exercise above, the teacher proceeds with the tracing exercises thus:

#### Tracing number 9

1. ##### The teacher identifies the patterns that form number 9:

Number 9 has two patterns – a curve and a vertical line.

NOTE: The teacher shows the pupils each concrete pattern as s/he identifies it. Also, the nine could be two curves but the one above will be far easier for the pupils to form.

##### Reminds the pupils how to make and join the patterns to form the number

After the teacher has identified and demonstrated the patterns, s/he explains that to form number nine, they first make the curve; then the a vertical.

NOTE: The teacher arranges the concrete patterns to form the number as s/he explains

1. Thereafter, s/he makes the pupils to write the number in the air/on sand
2. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
3. The teacher first supervises the pupils to trace the number individually before letting them do more on their own

#### Tracing Number 10

##### The teacher identifies the patterns that forms the number:

Number ten is two different numbers written close to each other. One is a single vertical line and zero is a closed curve. Zero could also be two curves:

NOTE: most children are able to form zero as continuous curve. However, forming it as two curves produces better zero for beginners. You should start with the continuous curve. If you find any child finding it difficult, then you may introduce the child to the two curves.

##### Reminds the pupils how to make and join the patterns to form the number

After the teacher has identified and demonstrated the patterns, s/he explains that to form number ten, first of all make the vertical line, give just a little space and then the zero as I show below:

or

1. Thereafter, s/he makes the pupils to write the number in the air/on sand
2. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
3. The teacher first supervises the pupils to trace the number individually before letting them do more on their own

## EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson by giving them the following exercises.

### Exercise 1: Oral counting

The teacher asks the pupils (either individually or in small groups) to count numbers 1 -40. S/he observes those that may have difficulty pronouncing or missing one or two numbers – so as to help them and/or recommend assistance for their parents.

### Exercise 2: Recognition of numbers 1 – 40

• The teacher uses a number chart or a handwritten numbers 1 – 40; points at each number and ask individual pupil to name it – then the reverse and randomly.
• The teacher calls the local names of numbers and demands pupils to mention the English equivalents.
• The teacher gives the pupils the matching exercise contained in accompanying worksheet.

### Exercise 3: Numerical Values

• Teacher collects some items (recommended is biscuit or sweet); divides the items into two groups – one being more than the other.
• The teacher asks pupils to count each group; thereafter, reminds the pupil the number of each group, then asks the pupils to pick either the smaller or greater.
• Then the teacher gives the corresponding exercise in the worksheet
• The teacher gives pupils simple ordering of numbers – see worksheet
• Teacher gives pupils greater/less than exercises
1. count and circle the greater/lesser
• Fill in missing number

### Exercise 4: Copying Exercise

1. The teacher gives the pupils reasonable tracing exercise for number 9, 1 and zero before 10

## CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance.

### Feedback format:

1. Starts from child’s strength – attentiveness in class, willingness to learn, happiness to participate in activities, participation in class discussion, numbers s/he has mastered – counting, recognition, value, writing, etc.
2. Express optimism in child’s ability to improve in all areas
3. Weak areas – numbers the child finds difficult to count, recall, recognize, conceptualize or write
4. State possible reasons for weakness or assure that the occurrence is natural
5. Suggest how the parents can help

6. [qsm quiz=3]

## Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 5

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## Introduction to Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 5

I wrote this Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Mathematics Week 5; based on the Nigerian National Early Childhood Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Pre-Primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed. However, this scheme is the same as those of the other 36 states’ education resource development centre. Nonetheless, I only crosschecked this topic in that of Lagos, Kano and FCT only. Regardless, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National Curriculum.

NOTE:  I wrote and extensive on the latest 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. If you haven’t read that, click here to read it up. Also, if you need any scheme of work based on the latest 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum, chat me up on WhatsApp for it.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson note, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in Mathematics as NERDC specified

Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor.

## How to adapt Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 5

I wrote this lesson note Nursery 1 Third Mathematics Week 5; in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this notes for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to follow this guideline to writing standard lesson plan. To make it faster, click here to get my lesson plan template for N300 only or click here to chat with me on WhatsApp.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, quickly read this article on their differences.

## Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 5

### OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• Cognitive:
• Count numbers 1 – 35
• Identify numbers 1 – 35
• Psychomotor:
• Trace numbers 7 & 8
• Affective
• Demonstrate/internalize the concept of numerical values of numbers 1 – 35

### Previous Knowledge

The pupils had in the previous terms learned the following:

1. Meaning of number
2. Patterns of writing numbers
3. Combining patterns to form numbers 5 & 6
4. Counting & identification of numbers 1 – 35

### Instructional Materials

1. Concrete writing patterns or equivalent cardboard cut-outs for vertical, horizontal, convex and concave
2. Number models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-outs – consisting of several 1’s through 9’s including 0’s
3. Stand counters of 35 beads
4. Several counters – bottle covers, blocks, pebbles, etc. in bundles of 10. I recommend bottle covers in tens packed into an improvised container that can contain no more than 10 counters – 3 (i.e. 30) for each pupil
5. Chalk/Marker and black/white board
6. Number charts of 1 – 35
7. Several (carton) boxes for each pupil
8. Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre (ERC)
9. Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department.
10. Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
11. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). (2012). Mathematics Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

### PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:

#### Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher does the following:

• Writes the topic on the board
• ##### Orally asks the pupils questions based on the previous lesson
1. What we say or write to tell people how many things we have is called ___
1. Number
2. Story
1. We have _____ numbers/How many numbers do we have?
1. 5
2. Many
1. Every number has different name and how to write it
1. Yes
2. No
1. What is nothing (in local dialect) in English?
1. Zero
2. One
1. How do we write zero?
1. 0
2. 2
1. One bundle of number is called ___________
1. Ten
2. Seven
1. How do we write one bundle and nothing?
1. 10
2. 13
1. Two bundles or two tens are called ____________
1. Twenty
2. Ten

1. 25 is called ____________
1. Fifteen
2. Twenty-five

1. 18 is called __________
1. Eighteen
2. Seventeen
1. Two tens and 3 is called __________
1. Twenty-three
2. Thirteen
1. Which is more, 9 or 8?
1. 9
2. 8
1. If I give 12 sweets to Musa and 17 to Eze, who has more sweets?
1. Musa
2. Eze
1. If one bundle is called ten, then two bundles (twenty) is 2 tens
1. Yes
2. No
1. What is 8 in local dialect (call the language e.g. Hausa)?
2. Go and bring 3 pieces of chalk
3. Count numbers 1 – 25
4. Write 3
5. Write 4
6. Everyone (a row or pupil at a time) come and pick 25 counters
##### Revises the previous lesson
1. A number is what tells us how many things we have
2. There are many numbers because we can have many things
3. Each of the many numbers has its special name and way it is written
4. Teacher writes different numbers (one at a time) between 1and 30; then asks the pupils the name of each.
5. Teacher displays chart of numbers 1 – 30, names a number and require a pupil to come point at it on the chart
6. One added to 9 makes a bundle. And a bundle is called ten
7. Ten is written as 10. 11 is called eleven and it means one bundle and one.
8. Two tens (bundles) is called twenty. Twenty is written as 20.
9. Three tens (bundles) is called thirty. Thirty is written as 30.
10. Teacher concludes introduction by telling the pupils that they shall learn how to write numbers 5 and 6. After this, s/he explains the objectives for the week and then proceeds as I describe below.

#### Recognizing Numbers 1 – 35

Following the introduction, the teacher teaches the pupils how to count and identify numbers 1to 30. S/he first revises numbers 1 – 30 as I discussed in the previous week’s lesson.

##### Numbers 26 – 30

After explaining numbers 35, the teacher continues to numbers 31 – 35 as follows:

##### Number 31
1. The teacher directs each pupil to count 30 counters from the pack – as in the last exercise under introduction – question 20.
2. Thereafter, the teacher confirms the number of counters with each pupil.
3. The teacher gives each of the pupils four bundle packs and directs the pupils to arrange the counters in the packs. When done, they should have 3 filled packs.
4. Therefore, the teacher asks the pupils how many counters they have. The pupils may say 3 bundles. In such case, the teacher asks further, what is another name for 3 bundles – i.e. 3 tens or thirty.
5. Following this, the teacher tells the pupils that if one already has 30 items – s/he distributes one counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 3 bundles (tens) and 1. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 3 bundles (tens) and 1 as 31 – 3 and 1 close to each other. And we call it thirty-one. S/he pronounces thirty-one and makes the pupils to repeat after him/her – several times.
##### Number 32
1. After explaining number 31, the teacher asks the pupils how many counter have they now – the pupils should say 31!
2. Thence, the teacher teaches them that if one has 31 items and gets one more – the teacher distributes one more counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 3 bundles (tens) and 2. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 3tens and 2 as 32 – 3 and 2 close to each other. And we call it thirty-two. S/he pronounces thirty-two and tells the pupils to repeat after him/her – many times.
##### Number 33 – 35

The teacher repeats the same steps for numbers 33 to 35.

##### Stage Evaluation Question

Before proceeding to the other part of the lesson, the teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding of the concept of numbers 1 – 30. S/he does this by giving the pupils the following oral exercises:

1. The teacher directs the pupils to pack the 5 counters into the fourth pack. Then s/he asks them if they had 4 bundles.

NOTE: Since the 4th pack is not completely filled, then we do not say 4 bundles just yet. Instead, we say 3 tens and the number of counters that is left.

1. Two tens are called ____________
2. How do we write 3tens and 4? ___________
3. How is 3tens and 4 called? _______________
4. Emeka has 31 oranges. Inogwu has 28. Who has more? __________
5. Emeka gave one of his oranges to Inogwu. How many has Emeka left? How many has Inogwu now?
6. What is 35 in local dialect?
7. What is twenty-five (teacher says in local dialect) in English Language?
8. Which is greater/less?
9. Circle the greater
10. Play Shopping Game:
1. Items – box of model items in children store (that cost not more than N35), model wallet, and model mint in common denomination not more than 35 – i.e. N5, N10 & N20
2. One student acts as storekeeper, when others buy from the student. This will enable them to put the concept of number into practice.

Reminder: Questions 1 – 8 are oral. You may reword the question into a form that will be easiest understood by the pupils – you may translate to local dialect. But insist the pupils give answers in English except where you want otherwise. That being said, sometimes the pupils may know the answer in local dialect but not in English. You should apply leniency.

##### Revision

After the teacher had finished explaining the concept of the values of number thirty-five, s/he revises the numbers 1 – 35 all over again. The teacher focuses on helping the pupils to identify the numbers, their names and symbols (how each is written) as well as to understand the concept of the value of each.

### Counting Exercise

#### General counting with stand counters

After the revision, the teacher leads the pupils into general counting:

He or she puts up the stand of 35 counters. Then sliding each counter to the other side, s/he together with the pupils, counts until the counters finish from one side. The teacher repeats this by sliding each counter back to the original position and again – several times. The teacher may invite willing pupils to lead the counting by sliding the counters as the entire class counts.

#### Group and Individual Counting

After the general counting, the teacher further strengthens the pupil’s memorization of the names and order of numbers through group counting.

• The teacher groups the pupils into pairs
• Going to each group and while the pupils watch, the teacher counts different number of counters for each pupil
• Then the teacher directs each pupil to count differently given number out of his or her counter and give it to the partner
• Individual pupil counts the new number of counters in their possession and tells the teacher
• The teacher confirms the number then make the pupils to repeat the process – exchange some counters and count

#### Oral Counting without Counters

After the pupils are able to count very well with the counters, the teacher directs them to put the counters away. Then s/he leads them to count orally without using the counters. The teacher and the pupils do this several times. S/he may invite different willing pupils to lead the oral counting as well.

#### Evaluation

The teacher may assess the individual pupil’s counting ability by:

1. Asking them to orally count from a number that s/he states to another
2. Sending them to go and fetch a given number of item for him/her
3. Asking them to count the number of items in the class

### Recognition of the symbols of Numbers 1 – 35

After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each of the numbers has its own way that we write it. Thus, s/he explains that they are now going to learn how to we write each number – 1-35.

Consequently, the teacher starts from zero and forth; explains that:

• Zero means nothing and is written as 0
• One is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 1
• Two is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 2
• Ten (one bundle and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 10.
• Eleven (one bundle and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write 11
• – – –
• Twenty (2 tens and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 20
• Twenty-one (2 ten and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 21
• Twenty-five (2 ten and 5) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 25
• Thirty (3 tens and nothing) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 30.
• Thirty-one (3 and 1) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 31.
• Thirty-five (3 and 5) is a number which means ____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 35.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher writes the numbers 1 – 35, serially on the board or uses the large number chart, then points at each number and asks the pupils to name the number – then in reverse, the teacher calls the name of a number then calls pupils to points at each.

The teacher may call the local names of numbers and asks pupils to mention the English equivalents.

Following this, the teacher uses the number chart of 1 – 35, and lead the counting once again – several times. S/he may invite pupils to come, point at the numbers and lead the counting.

#### Evaluation

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ ability to recognize the numbers through physical exercise thus:

S/he places different number of counters into the boxes. Then gives the boxes to the pupils with the number models or cardboard number cut-outs. Thereafter, the teacher directs the pupils to open up each of the boxes, count the number of items in the boxes and then pick the corresponding number model/cut-out and place on/inside the boxes with the counters.

The teacher moves round or collects the boxes, confirms the counters and the number model/cut-out that is in it.

### Tracing of Numbers 7 and 8

Succeeding the counting/recognition exercises, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall now continue to learn how to write two more numbers – 7 and 8.

The teacher first revises concave (outside) curves as well as vertical and horizontal lines writing patterns. S/he may give the pupils a quick exercise to make the patterns.

REMARK: Take note of the pupils that have difficulty with the patterns. And endeavour to take any child back to the needed prerequisite skills for the writing exercise. DO NOT HOLD THE CHILD’S HANDS – it is outdated. With the right basic skills, most children of 3 to 3.5 years are able to form and write numbers on their own.

Following the writing pattern exercise above, the teacher proceeds with the tracing exercises thus:

#### Tracing number 7

##### The teacher identifies the patterns that form number 7:

Number 7 has two patterns – a horizontal line and a slanting line.

NOTE: The teacher shows the pupils each concrete pattern as s/he identifies it.

##### Reminds the pupils how to make and join the patterns to form the number

After the teacher has identified and demonstrated the patterns, s/he explains that to form number seven, they first make a horizontal; then from the right end, a vertical.

NOTE: The teacher arranges the concrete patterns to form the number as s/he explains

1. Thereafter, s/he makes the pupils to write the number in the air/on sand
2. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
3. The teacher first supervises the pupils to trace the number individually before letting them do more on their own

#### Tracing number 8

##### The teacher identifies the patterns that forms the number:

Number eight has four equal curves:

##### Reminds the pupils how to make and join the patterns to form the number

After the teacher has identified and demonstrated the patterns, s/he explains that to form number six, first of all make three vertical dots – separated by equal gaps. Then make each of the curves as I show below:

[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column width=”1/5″][vc_single_image image=”3066″][/vc_column][vc_column width=”1/5″][vc_single_image image=”3067″][/vc_column][vc_column width=”1/5″][vc_single_image image=”3068″][/vc_column][vc_column width=”1/5″][vc_single_image image=”3069″][/vc_column][vc_column width=”1/5″][vc_single_image image=”3070″][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

1. Thereafter, s/he makes the pupils to write the number in the air/on sand
2. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
3. The teacher first supervises the pupils to trace the number individually before letting them do more on their own

NOTE: Most children are able to form 8 as a continuous curve. Others form 8 as two zeros, one above the other while some do it as a combination of letter S and the mirror version. However, I believe the style I gave above will appeal to majority of the children. Nonetheless, do not be strict on approach. You should be content with whichever approach a child adopts long as s/he is able to form the number well.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

### EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson by giving them the following exercises.

### Exercise 1: Oral counting

The teacher asks the pupils (either individually or in small groups) to count numbers 1 -30. S/he observes those that may have difficulty pronouncing or missing one or two numbers – so as to help them and/or recommend assistance for their parents.

### Exercise 2: Recognition of numbers 1 – 30

• The teacher uses a number chart or a handwritten numbers 1 – 30; points at each number and ask individual pupil to name it – then the reverse and randomly.
• The teacher calls the local names of numbers and demands pupils to mention the English equivalents.
• The teacher gives the pupils the matching exercise contained in accompanying worksheet.

### Exercise 3: Numerical Values

• Teacher collects some items (recommended is biscuit or sweet); divides the items into two groups – one being more than the other.
• The teacher asks pupils to count each group; thereafter, reminds the pupil the number of each group, then asks the pupils to pick either the smaller or greater.
• Then the teacher gives the corresponding exercise in the worksheet
• The teacher gives pupils simple ordering of numbers – see worksheet
• Teacher gives pupils greater/less than exercises
1. count and circle the greater/lesser
• Fill in missing number

### Exercise 4: Tracing Exercise

1. How many marks has number 7?
2. Arrange these (concrete) marks to form number seven
3. How many marks has number 8?
4. Arrange these marks to form number eight
5. Trace the following numbers

### CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson on Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 5; by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance.

### Feedback format:

1. Starts from child’s strength – attentiveness in class, willingness to learn, happiness to participate in activities, participation in class discussion, numbers s/he has mastered – counting, recognition, value, writing, etc.
2. Express optimism in child’s ability to improve in all areas
3. Weak areas – numbers the child finds difficult to count, recall, recognize, conceptualize or write
4. State possible reasons for weakness and assures that the occurrence is natural

Suggest how the parents can help[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

[qsm quiz=3][/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]

## Introduction to Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 4

I wrote this Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 4 based on the Nigerian National Early Childhood Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Pre-Primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed. However, this scheme is the same as those of the other 36 states’ education resource development centre. Nonetheless, I only crosschecked this topic in that of Lagos, Kano and FCT only. Regardless, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National Curriculum.

NOTE:  I wrote and extensive on the latest 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. If you haven’t read that, click here to read it up. Also, if you need any scheme of work based on the latest 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum, chat me up on WhatsApp for it.

## Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson note, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in Mathematics as NERDC specified

Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor. This is to ensure a balanced learning experience for the learners. For as Dr Emmanuel Atanda of the Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin wrote – in his Curriculum Development Study Guide for students in Postgraduate programme in Education – no student can be said to have learned anything if the three domains of educational objectives are not taken into consideration.

## How to adapt Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 4

I wrote this lesson note in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this notes for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to follow this guideline to writing standard lesson plan. To make it faster, click here to get my lesson plan template for N300 only or click here to chat with me on WhatsApp.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, quickly read this article on their differences.

## OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• Cognitive:
• Count numbers 1 – 35
• Identify numbers 1 – 35
• Psychomotor:
• Copy numbers 5 & 6
• Affective
• Demonstrate/internalize the concept of numerical values of numbers 1 – 35

## Previous Knowledge

The pupils had in the previous terms learned the following:

1. Meaning of number
2. Patterns of writing numbers
3. Tracing numbers 5 & 6
4. Counting & identification of numbers 1 – 35

## Instructional Materials

1. Concrete writing patterns or equivalent cardboard cut-outs for vertical, horizontal, convex and concave
2. Number models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-outs – consisting of several 1’s through 9’s including 0’s
3. Stand counters of 35 beads
4. Several counters – bottle covers, blocks, pebbles, etc. in bundles of 10. I recommend bottle covers in tens packed into an improvised container that can contain no more than 10 counters – 3 and a half (i.e. 35) for each pupil
5. Chalk/Marker and black/white board
6. Number charts of 1 – 35
7. Several (carton) boxes for each pupil
8. Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre.
9. Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department.
10. Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
11. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). (2012). Mathematics Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

## PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:

### Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher does the following:

• Writes the topic on the board

#### Ø  Orally asks the pupils questions based on the previous lesson

1. What we say or write to tell people how many things we have is called ___

1. Number
2. Story

1. We have _____ numbers/How many numbers do we have?

1. 5
2. Many

1. Every number has different name and how to write it

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is nothing (in local dialect) in English?

1. Zero
2. One

1. How do we write zero?

1. 0
2. 2

1. One bundle of number is called ___________

1. Ten
2. Seven

1. How do we write one bundle and nothing?

1. 10
2. 13

1. Two bundles or two tens are called ____________

1. Twenty
2. Ten

1. 25 is called ____________

1. Fifteen
2. Twenty-five

1. 18 is called __________

1. Eighteen
2. Seventeen

1. Two tens and 3 is called __________

1. Twenty-three
2. Thirteen

1. Which is more, 9 or 8?

1. 9
2. 8

1. If I give 12 sweets to Musa and 17 to Eze, who has more sweets?

1. Musa
2. Eze

1. If one bundle is called ten, then two bundles (twenty) is 2 tens

1. Yes
2. No

1. What is 8 in local dialect (call the language e.g. Hausa)?
2. Go and bring 3 pieces of chalk
3. Count numbers 1 – 25
4. Write 3
5. Write 4
6. Everyone (a row or pupil at a time) come and pick 30 counters

#### Revises the previous lesson

1. A number is what tells us how many things we have
2. There are many numbers because we can have many things
3. Each of the many numbers has its special name and way it is written
4. Teacher writes different numbers (one at a time) between 1and 30; then asks the pupils the name of each.
5. Teacher displays chart of numbers 1 – 30, names a number and require a pupil to come point at it on the chart
6. One added to 9 makes a bundle. And a bundle is called ten
7. Ten is written as 10. 11 is called eleven and it means one bundle and one.
8. Two tens (bundles) is called twenty. Twenty is written as 20.
9. Three tens (bundles) is called thirty. Thirty is written as 30.
10. Teacher concludes introduction by telling the pupils that they shall learn how to write numbers 5 and 6. After this, s/he explains the objectives for the week and then proceeds as I describe below.

### Recognizing Numbers 1 – 35

Following the introduction, the teacher teaches the pupils how to count and identify numbers 1to 30. S/he first revises numbers 1 – 30 as I discussed in the previous week’s lesson.

#### Numbers 26 – 30

After explaining numbers 35, the teacher continues to numbers 31 – 35 as follows:

##### Number 31
1. The teacher directs each pupil to count 30 counters from the pack – as in the last exercise under introduction – question 20.
2. Thereafter, the teacher confirms the number of counters with each pupil.
3. The teacher gives each of the pupils four bundle packs and directs the pupils to arrange the counters in the packs. When done, they should have 3 filled packs.
4. Therefore, the teacher asks the pupils how many counters they have. The pupils may say 3 bundles. In such case, the teacher asks further, what is another name for 3 bundles – i.e. 3 tens or thirty.
5. Following this, the teacher tells the pupils that if one already has 30 items – s/he distributes one counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 3 bundles (tens) and 1. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 3 bundles (tens) and 1 as 31 – 3 and 1 close to each other. And we call it thirty-one. S/he pronounces thirty-one and makes the pupils to repeat after him/her – several times.
6. ##### Number 32
1. After explaining number 31, the teacher asks the pupils how many counter have they now – the pupils should say 31!
2. Thence, the teacher teaches them that if one has 31 items and gets one more – the teacher distributes one more counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 3 bundles (tens) and 2. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 3tens and 2 as 32 – 3 and 2 close to each other. And we call it thirty-two. S/he pronounces thirty-two and tells the pupils to repeat after him/her – many times.
##### Number 33 – 35

The teacher repeats the same steps for numbers 33 to 35.

#### Stage Evaluation Question

Before proceeding to the other part of the lesson, the teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding of the concept of numbers 1 – 30. S/he does this by giving the pupils the following oral exercises:

1. The teacher directs the pupils to pack the 5 counters into the fourth pack. Then s/he asks them if they had 4 bundles.

NOTE: Since the 4th pack is not completely filled, then we do not say 4 bundles just yet. Instead, we say 3 tens and the number of counters that is left.

1. Two tens are called ____________
2. How do we write 3tens and 4? ___________
3. How is 3tens and 4 called? _______________
4. Emeka has 31 oranges. Inogwu has 28. Who has more? __________
5. Emeka gave one of his oranges to Inogwu. How many has Emeka left? How many has Inogwu now?
6. What is 35 in local dialect?
7. What is twenty-five (teacher says in local dialect) in English Language?
8. Which is greater/less?
9. Circle the greater
10. Play Shopping Game:
1. Items – box of model items in children store (that cost not more than N35), model wallet, and model mint in common denomination not more than 35 – i.e. N5, N10 & N20
2. One student acts as storekeeper, when others buy from the student. This will enable them to put the concept of number into practice.

Reminder: Questions 1 – 8 are oral. You may reword the question into a form that will be easiest understood by the pupils – you may translate to local dialect. But insist the pupils give answers in English except where you want otherwise. That being said, sometimes the pupils may know the answer in local dialect but not in English. You should apply leniency.

#### Revision

After the teacher had finished explaining the concept of the values of number thirty-five, s/he revises the numbers 1 – 35 all over again. The teacher focuses on helping the pupils to identify the numbers, their names and symbols (how each is written) as well as to understand the concept of the value of each.

7. ### Counting Exercise

#### General counting with stand counters

After the revision, the teacher leads the pupils into general counting:

He or she puts up the stand of 35 counters. Then sliding each counter to the other side, s/he together with the pupils, counts until the counters finish from one side. The teacher repeats this by sliding each counter back to the original position and again – several times. The teacher may invite willing pupils to lead the counting by sliding the counters as the entire class counts.

#### Group and Individual Counting

After the general counting, the teacher further strengthens the pupil’s memorization of the names and order of numbers through group counting.

• The teacher groups the pupils into pairs
• Going to each group and while the pupils watch, the teacher counts different number of counters for each pupil
• Then the teacher directs each pupil to count differently given number out of his or her counter and give it to the partner
• Individual pupil counts the new number of counters in their possession and tells the teacher
• The teacher confirms the number then make the pupils to repeat the process – exchange some counters and count

#### Oral Counting without Counters

After the pupils are able to count very well with the counters, the teacher directs them to put the counters away. Then s/he leads them to count orally without using the counters. The teacher and the pupils do this several times. S/he may invite different willing pupils to lead the oral counting as well.

### Evaluation

The teacher may assess the individual pupil’s counting ability by:

1. Asking them to orally count from a number that s/he states to another
2. Sending them to go and fetch a given number of item for him/her
3. Asking them to count the number of items in the class

### Recognition of the symbols of Numbers 1 – 35

After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each of the numbers has its own way that we write it. Thus, s/he explains that they are now going to learn how to we write each number – 1-35.

Consequently, the teacher starts from zero and forth; explains that:

• Zero means nothing and is written as 0
• One is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 1
• Two is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 2
• Ten (one bundle and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 10.
• Eleven (one bundle and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write 11
• – – –
• Twenty (2 tens and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 20
• Twenty-one (2 ten and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 21
• Twenty-five (2 ten and 5) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 25
• Thirty (3 tens and nothing) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 30.
• Thirty-one (3 and 1) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 31.
• Thirty-five (3 and 5) is a number which means ____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 35.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher writes the numbers 1 – 35, serially on the board or uses the large number chart, then points at each number and asks the pupils to name the number – then in reverse, the teacher calls the name of a number then calls pupils to points at each.

The teacher may call the local names of numbers and asks pupils to mention the English equivalents.

Following this, the teacher uses the number chart of 1 – 35, and lead the counting once again – several times. S/he may invite pupils to come, point at the numbers and lead the counting.

#### Evaluation

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ ability to recognize the numbers through physical exercise thus:

S/he places different number of counters into the boxes. Then gives the boxes to the pupils with the number models or cardboard number cut-outs. Thereafter, the teacher directs the pupils to open up each of the boxes, count the number of items in the boxes and then pick the corresponding number model/cut-out and place on/inside the boxes with the counters.

The teacher moves round or collects the boxes, confirms the counters and the number model/cut-out that is in it.

### Copying Numbers 5 and 6

Succeeding the counting/recognition exercises, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall now continue to learn how to write two more numbers – 5 and 6.

The teacher first revises concave (outside) curves as well as vertical and horizontal lines writing patterns. S/he may give the pupils a quick exercise to make the patterns.

REMARK: Take note of the pupils that have difficulty with the patterns. And endeavour to take any child back to the needed prerequisite skills for the writing exercise. DO NOT HOLD THE CHILD’S HANDS – it is outdated. With the right basic skills, most children of 3 to 3.5 years are able to form and write numbers on their own.

Following the writing pattern exercise above, the teacher proceeds with the tracing exercises thus:

#### Copying number 5

###### The teacher identifies the patterns that forms number 5:

Number 5 has three patterns – a horizontal line (at the top), a vertical line at the middle and a curve at the bottom

NOTE: The teacher shows the pupils each concrete pattern as s/he identifies it.

###### Reminds the pupils how to make and join the patterns to form the number

After the teacher has identified and demonstrated the patterns, s/he explains that to form number five, they first make a horizontal; then from the left end, a vertical; and from the bottom of the vertical, a curve.

NOTE: The teacher arranges the concrete patterns to form the number as s/he explains

1. Thereafter, s/he makes the pupils to write the number in the air/on sand
2. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
3. The teacher first supervises the pupils to trace the number individually before letting them do more on their own.
4. Then the teacher makes four points at each as the vertexes of the number and asks the pupils to join them with appropriate pattern
5. Succeeding this exercising, the teacher gives the pupils their 2D copying exercise on number 5.

#### Copying Number 6

###### The teacher identifies the patterns that form the number:

Number six has two curves, a big curve and a small curve.

###### Reminds the pupils how to make and join the patterns to form the number

After the teacher has identified and demonstrated the patterns, s/he explains that to form number six, first of all draw the big curve, then from the inside of the big curve, draw another small curve to join the big curve.

1. Thereafter, s/he makes the pupils to write the number in the air/on sand
2. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
3. The teacher first supervises the pupils to trace the number individually before letting them do more on their own
4. Next, the teacher makes three points as the vertexes of the number and then asks the pupils to join with appropriate patterns
5. Finally, the teacher gives the pupils copying exercise on their 2D exercise.

## EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson by giving them the following exercises.

### Exercise 1: Oral counting

The teacher asks the pupils (either individually or in small groups) to count numbers 1 -30. S/he observes those that may have difficulty pronouncing or missing one or two numbers – so as to help them and/or recommend assistance for their parents.

### Exercise 2: Recognition of numbers 1 – 30

• The teacher uses a number chart or a handwritten numbers 1 – 30; points at each number and ask individual pupil to name it – then the reverse and randomly.
• The teacher calls the local names of numbers and demands pupils to mention the English equivalents.
• The teacher gives the pupils the matching exercise contained in accompanying worksheet.

### Exercise 3: Numerical Values

• Teacher collects some items (recommended is biscuit or sweet); divides the items into two groups – one being more than the other.
• The teacher asks pupils to count each group; thereafter, reminds the pupil the number of each group, then asks the pupils to pick either the smaller or greater.
• Then the teacher gives the corresponding exercise in the worksheet
• The teacher gives pupils simple ordering of numbers – see worksheet
• Teacher gives pupils greater/less than exercises
1. count and circle the greater/lesser
• Fill in missing number

### Exercise 4: Copying Exercise

1. The teacher gives the pupils reasonable tracing exercise for number 5 and 6
2. Then s/he gives the pupils several copy down exercises.

Note that the teacher can give the pupils tracing and copy down exercises for one number at a time, the day s/he finishes teaching the pupils how to form the number – as I described above.

## CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance.

### Feedback format:

1. Starts from child’s strength – attentiveness in class, willingness to learn, happiness to participate in activities, participation in class discussion, numbers s/he has mastered – counting, recognition, value, writing, etc.
2. Express optimism in child’s ability to improve in all areas
3. Weak areas – numbers the child finds difficult to count, recall, recognize, conceptualize or write
4. State possible reasons for weakness or assure that the occurrence is natural
5. Suggest how the parents can help
6. [qsm quiz=3]

## Introduction to Lesson note – Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 3

I wrote this Lesson Note – Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 3 based on the Nigerian National Early Childhood Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Pre-Primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed. However, this scheme is the same as those of the other 36 states’ education resource development centre. Nonetheless, I only crosschecked this topic in that of Lagos, Kano and FCT only. Regardless, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National Curriculum.

NOTE:  I wrote and extensive on the latest 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. If you haven’t read that, click here to read it up. Also, if you need any scheme of work based on the latest 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum, chat me up on WhatsApp for it.

## Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson note, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in Mathematics as NERDC specified

Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor. This is to ensure a balanced learning experience for the learners. For as Dr Emmanuel Atanda of the Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin wrote – in his Curriculum Development Study Guide for students in Postgraduate programme in Education – no student can be said to have learned anything if the three domains of educational objectives are not taken into consideration.

## How to adapt Lesson Note – Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 3 into Lesson Plan

I wrote this lesson note in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this notes for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to follow this guideline to writing standard lesson plan. To make it faster, click here to get my lesson plan template for N300 only or click here to chat with me on WhatsApp.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, quickly read this article on their differences.

Class: Nursery One

Term: Third

Week: 2

Subject: Mathematics/Number Work

Topic: Counting numbers 1 – 30

Tracing numbers 5 & 6

Recognition of numbers 1 – 30

## OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• Cognitive:
• Count numbers 1 – 30
• Identify numbers 1 – 30
• Psychomotor:
• Trace numbers 5 & 6
• Affective
• Demonstrate/internalize the concept of numerical values of numbers 1 – 30

## Previous Knowledge

The pupils had in the previous terms learned the following:

1. Meaning of number
2. Patterns of writing numbers
3. How to combine patterns to form numbers 1 – 4
4. Counting & identification of numbers 1 – 30

## Instructional Materials

1. Concrete writing patterns or equivalent cardboard cut-outs for vertical, horizontal, convex and concave
2. Number models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-outs – consisting of several 1’s through 9’s including 0’s
3. Stand counters of 30 beads
4. Several counters – bottle covers, blocks, pebbles, etc. in bundles of 10. I recommend bottle covers in tens packed into an improvised container that can contain no more than 10 counters – 3 (i.e. 30) for each pupil
5. Chalk/Marker and black/white board
6. Number charts of 1 – 30
7. Several (carton) boxes for each pupil
8. Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre.
9. Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department.
10. Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
11. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). (2012). Mathematics Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

## PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:

### Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher does the following:

#### 2) Orally asks the pupils questions based on the previous lesson

1. [1] What we say or write to tell people how many things we have is called __
2. (a) Number
3. (b) Story

[2] We have _____ numbers/How many numbers do we have?

1. (a) 5
2. (b) Many

[3] Every number has different name and how to write it

1. (a) Yes

(b) No

[4] What is nothing (in local dialect) in English?

(a) Zero

(b) One

[5] How do we write zero?

(a) 0

(b) 2

[6] One bundle of number is called ___________

(a) Ten

(b) Seven

[7] How do we write one bundle and nothing?

(a) 10

(b) 13

[8] Two bundles or two tens are called ____________

(a) Twenty

(b) Ten

[9] 25 is called ____________

(a) Fifteen

(b) Twenty-five

[10] 18 is called __________

(a) Eighteen

(b) Seventeen

[11] Two tens and 3 is called __________

(a) Twenty-three

(b) Thirteen

[12] Which is more, 9 or 8?

(a) 9

(b) 8

[13] If I give 12 sweets to Musa and 17 to Eze, who has more sweets?

(a) Musa

(b) Eze

[14] If one bundle is called ten, then two bundles (twenty) is 2 tens

(a) Yes

(b) No

[15] What is 8 in local dialect (call the language e.g. Hausa)?

1. [16] Go and bring 3 pieces of chalk
1. [17] Count numbers 1 – 25
1. [18] Write 3
1. [19] Write 4

[20] Everyone (a row or pupil at a time) come and pick 25 counters

#### 4) Revises the previous lesson

1. A number is what tells us how many things we have
2. There are many numbers because we can have many things
3. Each of the many numbers has its special name and way it is written
4. Teacher writes different numbers (one at a time) between 1and 30; then asks the pupils the name of each.
5. Teacher displays chart of numbers 1 – 30, names a number and require a pupil to come point at it on the chart
6. One added to 9 makes a bundle. And a bundle is called ten
7. Ten is written as 10. 11 is called eleven and it means one bundle and one.
8. Two tens (bundles) is called twenty. Twenty is written as 20.
9. Three tens (bundles) is called thirty. Thirty is written as 30.
10. Teacher concludes introduction by telling the pupils that they shall learn how to write numbers 5 and 6. After this, s/he explains the objectives for the week and then proceeds as I describe below.

### Recognizing Numbers 1 – 30

Following the introduction, the teacher teaches the pupils how to count and identify numbers 1to 30. S/he first revises numbers 1 – 25 as I discussed in the previous week’s lesson.

#### Numbers 26 – 30

After explaining numbers 25, the teacher continues to numbers 26 – 30 as follows:

##### Number 26
1. The teacher directs each pupil to count 25 counters from the pack – as in the last exercise under introduction.
2. Thereafter, the teacher confirms the number of counters with each pupil.
3. The teacher gives each of the pupils three bundle packs and directs the pupils to arrange the counters in the packs. When done, they should have 2 filled packs and an extra 5 counters left.
4. Therefore, the teacher asks the pupils how many counters they have. The pupils may say 2 bundles and 5. In such case, the teacher asks further, what is another name for 2 bundles and 5 – i.e. 2 tens and five or twenty-five.
5. Following this, the teacher tells the pupils that if one already has 25 items – s/he distributes one counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 2 bundles (tens) and 6. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 2 bundles (tens) and 6 as 26 – 2 and 6 close to each other. And we call it twenty-six. S/he pronounces twenty-six and makes the pupils to repeat after him/her – several times.
##### Number 27
1. After explaining number 26, the teacher asks the pupils how many counter have they now – the pupils should say 26!
2. Thence, the teacher teaches them that if one has 26 items and gets one more – the teacher distributes one more counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 2 bundles (tens) and 7. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 2tens and 7 as 27 – 2 and 7 close to each other. And we call it twenty-seven. S/he pronounces twenty-seven and tells the pupils to repeat after him/her – many times.
##### Number 28 and 29

The teacher repeats the same steps for numbers 28 and 29.

##### Number 30
1. After the teacher has finished explaining number 29. S/he directs the pupils to arrange the 9 counters left in the third bundle pack.
2. Once the pupils have finished arranging, the teacher asks whether the pack is completely filled. The pupils should probably notice that the pack can still take one more counter. Hence, the teacher explains that since the third pack is not completely filled, they cannot say 3 bundles just yet. Instead, they count and say the incomplete counters individually – the teacher directs them to unpack the incomplete counters and count it once again. After counting it as nine, the teacher reminds them that they have 2 bundles and 9 – which is the same as 2tens and 9 or twenty-nine.
3. Thereafter, the gives each of the pupils one more counter. After that, s/he directs them to fill the third bundle pack once more. Once the pupils have finished filling the third pack, the teacher asks the pupils if it is completely filled. The pupils should answer yes.
4. Hence, the teacher explains that since the third pack is now completely filled, we say the total number of counters is 3 bundles. And 3 bundles are the same thing as three tens. S/he concludes that we write 3tens and nothing as 30 – 3 and 0 close to each other.
5. Thence, the teacher pronounces thirty and makes the pupils to repeat after him/her several times.

#### Stage Evaluation Question

Before proceeding to the other part of the lesson, the teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding of the concept of numbers 1 – 30. S/he does this by giving the pupils the following exercises:

1. 30 is called ___________
1. Twenty
2. Thirty
2. Peter has 25 sweets and his mummy gave him one more. So how sweets have Peter now? Note: teacher reads the question in local and explains where necessary.

#### Revision

After the teacher had finished explaining the concept of the values of number thirty, s/he revises the numbers 1 – 30 all over again. The teacher focuses on helping the pupils to identify the numbers, their names and symbols (how each is written) as well as to understand the concept of the value of each.

### Counting Exercise

#### General counting with stand counters

After the revision, the teacher leads the pupils into general counting:

He or she puts up the stand of 30 counters. Then sliding each counter to the other side, s/he together with the pupils, counts until the counters finish from one side. The teacher repeats this by sliding each counter back to the original position and again – several times. The teacher may invite willing pupils to lead the counting by sliding the counters as the entire class counts.

#### Group and Individual Counting

After the general counting, the teacher further strengthens the pupil’s memorization of the names and order of numbers through group counting.

• The teacher groups the pupils into pairs
• Going to each group and while the pupils watch, the teacher counts different number of counters for each pupil
• Then the teacher directs each pupil to count differently given number out of his or her counter and give it to the partner
• Individual pupil counts the new number of counters in their possession and tells the teacher
• The teacher confirms the number then make the pupils to repeat the process – exchange some counters and count

#### Oral Counting without Counters

After the pupils are able to count very well with the counters, the teacher directs them to put the counters away. Then s/he leads them to count orally without using the counters. The teacher and the pupils do this several times. S/he may invite different willing pupils to lead the oral counting as well.

### Evaluation

The teacher may assess the individual pupil’s counting ability by:

1. Asking them to orally count from a number that s/he states to another
2. Sending them to go and fetch a given number of item for him/her
3. Asking them to count the number of items in the class

### Recognition of the symbols of Numbers 1 – 30

After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each of the numbers has its own way that we write it. Thus, s/he explains that they are now going to learn how to we write each number – 1-30.

Consequently, the teacher starts from zero and forth; explains that:

• Zero means nothing and is written as 0
• One is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 1
• Two is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 2
• Ten (one bundle and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 10.
• Eleven (one bundle and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write 11
• – – –
• Twenty (2 tens and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 20
• Twenty-one (2 ten and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 21
• Twenty-five (2 ten and 5) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 25
• Thirty (3 tens and nothing) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 30.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher writes the numbers 1 – 30, serially on the board or uses the large number chart, then points at each number and asks the pupils to name the number – then in reverse, the teacher calls the name of a number then calls pupils to points at each.

The teacher may call the local names of numbers and asks pupils to mention the English equivalents.

Following this, the teacher uses the number chart of 1 – 30, and lead the counting once again – several times. S/he may invite pupils to come, point at the numbers and lead the counting.

#### Evaluation

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ ability to recognize the numbers through physical exercise thus:

S/he places different number of counters into the boxes. Then gives the boxes to the pupils with the number models or cardboard number cut-outs. Thereafter, the teacher directs the pupils to open up each of the boxes, count the number of items in the boxes and then pick the corresponding number model/cut-out and place on/inside the boxes with the counters.

The teacher moves round or collects the boxes, confirms the counters and the number model/cut-out that is in it.

### Tracing of Numbers 5 and 6

Succeeding the counting/recognition exercises, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall now continue to learn how to write two more numbers – 5 and 6.

The teacher first revises concave (outside) curves as well as vertical and horizontal lines writing patterns. S/he may give the pupils a quick exercise to make the patterns.

REMARK: Take note of the pupils that have difficulty with the patterns. And endeavour to take any child back to the needed prerequisite skills for the writing exercise. DO NOT HOLD THE CHILD’S HANDS – it is outdated. With the right basic skills, most children of 3 to 3.5 years are able to form and write numbers on their own.

Following the writing pattern exercise above, the teacher proceeds with the tracing exercises thus:

#### Tracing number 5

1) The teacher identifies the patterns that forms number 5:

Number 5 has three patterns – a horizontal line (at the top), a vertical line at the middle and a curve at the bottom

NOTE: The teacher shows the pupils each concrete pattern as s/he identifies it.

1. Reminds the pupils how to make and join the patterns to form the number

After the teacher has identified and demonstrated the patterns, s/he explains that to form number five, they first make a horizontal; then from the left end, a vertical; and from the bottom of the vertical, a curve.

NOTE: The teacher arranges the concrete patterns to form the number as s/he explains

1. Thereafter, s/he makes the pupils to write the number in the air/on sand
2. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
3. The teacher first supervises the pupils to trace the number individually before letting them do more on their own

#### Tracing number 6

1. The teacher identifies the patterns that forms the number:

Number six has two curves, a big curve and a small curve.

1. Reminds the pupils how to make and join the patterns to form the number

After the teacher has identified and demonstrated the patterns, s/he explains that to form number six, first of all draw the big curve, then from the inside of the big curve, draw another small curve to join the big curve.

1. Thereafter, s/he makes the pupils to write the number in the air/on sand
2. After many attempts, the teacher gives the pupils the tracing exercise on their workbook
3. The teacher first supervises the pupils to trace the number individually before letting them do more on their own

## EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson by giving them the following exercises.

### Exercise 1: Oral counting

The teacher asks the pupils (either individually or in small groups) to count numbers 1 -30. S/he observes those that may have difficulty pronouncing or missing one or two numbers – so as to help them and/or recommend assistance for their parents.

### Exercise 2: Recognition of numbers 1 – 30

• The teacher uses a number chart or a handwritten numbers 1 – 30; points at each number and ask individual pupil to name it – then the reverse and randomly.
• The teacher calls the local names of numbers and demands pupils to mention the English equivalents.
• The teacher gives the pupils the matching exercise contained in accompanying worksheet.

### Exercise 3: Numerical Values

• Teacher collects some items (recommended is biscuit or sweet); divides the items into two groups – one being more than the other.
• The teacher asks pupils to count each group; thereafter, reminds the pupil the number of each group, then asks the pupils to pick either the smaller or greater.
• Then the teacher gives the corresponding exercise in the worksheet
• The teacher gives pupils simple ordering of numbers – see worksheet
• Teacher gives pupils greater/less than exercises
1. count and circle the greater/lesser
• Fill in missing number

### Exercise 4: Tracing Exercise

1. How many marks has number 5?
2. Arrange these (concrete) marks to form number five
3. How many marks has number 6?
4. Arrange these marks to form number six
5. Trace the following numbers

## Conclusion of Lesson Note – Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 3

The teacher concludes the lesson by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance.

### Feedback format:

Starts from child’s strength – attentiveness in class, willingness to learn, happiness to participate in activities, participation in class discussion, numbers s/he has mastered – counting, recognition, value, writing, etc.

Express optimism in child’s ability to improve in all areas

Weak areas – numbers the child finds difficult to count, recall, recognize, conceptualize or write

State possible reasons for weakness and assures that the occurrence is natural

Suggest how the parents can help

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## Introduction to this Lesson-Note-Nursery-One-Third-Term-Mathematics-Week-2

I wrote this Lesson-Note-Nursery-One-Third-Term-Mathematics-Week-2 based on the Nigerian National Early Childhood Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Pre-Primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed. However, this scheme is the same as those of the other 36 states’ education resource development centre. Nonetheless, I only crosschecked this topic in that of Lagos, Kano and FCT only. Regardless, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National Curriculum.

NOTE:  I wrote and extensive on the latest 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. If you haven’t read that, click here to read it up. Also, if you need any scheme of work based on the latest 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum, chat me up on WhatsApp for it.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson notes, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in Mathematics as NERDC specified

Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor. This is to ensure a balanced learning experience for the learners. For as Dr Emmanuel Atanda of the Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin wrote – in his Curriculum Development Study Guide for students in Postgraduate programme in Education – no student can be said to have learned anything if the three domains of educational objectives are not taken into consideration.

I wrote this lesson note in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this notes for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to follow this guideline to writing standard lesson plan. To make it faster, click here to get my lesson plan template for N300 only or click here to chat with me on WhatsApp.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, quickly read this article on their differences.

### My Note to Nursery One Mathematics Teacher

The teacher to deliver this lesson must understand that teaching numeracy at the early age entails much more than rote memorization and singing/demonstrating rhymes. Yes, these are effective tool for teaching the pupils how to remember what you have taught them. But much more, the question of numeracy – much as all of the topics at this level – serves as the foundation for the pupils’ progress in the subject in future academic engagements.

#### Why many adults have Mathematics anxiety

After having taught Mathematics at pre-primary, primary, secondary as well as tertiary level; I can categorically say that the majority of the numerous issues that students have in Mathematics is due to poor foundation.

A common point that most early years’ teachers miss in teaching numeration and notation is the aspect of the concept of numerical values. Any Mathematics Teacher in higher classes starting from Primary 4 upward will attest to the fact that majority of the learners finds Number Bases difficult due to their lack of understanding the concept of values of numbers. Even now, you can take the percentage of the primary level learners upward that truly understands the concept of value of numbers above 10. A simple question to test this is: Why do we write 10 and 1 and 0?

#### My Suggestion

Despite that many early years’ teachers are coming to understand this and consequently adjusting the focus of their classes, more are yet to. Consequently, you should not only measure the success of your class by how your Nursery One pupils are able to recite and perhaps identify and write numbers 1 – 500. You should also evaluate to see how many of them truly understands the concept of the values of the numbers. It is in this regard that I urge you to also focus on the affective objective of this lesson.

### Lesson-Note-Nursery-One-Third-Term-Mathematics-Week-1

Class: Nursery One

Term: Third

Week: 2

Subject: Mathematics/Number Work

Topic: Counting numbers 1 – 30

Copying numbers 1 – 4

Recognition of numbers 1 – 30

## 1.             OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• Cognitive:
• Count numbers 1 – 30
• Identify numbers 1 – 30
• Psychomotor:
• Write and copy numbers 1 – 4
• Affective
• Demonstrate/internalize the concept of numerical values of numbers 1 – 30

## 2.             Previous Knowledge

The pupils had in the previous terms learned the following:

1. Meaning of number
2. Patterns of writing numbers
3. How to combine patterns to form numbers 3 and 4
4. Counting numbers 1 – 25
5. Form numbers 3 and 4

## 3.             Instructional Materials

1. Concrete writing patterns
2. Number models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-outs – consisting of several 1’s through 9’s including 0’s
3. Stand counters of 30 beads
4. Several counters – bottle covers, blocks, pebbles, etc. in bundles of 10. I recommend bottle covers in tens packed into an improvised container that can contain no more than 10 counters – 2 and a half (i.e. 25) for each pupil
5. Chalk/Marker and black/white board
6. Number charts of 1 – 30
7. Several (carton) boxes for each pupil
8. Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre.
9. Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department.
10. Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
11. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). (2012). Mathematics Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

## 4.             PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:

### I.         Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher does the following:

• Writes the topic on the board

#### Orally asks the pupils questions based on the previous lesson

1. What we say or write to tell people how many things we have is called ___
1. Number
2. Story
2. We have _____ numbers/How many numbers do we have?
1. 5
2. Many
3. Every number has different name and how to write it
1. Yes
2. No
4. What is nothing (in local dialect) in English?
1. Zero
2. One
5. How do we write zero?
1. 0
2. 2
6. One bundle of number is called ___________
1. Ten
2. Seven
7. How do we write one bundle and nothing?
1. 10
2. 13
8. Two bundles or two tens are called ____________
1. Twenty
2. Ten
9. 25 is called ____________
1. Fifteen
2. Twenty-five
10. 18 is called __________
1. Eighteen
2. Seventeen
11. Two tens and 3 is called __________
1. Twenty-three
2. Thirteen
12. Which is more, 9 or 8?
1. 9
2. 8
13. If I give 12 sweets to Musa, and 17 to Eze, who has more sweets?
1. Musa
2. Eze
14. If one bundle is called ten, then two bundles (twenty) is 2 tens
1. Yes
2. No
15. What is 8 in local dialect (call the language e.g. Hausa)?
16. Go and bring 3 pieces of chalk
17. Count numbers 1 – 25
18. Write 3
19. Write 4
20. Everyone (a row or pupil at a time) come and pick 25 counters

#### FInally, s/he revises the previous lessons

1. A number is what tells us how many things we have
2. There are many numbers because we can have many things
3. Each of the many numbers has its special name and way it is written
4. Teacher writes different numbers (one at a time) between 1 and 25; then asks the pupils the name of each.
5. Teacher displays chart of numbers 1 – 25, names a number and require a pupil to come point at it on the chart
6. One added to 9 makes a bundle. And a bundle is called ten
7. Ten is written as 10. 11 is called eleven and it means one bundle and one.
8. Two tens (bundles) is called twenty. Twenty is written as 20.
9. Teacher concludes introduction by telling the pupils that they shall learn 5 more numbers in the week. After this, s/he explains the objectives for the week and then proceeds as I describe below.

### II.         Recognizing Numbers 1 – 30

Following the introduction, the teacher teaches the pupils how to count and identify numbers 1to 30. S/he first revises numbers 1 – 25 as I discussed in the previous week’s lesson.

#### Numbers 26 – 30

After explaining numbers 25, the teacher continues to numbers 26 – 30 as follows:

##### Number 26

The teacher directs each pupil to count 25 counters from the pack – as in the last exercise under introduction.

1. Thereafter, the teacher confirms the number of counters with each pupil.
2. The teacher gives each of the pupils three bundle packs and directs the pupils to arrange the counters in the packs. When done, they should have 2 filled packs and an extra 5 counters left.
3. Therefore, the teacher asks the pupils how many counters they have. The pupils may say 2 bundles and 5. In such case, the teacher asks further, what is another name for 2 bundles and 5 – i.e. 2 tens and five or twenty-five.
4. Following this, the teacher tells the pupils that if one already has 25 items – s/he distributes one counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 2 bundles (tens) and 6. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 2 bundles (tens) and 6 as 26 – 2 and 6 close to each other. And we call it twenty-six. S/he pronounces twenty-six and makes the pupils to repeat after him/her – several times.
##### Number 27
1. After explaining number 26, the teacher asks the pupils how many counter have they now – the pupils should say 26!
2. Thence, the teacher teaches them that if one has 26 items and gets one more – the teacher distributes one more counter to the pupils; then we say the person now has 2 bundles (tens) and 7. Thereafter, the teacher explains that we write 2tens and 7 as 27 – 2 and 7 close to each other. And we call it twenty-seven. S/he pronounces twenty-seven and tells the pupils to repeat after him/her – many times.
##### Number 28 and 29

The teacher repeats the same steps for numbers 28 and 29.

##### Number 30
1. After the teacher has finished explaining number 29. S/he directs the pupils to arrange the 9 counters left in the third bundle pack.
2. Once the pupils have finished arranging, the teacher asks whether the pack is completely filled. The pupils should probably notice that the pack can still take one more counter. Hence, the teacher explains that since the third pack is not completely filled, they cannot say 3 bundles just yet. Instead, they count and say the incomplete counters individually – the teacher directs them to unpack the incomplete counters and count it once again. After counting it as nine, the teacher reminds them that they have 2 bundles and 9 – which is the same as 2tens and 9 or twenty-nine.
3. Thereafter, the gives each of the pupils one more counter. After that, s/he directs them to fill the third bundle pack once more. Once the pupils have finished filling the third pack, the teacher asks the pupils if it is completely filled. The pupils should answer yes.
4. Hence, the teacher explains that since the third pack is now completely filled, we say the total number of counters is 3 bundles. And 3 bundles are the same thing as three tens. S/he concludes that we write 3tens and nothing as 30 – 3 and 0 close to each other.
5. Thence, the teacher pronounces thirty and makes the pupils to repeat after him/her several times.

#### Stage Evaluation Question

Before proceeding to the other part of the lesson, the teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding of the concept of numbers 1 – 30. S/he does this by giving the pupils the following exercises:

1. 30 is called ___________
1. Twenty
2. Thirty
2. Peter has 25 sweets and his mummy gave him one more. So how sweets have Peter now? Note: teacher reads the question in local and explains where necessary.

#### Revision

After the teacher had finished explaining the concept of the values of number thirty, s/he revises the numbers 1 – 30 all over again. The teacher focuses on helping the pupils to identify the numbers, their names and symbols (how each is written) as well as to understand the concept of the value of each.

### III.         Counting Exercise

#### General counting with stand counters

After the revision, the teacher leads the pupils into general counting:

He or she puts up the stand of 30 counters. Then sliding each counter to the other side, s/he together with the pupils, counts until the counters finish from one side. The teacher repeats this by sliding each counter back to the original position and again – several times. The teacher may invite willing pupils to lead the counting by sliding the counters as the entire class counts.

#### Group and Individual Counting

After the general counting, the teacher further strengthens the pupil’s memorization of the names and order of numbers through group counting.

• The teacher groups the pupils into pairs
• Going to each group and while the pupils watch, the teacher counts different number of counters for each pupil
• Then the teacher directs each pupil to count differently given number out of his or her counter and give it to the partner
• Individual pupil counts the new number of counters in their possession and tells the teacher
• The teacher confirms the number then make the pupils to repeat the process – exchange some counters and count

#### Oral Counting without Counters

After the pupils are able to count very well with the counters, the teacher directs them to put the counters away. Then s/he leads them to count orally without using the counters. The teacher and the pupils do this several times. S/he may invite different willing pupils to lead the oral counting as well.

### Evaluation

The teacher may assess the individual pupil’s counting ability by:

1. Asking them to orally count from a number that s/he states to another
2. Sending them to go and fetch a given number of item for him/her
3. Asking them to count the number of items in the class

### Recognition of the symbols of Numbers 1 – 30

After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each of the numbers has its own way that we write it. Thus, s/he explains that they are now going to learn how to we write each number – 1-30.

Consequently, the teacher starts from zero and forth; explains that:

• Zero means nothing and is written as 0
• One is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 1
• Two is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 2
• Ten (one bundle and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 10.
• Eleven (one bundle and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write 11
• – – –
• Twenty (2 tens and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 20
• Twenty-one (2 ten and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 21
• Twenty-five (2 ten and 5) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 25
• Thirty (3 tens and nothing) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 30.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher writes the numbers 1 – 30, serially on the board or uses the large number chart, then points at each number and asks the pupils to name the number – then in reverse, the teacher calls the name of a number then calls pupils to points at each.

The teacher may call the local names of numbers and asks pupils to mention the English equivalents.

Following this, the teacher uses the number chart of 1 – 30, and lead the counting once again – several times. S/he may invite pupils to come, point at the numbers and lead the counting.

#### Evaluation

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ ability to recognize the numbers through physical exercise thus:

S/he places different number of counters into the boxes. Then gives the boxes to the pupils with the number models or cardboard number cut-outs. Thereafter, the teacher directs the pupils to open up each of the boxes, count the number of items in the boxes and then pick the corresponding number model/cut-out and place on/inside the boxes with the counters.

The teacher moves round or collects the boxes, confirms the counters and the number model/cut-out that is in it.

### Writing Numbers 1 to 4

Succeeding the counting/recognition exercises, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall now continue to learn how to write some of the numbers they learned in the lesson.

The teacher first revises concave (outside) curves as well as vertical and horizontal lines writing patterns. S/he may give the pupils a quick exercise to make the patterns.

REMARK: Take note of the pupils that have difficulty with the patterns. And endeavour to take any child back to the needed prerequisite skills for the writing exercise. DO NOT HOLD THE CHILD’S HANDS – it is outdated. With the right basic skills, most children of 3 to 3.5 years are able to form and write numbers on their own.

Following the writing pattern exercise above, the teacher proceeds with the number 1 to 4 writing exercises thus:

#### How to Write Number One (1)

This is a single vertical stroke (refer to pre-writing pattern). To form it, make two dots such that one is directly above the other:

Then both dots are joined with a straight line:

##### Exercise

The teacher explains and demonstrates how to form it several times. After that, the makes the pupils to attempt same on sand/air  several times. Then from sand/air , the teacher makes the pupils to repeat their previous term’s tracing – of number 1 – exercises. After this, the teacher makes the two dots for the pupils to join with a straight line. Finally, the teacher tells the pupils to make the dots and the join it themselves.

#### How to Write Number Two (2)

This number has a curve, a slant line and a horizontal line:

Join the slant line:

And finally the horizontal line:

##### Exercise

The teacher explains and demonstrates how to form it several times. After that, the makes the pupils to attempt same on sand/air /air several times. Then from sand/air, the teacher makes the pupils to repeat their previous term’s tracing – of number 2 – exercises. After this, the teacher makes the four dots in number 2 for the pupils to form and join the curve, slanting and horizontal lines in order to form the number. Finally, the teacher tells the pupils to make the dots and form/join the lines by themselves.

The teacher picks the model/cut-out of number 3. Then s/he analyses, demonstrates and guides the pupils to form it as I describe below:

Number three is two curves joined.

To form number 3, mark off three vertical dots – one above the other – the middle being at the centre:

Then draw a curve from the top dot to the middle:

And from the middle to the bottom:

##### Exercise

The teacher explains and demonstrates how to form it several times. After that, the makes the pupils to attempt same on sand/air  several times. Then from sand/air , the teacher makes the pupils to repeat their previous term’s tracing – of number 3 – exercises. After this, the teacher makes the three dots for the pupils to join with curves. Finally, the teacher tells the pupils to make the dots and the curves themselves.

To form number 4, draw the first vertical stroke:

Then from the bottom end of the vertical line, draw a horizontal:

And finally draw another vertical across the horizontal:

##### Exercise

The teacher explains and demonstrates how to form number four several times. After that, the makes the pupils to attempt same on sand/air several times. Then from sand/air, the teacher makes the pupils to repeat their previous term’s tracing – of number 4 – exercises. Finally, the teacher tells the pupils to form number 4 on their own – several times.

## 1.             EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson by giving them the following exercises.

### Exercise 1: Oral counting

The teacher asks the pupils (either individually or in small groups) to count numbers 1 -30. S/he observes those that may have difficulty pronouncing or missing one or two numbers – so as to help them and/or recommend assistance for their parents.

### Exercise 2: Recognition of numbers 1 – 30

• The teacher uses a number chart or a handwritten numbers 1 – 30; points at each number and ask individual pupil to name it – then the reverse and randomly.
• The teacher calls the local names of numbers and demands pupils to mention the English equivalents.
• The teacher gives the pupils the matching exercise contained in accompanying worksheet.

### Exercise 3: Numerical Values

• Teacher collects some items (recommended is biscuit or sweet); divides the items into two groups – one being more than the other.
• The teacher asks pupils to count each group; thereafter, reminds the pupil the number of each group, then asks the pupils to pick either the smaller or greater.
• Then the teacher gives the corresponding exercise in the worksheet
• The teacher gives pupils simple ordering of numbers – see worksheet
• Teacher gives pupils greater/less than exercises
1. count and circle the greater/lesser
• Fill in missing number

### Exercise 4: Copying Numbers 1 – 4

1. The teacher gives the pupils reasonable tracing exercise for number 1 – 4
2. Then s/he gives the pupils several copy down exercises. Note that the teacher can give the pupils tracing and copy down exercises for one number at a time, the day s/he finishes teaching the pupils how to form the number – as I described above.

## 2.             CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance.

### Feedback format:

1. Starts from child’s strength – attentiveness in class, willingness to learn, happiness to participate in activities, participation in class discussion, numbers s/he has mastered – counting, recognition, value, writing, etc.
2. Express optimism in child’s ability to improve in all areas
3. Weak areas – numbers the child finds difficult to count, recall, recognize, conceptualize or write
4. State possible reasons for weakness or assures that the occurrence is natural
5. Suggest how the parents can help

## INTRODUCTION TO THIS LESSON-NOTE-NURSERY-ONE-THIRD-TERM-ENGLISH-LANGUAGE-WEEK-1

I wrote this Lesson-Note-Nursery-One-Third-Term-English-Language-Week-1 based on the Nigerian National Early Childhood Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Pre-primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed.
However, this scheme is the same as those of the other 36 states’ education resource
development center. Nonetheless, I only crosschecked this topic in that of Lagos, Kano and FCT only. Regardless, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National Curriculum.

## THE COMPLETE LESSON OBJECTIVES

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an
enriched content for the topic. This lesson notes, also like the rest, provides guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in English as NERDC specified in the Teachers’ Guide for the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum for English Language.
Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and
psychomotor.

## Lesson-Note-Nursery-One-Third-Term-English-language

Class: Nursery One

Term: Third

Week: 1

Subject: English Language: Speech and Structure

Topic: Match same letter Aa – Zz

Simple Greetings and Commands

### 1.     OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• #### Cognitive:

Pupils should be able to:

• identify same letter from Aa to Zz
• construct simple greetings and simple commands
• State the meaning of actions, commands and request
• say the meaning of greeting
• Say sit, stand, come, go, clap, start, stop, point at, laugh and smile in local dialect.
• #### Psychomotor:

Pupils should be able to:

• Draw lines to join capital letters A – Z to the corresponding a – z
• Demonstrate cultural way of greeting in Hausa, Ibo and Yoruba culture
• Carry out given simple commands
• #### Affective:

• State the reasons why they should greet
• Imbibe the culture of greeting
• Show obedience by following commands

### PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The pupils had in the previous term learnt the following related topics:

1. Identification of letters from Aa to Zz
2. Tracing of letters of the alphabets
3. Making vertical lines, horizontal lines and curves
4. Greeting at home
5. Taking simple instructions

### INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Alphabet models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-out
2. Chalk/Maker (of different colours) and black/white board
3. At least two alphabet charts of different colors
4. Charts showing how to greet in different cultures
5. Charts showing different actions
6. Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja:
Education Resource Centre
7. Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work.
Kano: Kano Education Resource Department.
8. Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education
Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.

### PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:

#### I.  Introduction

##### Identification of the pupils’ previous knowledge
###### Teacher’s Role:
1. The teacher asks the class to recite the alphabets, then he/she write some letters of the alphabets on board while the pupil identify them by their pronunciation. In conclusion of the revision on letters, the teacher asks whether each letter has two ways that we write each. Finally, s/he writes some capital and some letters for the pupils to identify.
2. After identifying the pupils’ previous knowledge on letters, the teacher asks the pupils whether or not they greeted their parents as they woke up in the morning – and how they did that.
3. The teacher should also ask the pupils if their parent asked them to do anything in the morning before coming to school and how their parent issued the instruction.
###### Pupil’s Role:
1. The pupils shall recite the alphabets as they have learnt from the previous term.
2. After the recitation of the alphabet, the pupils should respond if they greeted their parents in the morning and they should tell the teacher how they greeted their parents.
3. Any pupil who carried out a simple order at home shall tell the rest of the class which member of their family issued the order, and what the order was.
##### Revision

After identifying the pupils’ previous knowledge, the teacher quickly revises the previous knowledge with the pupils. The teacher explains the following:

1. We can get lots of interesting stories from storybooks – refer to First term week 2 -3 on Letter Work.
2. We learn stories from storybooks by reading. Reading means to learn the story that is in a book.
3. To be able to read stories from books, we must learn words. And to learn words, we must first learn letters.
4. Letters are what we join to form words in storybooks – books that contain stories.
5. There are twenty-six letters that we join to form words in storybooks – refer to last lesson in second term.
6. Each of the twenty-six letters has two ways of writing them – one way is called capital letter and the other is small letter. The teacher gives many examples – could be in the form of interaction.

After this revision, the teacher may now continue with the rest of the lesson.

#### II. How to Teach Young Learner Matching of the same Letters of the Alphabets

##### Part 1: Explanation
1. The teacher reiterates that there are twenty-six letters that we join to form words in storybooks in English Language. And also that there are two ways of writing each letter – one is capital letter and another is small letters.
2. Then picking a letter at a time, the teacher writes or displays the capital letter (model) and then the corresponding small letter. The teacher – showing or pointing at each – reads in the style of “capital letter A” and “small letter a”.
###### NOTES
1. I advise the teacher to use the format of small letter A that is commonly used in their textbooks.
2. Take time to differentiate between small letter L and letter I. I also advise you to make this difference in writing. Refer to our lesson notes on Pre-Writing skills for guidance.
3. Remember that some children have dyslexia. Dyslexia is a common learning disorder that make people unable to see the difference between some letter shapes. For example, it is common to see children writing b instead of d; and q instead of p. Special needs, requires special care. Do not fault the child and/or shout at him/her. We will make a post to that effect soon. For the meantime, you should ask people for how to handle such case.

1. The teacher repeats step (2) above for letters B and b through Z and z.
2. Once the teacher has explained capital and small letters Aa – Zz, s/he arranges them on the board. Thereafter, s/he leads the pupils to read “capital letter A, small letter a; capital letter B and small letter b; capital C and small letter c; etc.”
###### NOTE:
1. Kindly note that the teacher does not necessarily has to teach the entire capital and small letters Aa to Zz in a day.
2. Move at the pace of each child. Since English and Mathematics occur every day in most schools’ timetable; you can spread this lesson across the days.
3. You should do the general reading after the majority (75%) of the pupils are able to identify capital and small letters within the range for the general reading.
##### Part 2: Activity

After the several readings, and after the pupils are able to read Aa – Zz; the teacher leads the pupils through the following activities:

1. From the instructional materials for this class, the teacher displays or writes capital letters and their corresponding small letters. Then s/he points at each letter and asks the pupils – a volunteering pupil – to name it. After a pupil names the letter, the teacher asks another pupil to point at the corresponding small letter. The teacher does this serially from A to Z; then in reverse from Z to A; and finally, randomly.
2. Alternatively, or/and in addition, the teacher may name a letter, asks a pupil to point at the capital letter and another pupil to point at the small letter. The teacher may also do this serially, in reverse and randomly.
3. Succeeding the oral matching above, the teacher writes the both capital and small letters on the board – vertically i.e. capital letters at the left and capital letters at the right. Or horizontally i.e. capital letters up and small letters down. Then s/he picks the first capital letter and with the pupils, identifies the corresponding small letter. Then the teacher draws a line to join both as I show in the picture below

1. The teacher does this for a few letters and then invites volunteering pupils to come up to the board and join a given capital letter to the small letter.
###### Tips
1. The teacher may first write the capital and small letters in sequential order at first. Then later, mix the letters up. I also recommend the teacher uses different colour markers/chalks to draw the matching lines – kids love colours.
2. The teacher can deliberately mismatch letters and let the pupil make their observation.
###### NOTE:

Since most private schools split Letter Work and the Simple Commands into subsidiaries of the Nursery English Language, I shall end this lesson on the Letter Work for this week here. We shall publish a separate Lesson note on the Simple Command topic for this week.

Consequently, we shall now continue to the evaluation and conclusion phase of this lesson on letter work.

### Evaluation

Before the teacher concludes the lesson, s/he evaluates the pupils on the lesson objectives for the week’s Letter Work Topic. The teacher does this both orally and through shading and matching activities.

##### Oral: Identifying letters Aa – Zz

The teacher calls each child and asks him/her the following questions:

1. How is this letter pronounced – also the same as what is the name of this letter – or what letter is this? While asking, the teacher points at the letter:

NOTE: The pupils should answer in the format: Capital letter A or small letter a

1. b is small letter B and d is small letter for D. What is the difference between b and d?

Correct Answer: b faces right and d faces left.

(get our Nursery One Workbook)

### Conclusion

The teacher concludes the lesson by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance

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## Introduction to this Lesson-Note-Nursery-One-Third-Term-Mathematics-Week-1

I wrote this Lesson-Note-Nursery-One-Third-Term-Mathematics-Week-1 based on the Nigerian National Early Childhood Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Pre-Primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed. However, this scheme is the same as those of the other 36 states’ education resource development centre. Nonetheless, I only crosschecked this topic in that of Lagos, Kano and FCT only. Regardless, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National Curriculum.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson notes, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in Mathematics as NERDC specified

Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor. This is to ensure a balanced learning experience for the learners. For as Dr Emmanuel Atanda of the Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin wrote – in his Curriculum Development Study Guide for students in Postgraduate programme in Education – “no student can be said to have learned anything if the three domains of educational objectives are not taken into consideration”.

I wrote this lesson note in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this notes for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to follow this guideline to writing standard lesson plan.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, quickly read this article on their differences.

### To Nursery One Mathematics Teacher

The teacher to deliver this lesson must understand that teaching numeracy at the early age entails much more than rote memorization and singing/demonstrating rhymes. Yes, these are effective tool for teaching the pupils how to remember what you have taught them. But much more, the question of numeracy – much as all of the topics at this level – serves as the foundation for the pupils’ progress in the subject in future academic engagements.

#### Major Contribution to Mathematics Anxiety

After having taught Mathematics at pre-primary, primary, secondary as well as tertiary level; I can categorically say that the majority of the numerous issues that students have in Mathematics is due to poor foundation.

A common point that most early years’ teachers miss in teaching numeration and notation is the aspect of the concept of numerical values. Any Mathematics Teacher in higher classes starting from Primary 4 upward will attest to the fact that majority of the learners finds Number Bases difficult due to their lack of understanding the concept of values of numbers. Even now, you can take the percentage of the primary level learners upward that truly understands the concept of value of numbers above 10. A simple question to test this is: Why do we write 10 and 1 and 0?

#### Suggested Alleviation

Despite that many early years’ teachers are coming to understand this and consequently adjusting the focus of their classes, more are yet to. Consequently, you should not only measure the success of your class by how your Nursery One pupils are able to recite and perhaps identify and write numbers 1 – 500. You should also evaluate to see how many of them truly understands the concept of the values of the numbers. It is in this regard that I urge you to also focus on the affective objective of this lesson.

### Lesson-Note-Nursery-One-Third-Term-Mathematics-Week-1

Class: Nursery One

Term: Third

Week: 1

Subject: Mathematics/Number Work

Topic: Counting numbers 1 – 25

Copying numbers 3 & 4

Recognition of numbers 1 – 25

## 1.             OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• Cognitive:
• Count numbers 1 – 25
• Identify numbers 1 – 25
• Psychomotor:
• Write numbers 1 – 4
• Affective
• Demonstrate/internalize the concept of numerical values of numbers 1 – 4

## 2.             Previous Knowledge

The pupils had in the previous terms learned the following:

1. Meaning of number
2. Patterns of writing numbers
3. How to combine patterns to form numbers 1 and 2
4. Counting numbers 1 – 25
5. Tracing numbers 3 and 4

## 3.             Instructional Materials

1. Number models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-outs – consisting of several 1’s through 9’s including 0’s
2. Stand counters of 25 beads
3. Several counters – bottle covers, blocks, pebbles, etc. in bundles of 10. I recommend bottle covers in tens packed into an improvised container that can contain no more than 10 counters – 2 and a half (i.e. 25) for each pupil
4. Chalk/Marker and black/white board
5. Number charts of 1 – 25
6. Several (carton) boxes for each pupil
7. Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre.
8. Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department.
9. Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
10. Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). (2012). Mathematics Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

## 4.             PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:

### I.         Introduction

#### Identification of Pupils Previous Knowledge

Mode: Group/Class

As NERDC provided in the Mathematics Teaching guide, the first step in modern – Mathematics – teaching method is to identify the pupils’ previous knowledge.

To do this, the repeats the exercises that s/he did when introducing the concept of numbers. I copy the description below:

#### Teacher’s Role:

1. The teacher picks a set of the same objects – say pencils, or sweets in both hands. The number of such items in one hand should be more than the number in another hand. However, neither of the number of items should exceed 10.
2. The teacher thence shows the pupils the items in both hands and asks them which hand contains more of the object

#### Pupils’ Roles

1. The pupils shall guess the hand that has more of the object

The teacher receives as many attempts as possible. If a pupil gets it wrong, s/he declines politely and demands/encourage other pupils to try. When a pupil eventually gets it right, the teacher friendly asks the pupil how s/he was able to identify the greater.

After the ensuing discussion, the teacher tells the pupils that there is a way older people use to tell the greater things from the lesser – this is called number.

#### Revision

After that, the teacher asks the pupils if any of them is still able to remember the meaning of number. Following attempts, the teacher reminds the pupils that a number is what tells us how many of a thing we have.

The teacher continues by revising the previous lessons as I outline below:

• S/he tells them that there are many numbers because we can have many things.
• Each of the many numbers has its special name and way it is written.
• Examples of the numbers that we have are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 0– for each of these numbers, the teacher reminds the pupils the names, symbols and the values – by way of demonstration. The teacher remembers that zero (0) is a difficult concept for the pupils to understand at their level. Hence, the pupils will only understand it when the teacher demonstrates it. For this reason, I repeat the demonstration of numerical values from my past lesson notes below:

### II.         How to Teach Young Learners the Concept of the Values of Numbers

1. The teacher picks a counter – one counter; show it to the pupils and asks them how many item has s/he. A pupil should probably get it as one.
2. The teacher explains that one is the first number and that it is written as 1. And that the name of the number is one.
3. The teacher reiterates (1) and (2) above in local dialect if (especially) in a rural area. The teacher may as well begin the explanation in (1) and (2) with the local dialect.
4. After the explanation, the teacher teaches the pupils how to correctly pronounce “one”. S/he does this by pronouncing it several while the pupils repeat after him/her each time. The teacher ensures that every child participates in this.
##### Concept of the Value of Zero

The teacher repeats the explanation (1), (2), (3) and (4) above for numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. However, to teach the concept of the value of zero; I recommend the teacher does the following:

1. The teacher picks nine counters and asks the pupils how many counter has s/he. The pupils should be able to tell the number – the teacher may invite a pupil to count the counters and tell the class. Hence, the teacher shows or writes the symbol of the number nine and leads the pupils to pronounce it.
2. Afterwards, the teacher drops one of the counters, invites a pupil to count the remaining counters and tell the class. Thereafter, the teacher shows or writes the symbol of the number eight and leads the pupils to pronounce it.
3. The teacher repeats (2) above for the numbers 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2; each time dropping a counter afterwards.
4. Once the teacher has just a counter left in his/her hand, s/he shows it to the class and asks them the number of counter. Upon the class identifying the number 1, the teacher writes the symbol and leads them to pronounce “one” several times.
5. After the pupils had practised the number one, the teacher once again shows the one counter to the pupils and reminds them that s/he has one counter. Afterwards, the teacher drops the one counter. Then s/he shows empty hands to the pupils and asks how many counters has s/he. The pupils should say none or nothing. Then the teacher tells the pupils that “none” or “nothing” is also a number. And that the number is called “zero”. The teacher concludes by telling them that zero is written as 0. The teacher may reiterate in local dialect that “zero means nothing and it is written as 0”
##### Bundles – Numbers above 9

After the teacher has finished teaching and explaining the numbers 0 – 9, s/he tells the pupils that those are the numbers there is.

S/he thereafter tells the pupils that we however usually have more things than these numbers 0 – 9. The teacher continues that once the number of a thing is one more than 9 – i.e. if one already has 9 and then gets one more – then we say the person has a bundle.

The teacher demonstrates this by arranging ten bottle covers into the improvised container of ten. Thereafter, the teacher distributes 9 counters and one of the improvised pack to the pupils. Thereafter, the teacher demonstrates and directs the pupils to gradually arrange the nine counters into the pack. Once, the teacher and the pupils have done this, the teacher asks whether the pack is filled – or if one more of the counter can still be added. Since one more counter can still be added, the teacher distributes one more counter to the pupils. Then taking his/hers, the teacher demonstrates and directs the pupils to fill their pack with the one counter.

###### Number 10

Once the teacher and every pupil has filled their pack and probably covered it, the teacher tells the pupils that the pack is known as a bundle. Hence, the teacher explains further that a bundle therefore is 10. This also means that the first number after 9 is 10. The teacher notes that we write ten or a bundle as 10 (1 and 0) to mean one bundle and nothing. Finally, the teacher observes that we write the number ten in such a way that the 1 and 0 are not far from each other.

###### Number 11

Following the explanation of the number 10, the teacher then teaches that if one already has a bundle and then gets one more – s/he gives them one more counter; then since the extra one will not be able to enter into the bundle pack, we simply say the total number of the item is one bundle and one – which means a ten and a 1. The teacher thence teaches that we write one bundle and one as 11. S/he also teaches that the number after a bundle therefore is 11. The teacher concludes the explanation on the number 11 by telling the pupils that the number 11 is called eleven. So, the number after ten is eleven.

###### Numbers 12 – 19

Succeeding the above, the teacher repeats it for numbers 12 through 19. For each number the teacher gives three explanations:

1. If one already has 11 items and then gets one more – or if you add one to eleven – the teacher gives the pupils one more counter each time, then we say it is one bundle and 2 – because there will now be two items that is not inside the bundle pack.
2. We write one bundle and two as 12 and call it twelve.
3. That means the number after eleven is twelve. The teacher teaches the pupils how to pronounce twelve.
###### Number 20

After number 19, the teacher distributes the second bundle pack to the pupils. Then s/he tells them that since the items outside the first bundle pack is many enough, they should try filling the second bundle pack. Therefore, the teacher leads the pupils to fill in their second bundle pack. After packing the nine counters into the second bundle pack, the teacher asks the pupils if it is filled. Since it isn’t, the teacher distributes the one more counter to each of the pupils and then leads the pupils to fill the second bundle pack.

Soon after the teacher and the pupils fill the second bundle packs, the teacher tells the pupils that they now have exactly two bundles and nothing left on the ground. The teacher then teaches that we write two bundles and nothing as 2 and 0 close to each other. The teacher also explains that the name of two bundles and nothing (20) is twenty – s/he teaches the pupils how to pronounce twenty. S/he concludes the explanation that since a bundle is ten, then two bundles means 2 tens.

###### Numbers 21

Following the explanation of the number 20, the teacher then teaches that if one already has two bundles and then gets one more – the teacher distributes one counter to the pupils; then since the extra one will not be able to enter into any of the bundle packs, we simply say the total number of the item is two bundles and one – which means two tens and a 1. The teacher thence teaches that we write two bundles and one as 21. S/he also teaches that the number after twenty therefore is 21. The teacher concludes the explanation on the number 11 by telling the pupils that the number 21 is called twenty-one – s/he teaches the pupils how to correctly pronounce twenty-one.

###### Numbers 22 – 25

Succeeding the above, the teacher repeats it for numbers 22 through 25. For each number the teacher does the following:

1. Tells the pupils that if one already has the present number of items and then gets one more – or if you add one to eleven – the teacher gives the pupils one more counter each time, then we say it is two bundle and 2 – because there will now be two items that is not inside either of the bundle packs.
2. We write two bundles and two as 22 and call it twenty-two.
3. That means the number after twenty-one is twenty-two. The teacher teaches the pupils how to pronounce twenty-two.

#### Revision

After the teacher had finished explaining the concept of the values of number twenty-five, s/he revises the numbers 1 – 25 again. The teacher focuses on helping the pupils to identify the numbers, their names and symbols (how each is written) as well as to understand the concept of the value of each.

### III.         Counting Exercise

#### General counting with stand counters

After the revision, the teacher leads the pupils into general counting:

He or she puts up the stand counter. Then sliding each counter to the other side, s/he together with the pupils, counts until the counters finish from one side. The teacher repeats this by sliding each counter back to the original position and again – several times. The teacher may invite willing pupils to lead the counting by sliding the counters as the entire class counts.

#### Group and Individual Counting

After the general counting, the teacher further strengthens the pupil’s memorization of the names and order of numbers through group counting.

• The teacher groups the pupils into pairs
• Going to each group and while watch and follow, the teacher counts different number of counters for each pupil
• The teacher directs each pupil to count differently given number out of his or her counter and give it to the partner
• Individual pupil counts the new number of counters in their possession and tells the teacher
• The teacher confirms the number then make the pupils to repeat the process – exchange some counters and count

#### Oral Counting without Counters

After the pupils are able to count very well with the counters, the teacher directs them to put the counters away. Then s/he leads them to count orally without using the counters. The teacher and the pupils do this several times. S/he may invite different willing pupils to lead the oral counting as well.

### Evaluation

The teacher may assess the individual pupil’s counting ability by:

1. Asking them to orally count from a number that s/he states to another
2. Sending them to go and fetch a given number of item for him/her

### Recognition of the symbols of Numbers 1 – 25

After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each of the numbers has its own way that we write it. Thus, s/he explains that they are now going to learn how to we write each number – 1-25.

Consequently, the teacher starts from zero and forth; explains that:

• Zero means nothing and is written as 0
• One is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 1
• Two is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 2
• Ten (one bundle and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 10.
• Eleven (one bundle and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write 11
• – – –
• Twenty (2 tens and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 20
• Twenty-one (2 ten and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 21
• Twenty-five (2 ten and 5) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 25

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher writes the numbers 1 -25, serially on the board or uses the large number chart, then points at each number and asks the pupils to name the number – then in reverse, the teacher calls the name of a number then calls pupils to points at each.

The teacher may call the local names of numbers and asks pupils to mention the English equivalents.

Following this, the teacher uses the number chart of 1 – 25, and lead the counter once again – several times. S/he may invite pupils to come, point at the numbers and lead the counting.

#### Evaluation

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ ability to recognize the letter through physical exercise thus:

S/he places different number of counters into the boxes. Then gives the boxes to the pupils with the number models or cardboard number cut-outs. Thereafter, the teacher directs the pupils to open up each of the boxes, count the number of items in the boxes and then pick the corresponding number model/cut-out and place on/inside the boxes with the counters.

The teacher moves round or collects the boxes, confirms the counters and the number model/cut-out that is in it.

### Writing Numbers 3 and 4

Succeeding the counting/recognition exercises, the teacher tells the pupils that shall now continue to learn how to write some of the numbers they learned in the lesson.

The teacher first revises concave (outside) curves as well as vertical and horizontal lines writing patterns. S/he may give the pupils a quick exercise to make the patterns.

REMARK: Take note of the pupils that have difficulty with the patterns. And endeavour to take any child back to the needed prerequisite skills for the writing exercise. DO NOT HOLD THE CHILD’S HANDS – it is outdated. With the right basic skills, most children of 3 to 3.5 years are able to form and write numbers on their own.

Following the writing pattern exercise above, the teacher proceeds with the number 3 and 4 writing exercises thus:

#### How to Write Number Three

The teacher picks the model/cut-out of number 3. Then s/he analyses, demonstrates and guides the pupils to form it as I describe below:

Number three is two curves joined. To form number 3, mark off three vertical dots – one above the other – the middle being at the centre:

Then draw a curve from the top dot to the middle:

And from the middle to the bottom:

##### Exercise

The teacher explains and demonstrates how to form it several times. After that, the makes the pupils to attempt same on sand several times. Then from sand, the teacher makes the pupils to repeat their previous term’s tracing – of number 3 – exercises. After this, the teacher makes the three dots for the pupils to join with curves. Finally, the teacher tells the pupils to make the dots and the curves themselves.

#### How to Write Number Four (4)

Number four has three lines – two verticals and a horizontal. To form number 4, draw the first vertical stroke:

Then from the bottom end of the vertical line, draw a horizontal:

And finally draw another vertical across the horizontal:

##### Exercise

The teacher explains and demonstrates how to form number four several times. After that, the makes the pupils to attempt same on sand several times. Then from sand, the teacher makes the pupils to repeat their previous term’s tracing – of number 4 – exercises. Finally, the teacher tells the pupils to form number 4 on their own – several times.

## 5.             EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson by giving them the following exercises.

### Exercise 1: Oral counting

The teacher asks the pupils (either individually or in small groups) to count numbers 1 -25.

### Exercise 2: Recognition of numbers 1 – 25

• The teacher uses a number chart or a handwritten numbers 1 – 25; points at each number and ask individual pupil to name it – then the reverse.
• The teacher calls the local names of numbers and demands pupils to mention the English equivalents.
• The teacher gives the pupils the matching exercise contained in Systematic Numeracy.

### Exercise 3: Numerical Values

• Teacher collects some items (recommended is biscuit or sweet); divides the items into two groups – one being more than the other.
• The teacher asks pupils to count each group; thereafter, reminds the pupil the number of each group, then asks the pupils to pick either the smaller or greater.
• Then the teacher gives the corresponding exercise (in Systematic Numeracy)

## 6.             CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance.

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# Introduction to this post with keywords Lesson-Note-Third-Term-Week-2-Social-Studies-Nursery-2

This lesson note guide with keywords: Lesson-Note-Third-Term-Week-2-Social-Studies-Nursery-2 is written based one of the most circulated private school curriculum in Nigeria for pre-primary education.

# Teachers’ Note

Social Studies teachers, just like teachers of other RNV subjects, must understand that their role in the class is much more than making the pupils to simply know and able to list the merits and demerit of negative and positive attitude to work. S/he is a mind changer, a motivator, a patriot and an ardent promoter of patriotism. Especially at this moment of moral decadence when “the popular is seen as the right” and indigenous national values are being defaced; the teacher enjoys the duty of re-orienting the pupils in his/her classes.

TOPIC

People who work for us – uniformed people e.g. police, army, traffic warden, road safety corps, etc.

# LESSON OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives:

Cognitive:

The pupils should be able to list the different kind of uniform people and identify or differentiate one from another.

## Affective:

They should appreciate the significance and show respect for uniform people.

## Psychomotor:

The pupils should be able to teach others about the relevance of uniformed people as well as to respect them.

# PRESENTATION

The lesson is presented in order of the steps described below:

## Step 1: Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher displays persons in the different uniforms and asks the pupils to identify each.

Invariably, the pupils will either be unable to identify or wrongly identify one or two of the uniform people. Hence, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall at the course of the lesson; identify each of the uniform people. Thereafter, the teacher explains the lesson objectives to the pupils.

## Step 2: Uniform people and their work

Following step 1 above, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall now identify each of the uniform people and their work. Thereunto, s/he picks one (of the uniform people) at a time, as given in the table below, then names the agency and the work. The teacher explains the works so that the pupils see why they are relevant.

# UNIFORM PEOPLE AND THEIR WORK

## Their Work

1.The Military (Army, Navy, Air Force)Defend us and our land from her enemies
2.The Nigeria Police ForceProtect us from bad people and make people to follow the law
3.The Nigeria Custom ServiceWorks at the borders to stop bad things from entering into our land
4.The Nigeria Immigration ServiceMonitors and control how people leave and enter into the country
5.The Nigeria Prison ServiceGuide and control the prison and train the prisoners
6.The Nigeria Security and Civil Defence CorpsHelps the police to maintain peace and order and to save people whenever there is emergency
7.The Federal Road Safety CorpsMake people to use roads in the right way and punishes those that abuse road like motorists that over-speed and/or park their vehicles in the wrong place.
8.The Traffic WardenHelps to control the movement and parking of vehicles on the road to reduce accident
9.The Vehicle Inspection Service OfficersCheck to ensure that only good vehicles and qualified drivers move on the road.
10.The vigilantesHelp the police to arrest bad people and also settle quarrel in the communities

Note: [1] prior to explaining the duties of the various agencies given above, the teacher may ask the contributions of the pupils. S/he may do this by picking the uniform of each agency, then asking whether any of the pupils’ parent or relation has the given uniform (i.e. works with the agency). If any, the teacher may ask questions such as the name of the agency and the work such parent/relation performs.

For example, the teacher picks the police uniform, then asks whether any of the pupils’ parent/relation uses that uniform. If any, the teacher asks the pupil the name that persons such as that his /her parent/relation is called. Thereafter, the teacher may ask the pupil or the class what works such people perform.

[2]To make the pupils see the relevance of the uniformed people, the teacher should initiates discussion on what will happen if we don’t have each. For example, after discussing the Police; the teacher asks what will happen if there are no police.

[3] Due to some semblance or possible ambiguity in identifying the uniform of the different uniformed people, the teacher should teach the pupils how to recognize the work of a uniform person via the badge.

## Step 3: Respecting Uniform People

Succeeding the explanation of the work of the various uniform people, the teacher reiterates their relevance. S/he does this by emphasizing on what will happen if the society had not have their services. Thereafter, the teacher explains that since the uniformed people render important services, it is good and necessary for everyone to respect them. However, before listing the ways of respecting uniform people, the teacher categorically explains that the pupils ought not to fear uniformed people. The teacher differentiates that respecting uniformed people is not the same as being afraid of them. In reinforcement, the teacher notes that good and obedient people do not have to be afraid of uniformed people. Instead, good and obedient people need to respect uniformed people.

Subsequently, the teacher asks the pupils the ways good and obedient people may respect uniformed people. At the end of the ensuing contributions from the pupils,  or if there was no attempt, the teacher lists and explains the basic ways of respecting uniformed people as outlined below.

### Ways of Respecting Uniformed People that work for us

Good and obedient people respect uniformed people by:

• Obeying them
• Not fighting them
• Not insulting them
• Praying for them
• Teaching others to respect them

Note Writing and Summary

The teacher summarizes the lesson into a concise note – simplified to the level that the pupils would be able to read. S/he writes the note on the board for the pupils to copy down in their notes. While the pupils write, the teacher moves round to ensure that they are writing well. The board summary is provided below.

# UNIFORMED PEOPLE WHO WORK FOR US

Uniformed people are people that do special work for us and wear uniform at their place of work.

# UNIFORM PEOPLE AND THEIR WORK

## Their Work

1.The Military (Army, Navy, Air Force)Defend us and our land from her enemies
2.The Nigeria Police ForceProtect us from bad people and make people to follow the law
3.The Nigeria Custom ServiceWorks at the borders to stop bad things from entering into our land
4.The Nigeria Immigration ServiceMonitors and control how people leave and enter into the country
5.The Nigeria Prison ServiceGuide and control the prison and train the prisoners
6.The Nigeria Security and Civil Defence CorpsHelps the police to maintain peace and order and to save people whenever there is emergency
7.The Federal Road Safety CorpsMake people to use roads in the right way and punishes those that abuse road like motorists that over-speed and/or park their vehicles in the wrong place.
8.The Traffic WardenHelps to control the movement and parking of vehicles on the road to reduce accident
9.The Vehicle Inspection Service OfficersCheck to ensure that only good vehicles and qualified drivers move on the road.
10.The vigilantesHelp the police to arrest bad people and also settle quarrel in the communities

## Ways of Respecting Uniformed People that work for us

Good and obedient people respect uniformed people by:

• Obeying them
• Not fighting them
• Not insulting them
• Praying for them
• Teaching others to respect them

# EVALUATION

After the note writing, the teacher leads the pupils to read the note as many times as possible. While they read, the teacher identifies the difficult words; writes them out and lead the pupils to learn the spellings. After that, the teacher revises the entire lesson once again. In the end, s/he assesses the pupils’ understanding by giving them the following questions.

## MCQ on UNIFORMED PEOPLE AND THEIR WORKS

1. Which one is not a uniformed person?
1. Teacher
2. Police
3. Soldier
2. Which one of these uniformed people is not a military?
1. The Vigilante
2. The Navy
3. The Air force
3. Which uniform people fight and defend us and our land from our enemies?
1. The Traffic Wardens
3. The Military
4. The work of the vigilante is to beat people? True             False
5. If you forget the work of a uniformed person, how would you remember?
2. Follow him to his place of work
3. Stand and cry

# Introduction to the Lesson-Note-Third-Term-Week-2-3-Basic-Science-Primary-5

This lesson introduces the pupils to elementary chemistry – the concepts of atom, chemical elements and then the two key chemicals – acids and bases. Well presented, the pupils will starts to develop some basic skills in scientific method – the act of questioning and providing logical or scientific answers to questions.

# To Basic Science and Technology (BST) Teachers

Basic-Science-Technologies teachers must understand that this is a practical subject. Hence, the success of its delivery stretches beyond the cognitive objectives. A BST teacher is a demonstrator, mind influencer and a motivator that inspires his/her student to DO.  As a result, s/he delivers the class by demonstration and motivation while measuring his/her performance by what the pupils are able TO DO at the end of the lesson.

# TOPIC

Acids and bases – Meaning, types, examples, properties and uses of acids and bases

# OBJECTIVES

By the time this lesson end, the pupils should have attained the following objectives:

## Cognitive:

1. Define both acid and base;
2. list the types and examples of acids/bases;
3. mention some physical properties of acid and base;
4. use the properties to differentiate between acids and bases; and finally
5. state some uses of acids and bases

## Affective:

1. Develop some safety consciousness in handling unknown substances
2. Grow awareness of the danger of “rampant consumption” of [unripe] fruits – which is common in this part of the country.
3. Develop increased curiosity at changes in the environment

## Psychomotor:

1. the pupils should be able to apply scientific method in finding scientific answers to question
2. Carry out acid/base identification experiment on a number of substances.

# PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson in order of steps as given below:

## Step 1: Introduction: the concept of acids and bases

To introduce the lesson, the teacher goes walks into the class with a dry cell and liquid soap: say dettol. Thereafter, the teacher calls the attention of the pupils and informs them that s/he (the teacher) is hungry and thirsty. Following, the teacher demands the pupils if s/he may eat the dry cell or drink the liquid. This should obviously induce an echoing no! To this the teacher asks why s/he may not eat/drink the specimens. The teacher receives as many answer as possible. Tendencies are that the pupils will say because the specimens harm or kill. In response to this, the teacher asks what makes the specimens harmful. Proximate answer will be that “because the specimens are chemicals”.

### Why dry cell and liquid soap are harmful

Upon receiving this or similar response, the teacher affirms the harmfulness of the specimen. S/he also explains that the specimens are harmful because they contain chemicals. Thereafter, the teacher explains that they shall, in the topic of the week, learn more about two of the most common chemicals – acid and bases.

Afterwards, the teacher writes the topic on the board then asks who among the pupils had seen or heard about either of acid or base in the past. If there is any, the teacher engages the pupil(s) in a short interaction then asks them what they would say acid/base is.  After the ensuing discussion or if none of the pupils indicated to have heard of acid or base, the teacher explains that acids and bases are chemicals which they are going to learn about. After that, the teacher lists and explains the lesson objectives.

### Sources of acids and bases

Succeeding the explanation of the lesson objectives, the teacher briefly notes that acids and bases may be of natural or artificial (that is, man-made or synthetic) sources. Natural acids are acids that are present in nature – animals and things that are not made by man such as trees and rocks.

The teacher stresses on with the synthetic-ability of acids. S/he explains that scientists are able to make acids and bases in the laboratory. This should raise question such as “how are the scientist able to make acids?”

### How do scientists make acids and bases in the laboratory?

In response to the question, the teacher explains that scientists are curious people – people that like to learn about the things around them and as such who ask a lot of questions. The teacher continues that scientists even have a special way of answering their questions. And that this special way of answering questions is known as scientific method. In conclusion of the explanation, the teacher explains that through this scientific method, scientists are able to study natural acids – and how nature formed those acids. After discovering how nature forms natural acids, scientists found a way of imitating nature and are able to form synthetic or artificial acids in the laboratory.

In continuation, s/he explains that since acid and base can be the product of the works of scientists, to understand the chemicals very well they have to learn how scientists think and work – perhaps one or two of them will like to become a scientist too! The teacher thereafter proceeds to step 2.

## Step 2: Scientific Method

In follow up of step 1, the teacher explains scientific method in the most elementary way. S/he explains as below:

There are a standard steps that every scientist adopts in their works. These set of steps are collectively known as scientific method. There many steps in scientific method can be summarized into 6. These are explained with an illustration using a pseudo-narration of how a scientist made the first perfume from a vanilla plant (flower).

 STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC METHOD ILLUSTRATION WITH VANILLA Steps 1 Careful Observation and Questioning:Scientists use all their senses to observe something carefully then asks a lot of questions The scientist walked along a flower orchard then perceives the scent of the flowering vanilla plants. He stopped and asked “what’s this sweet scent I perceive?” and “Where is it coming from?”The scientist moved forth and hence, trying to get the direction of the scent. Finally, he is convinced that the sweet scent was coming from the vanilla plants – how? Then he asked himself another question: “which part of the plant is producing the scent – leaf, petal or the nectar?” He believes if only he could get the scent into bottles, it will help a lot of people by giving them sense of importance after wearing it. In turn, he will also get money from the sale of the perfume. So to achieve the objective of getting the scent into bottles, the great scientist moved to step 2. Step 2 ResearchThis means to repeatedly search different people’s work to find out what they think about what you are looking for, and then compare with what you think so that you can choose the best option. When scientists research, they write down all the other people’s work they search so that they can proof their final decision. The scientist went to the library and read many books on vanilla plant then asked some people. In the end, he found out that the leaf, bark, root, petal and nectar of vanilla plant are all capable of producing scent. Step 3 HypothesisAfter finding out what other people think about what they are looking for and comparing with theirs,  scientists will make thoughtful guesses Since the scientist is interested in removing the scent from the plant and put it into bottles, he has to find out the part in which it will be easiest to remove the scent. In this regard, he thought for a long time then assumed that it will be possible to extract the scent into bottles thus:1.       The nectar will be the easiest part from which the scent can be extracted but the volume of the scent will not be much.2.       The petals will be the next in line of ease of extracting the nectar but the quality of the scent will be low.3.       It will be difficult to extract the scent from the root Step 4 Performing Experiment or ExperimentationThis is to practically or physically test the hypotheses or thoughtful guesses so as to know whether it is correct or not To confirm his assumptions, the scientist took some of the flower to the laboratory. And taking each part at a time, the scientist tried to extract the scent into bottles. After each extraction, he measured and recorded the length of time, quality and quantity of the scent. Step 5 Data AnalysisAfter experiment, scientists study the record or result of the experiment to see if it meets their assumptions After extracting the scent the scientist studied his record carefully so that he can make final decision Step 6 ConclusionAfter a careful study of the record or result, the scientist will choose whether to his assumptions were correct or not. If correct, he tell others about it and if not, he go back and start from step 2 again After studying his record carefully, the scientist saw that his guesses were correct – he extracted vanilla scent from vanilla plant. So he told a lot of people about and they bought it from him.

Stage Evaluation Question on Scientific Method

Following the explanation of scientific method, the teacher guides the pupils to apply scientific method to spurn curiosity and provide answer to questions. See the example below.

1. A boy noticed that ice melt quit fast in water. So he became curious and asked “Does ice melt faster in other liquid? Use scientific method to answer the boy’s question.
1. First, select the “other liquid” you want to test – in this case let us choose juice. Now the next step in scientific method after observation is research. So, go and find out (from science books and adults) about melting of ice.
1. What causes ice to melt? Answer: _________________________________
2. Does ice melt at the same speed in other liquid like juice as it does in water? Answer: _________________________________
• What makes ice to melt faster in one liquid than in another? Answer: _________________________________
1. Next step is to develop hypothesis – make a thoughtful guess or prediction.
1. Based on the information you gathered from your research, do you think ice will melt faster in juice than it does in water? _________________________________
2. Why do you think so? _________________________________
2. Now, test your hypothesis by carrying out this experiment:
1. Get a glass of juice, a glass of water, two cubes of ice and a stopwatch. If possible get a thermometer. Make sure the volume of water and juice are equal. Also use your thermometer to measure and make that the temperature of the juice and water are equal. Finally, the sizes of the ice cube should be the same – e.g. 15cm3.
2. Starting with the glass of water, measure and record the temperature and volume of the water – say 35cl each.
• Then set your stopwatch to 00:00 – zero minute and zero second.
1. Finally, while starting the stopwatch, place the ice cube in the water and allow it to stay until it melts.
2. After about 15 minutes, inspect the ice cube and record how much it has melted.
3. Note when the ice cube melt completely and record the time.
• Repeat step ii through VI with the other liquid – juice.
1. Following the experiment is data analysis. Study what you have recorded and compare the results.
1. In which liquid did more ice melted after 15 minutes?
2. In which of the liquids did it take longer for the ice to melt completely?
2. What is your final conclusion?
• If your hypothesis was not correct, what do you think caused it?
1. The teacher may give the pupils other simple experiments to do. For this reason, check out some kids science project websites. I recommend Little Bins for Little Hands and Kids Academy.
2. S/he may also allow the pupils to come up with their observation and try it out.

## Step 3: Concept of Atoms

The teacher having explained scientific method in step one above, now continues the lesson with concept of atoms and elements.

With reference to the earlier discussion under how scientists make acid and bases in step one above, the teacher informs the pupils that they will learn the findings (conclusions) of the scientists about acids and bases and how they are naturally formed.

### Meaning of matter

To explain the findings of earlier scientist with respect to acids and bases, the teacher first of all explains that the quests of these scientists were not really about acids and bases. Instead, the curiosity of the scientists emanated from the origin of matter.

The teacher thereafter explains what matter is – anything that has mass and occupies space. The teacher may simplify this by telling the pupils that matter is the scientific name for “something or anything they can see, perceive or feel”. That is, anything they can see like book, tree, human being, e.t.c; perceive like perfume, smoke, e.t.c, and feel is matter. The teacher wraps this by telling the pupils that matter is sometimes referred to as substances.

### Discovery of Atom and Atomic Theory

Following the explanation of matter, the teacher explains that the discovery of how nature forms acids and bases started from origin of matter.

#### Democritus’ theory of the universe

Following this, the teacher explains a very long time ago, at about 400BC, a man called Democritus wanted to know how matter is formed or what make up matter. He thought that if you take a piece of matter and divide it and continue to divide it you will eventually come to a point where you could not divide it any more. This indivisible part of matter is what Democritus called atom.

Democritus also wrote some theories about atom. He called this the theory of the universe. A theory to a scientist is a rule statement of a hypothesis that is proven by experiments. Two among the rule statement of Democritus’ theory of the universe are:

1. All matter consists of atoms, which are bits of matter too small to be seen.

This rule statement means all matter (that is, everything) is made up of extremely small pieces of itself and these extremely small pieces of any matter is called atoms of that matter. For example, an orange is made up of extremely small pieces of the orange, combined to form the whole orange. These extremely small pieces of the orange may be called atoms of the orange – and it cannot be seen.

1. Each atom (of a different substance) is different in size, weight and shape

This second rule statement of Democritus’ theory of the universe means that all atoms are not the same. The atoms of an orange are different from the atoms of a stone – in size, weight and shape.

#### Dalton’s atomic theory

Many people believed Democritus’ theory of the universe. And many scientists continue to experiment it even long after he died. In 1808, another man named John Dalton experimented and formed his own theory about atom which is known as Dalton’s Atomic theory.

Two among the rule statements of Dalton’s atomic theory are:

1. Atoms are indivisible particles
2. Atoms can neither be created nor destroyed
3. All chemical changes result from the combination or separation of atoms

Note: This lesson note is being updated, please check back later for complete version.

1. In addition to returning users, about 1, 000 new users visit our lesson note thread every month. That means more people are finding our lesson notes useful. You might be helping someone by sharing the posts you find useful.
2. We welcome suggestions, creative criticisms, questions and commendations. You can drop yours in the comment box anywhere on the website or contact us via [email protected] on social media using our handle @LeadinGuides. WhatsApp: +2348067689217

# TOPIC

Learning names of objects through “Lucky Dip” and matching of objects with letters A-a – T-t

# OBJECTIVES

By the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following objectives:

• Identify the each of the letters from Aa to Tt
• Mention at least one object that begins with each letter
• Develop awareness of the sound of each of the letters Aa – Tt

# PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson in order of steps as outlined below.

## Step 1: Introduction

The teacher introduces the lesson by revising past lessons on recognition of letters. First, s/he asks the pupils whether they are still able to read letters A – Z. Therefore, the teacher leads the pupils to oral reading of letters A – Z. After this, s/he picking a letter at time asks the pupils what letter it is. For reinforcement, the teacher displays two letters then asks the pupils, one at a time, to pick a named letter from among the two. To conclude the letter recognition revision, the teacher repeats the last exercise several times – but each time, the teacher increases the number of letters from which the pupils will pick only one named letter.

Following the revision of oral reading and recognition of letters, the teacher introduces the week’s lesson proper. To do this, the teacher tells the pupils that since they are now able to read and recognize the letters; they will now learn how to read like people in higher classes or adults– S/he then asks if they like that. They probably would! Hence, the teacher explains that the first step to be able to read like adults or people in higher classes is to identify the sound of the letters. In furtherance of the explanation, the teacher reveals that the letters they read earlier only represents the sound. And also, the representation of the sound is contained in the spelling (names) of objects we see, uses, play with and talk about every day.

Succeeding this, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall be learning the names of some objects. After this but before proceeding to step two, the teacher cautions the pupils to listen attentively and participate in this learning else they will not be able to read like adults or people in higher classes.

## Step 2: Identification of common objects starting with A – T

At this stage the teacher displays common objects – it could be the concrete models, a large wall chart or individual pictures of the objects – whose spellings starts with letters A – T. Afterwards, s/he points at each object – or if individual picture of the objects are being used, the teacher picks one at a time then asks the pupils the name of the object. For example, the teacher displays an apple then asks the pupils, “what is this (called)?” Below is a list of objects that the teacher could use.

COMMON OBJECTS STARTING WITH A – T

 AppleAntBallBellBananaBiscuitBasketCatCarCard CapCageDogDollDoorDuckEggElephantFishFlag FanGoatGateHenHatHutHouseInkJug Juice – teacher should differentiate between juice and juice brand such as Five-Alive, bobo, Viju, e.t.c KettleKangarooLampLionLamb (teacher picks only one of Lamb and Lamp to avoid confusing the pupils)MangoMatNet NailNurseOrangeOnionPencilPenPepperPaperQueen RatRiceRamRainRoadRingSunSnailStarTableTailor

The exercise in the last paragraph is repeated until the pupils demonstrate ability to identify the different objects.

## Step 3: Basic Phonetic Sound of letters A – T

Once the teacher ascertains that the pupils are able to identify each of the objects; s/he proceeds to basic sound awareness – the teacher first of all explains the concept of sound at the most elementary level. S/he does this by teaching the pupils the basic sound of each of the letters A to T. The teacher explains that the sound of letter:

 A is / æ /B is /b/C is /k/D is /d/E is / e/F is /f/G is /g/H is /h/I is /i/J is / ʤ/ K is /k/L is /l/M is /m/N is /n/O is / əʊ̯ /P is /p/Q is /kw/R is /r/S is /s/T is /t/

NOTE: The teacher is not to burden the pupils with any of the phonetic symbols above. Instead the teacher should use it to produce the sound of the corresponding letter. More so, it is not intended that pupils compulsorily learn how to produce the sound as they will do so in their phonetics or phonics– a basic awareness (i.e. recognizing which letter produces a named sound) suffice.

To ascertain whether the pupils have developed basic sound awareness after explaining the sound of each letter, the teacher makes a sound then asks the pupils to name the letter which produces the sound – this may be repeated with different sound. Following this, the teacher proceeds to step 4.

## Step 4: Matching Common Objects Beginning with letters A – T to the corresponding letters: Lucky Dip

Succeeding step 3, the teacher proceeds to matching the objects to the corresponding beginning letters. To do this, s/he first of all calls the name of each object and asks the pupils to name the letter with the beginning sound of the named object. For example, the teacher calls Apple, with emphasis on the beginning sound / æ /; then asks the pupils the letter that produces that first sound.

After this, then the teacher leads the pupils to the Lucky Dip activity. The teacher puts a cutout pictures of the objects listed earlier inside the ‘Dip’ container. The number of the cutout pictures should be one more than the number of pupils in the class – one for each pupil and the teacher. After that, s/he [the teacher] tells the pupils they are going to play a game (known as Lucky Dip) in which everyone is going to play a part. Thereafter, s/he explains the game to the pupils:

Each of them will go to the Dip container, pick only one picture cutout; then tells the class what s/he picks in this format: I picked the picture of a (object), the first letter of (the object) is ______.

After the explanation/description of the game, the teacher demonstrates it then calls out the pupils, one after another to do same.

TIP: The teacher may keep reward for those that will successfully play their part.

Subsequent to the Lucky Dip activity, the teacher leads the pupils to read A for Apple and Ant; B for Ball, Bell, Banana, Biscuit and Basket; e.t.c. several times.

After the reading, the teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding based on the lesson objectives.

# FINAL COMMENT

[1]For the Lucky Dip exercise, the teacher should consider the special children such as those that are shy. Such children that are shy may not readily talk. Hence, suggestions are provided in our earlier post on How to teach Shy Children.

[2] In addition to returning users, about 1, 000 new users visit our lesson note thread every month. That means more people are finding our lesson notes useful. You might be helping someone by sharing the posts you find useful.

[3] We welcome suggestions, creative criticisms, questions and commendations. You can drop yours in the comment box anywhere on the website or contact us via [email protected] on social media using our handle @LeadinGuides. WhatsApp: +2348067689217

a game in which small prizes are concealed in a container and chosen at random by participants.

# INTRODUCTION:

This post with keywords – Lesson-note-third-term-Civic-RNV-Civic-Education-Grade-3-Week-2 is prepared based on (Ajogwu(PhD)) Standard Schemes of Work drawn in line with the new Standard Civic Education Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the National Education Research Development Council. Civic Education is one of the major subjects under Religion and National Values (RNV) in the new national curriculum by Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). The other subjects being Security Education, Social Studies, CRK and IRK. Accordingly, this note is prepared to be delivered in the fifth week of the third term of the academic year. All necessary components of a standard lesson note have been included.

## TO RELIGIOUS & NATIONAL VALUES TEACHERS

Civic Education teachers must understand that their role in the class is much more than making the pupils to simply know and able to list the merits and demerit of negative and positive attitude to work. S/he is a mind changer, a motivator, a patriot and an ardent promoter of patriotism. Especially at this moment of moral decadence when “the popular is seen as the right” and indigenous national values are being defaced; the teacher enjoys the duty of re-orienting the pupils in his/her classes.

## The Note

SCHOOL:

DATE:

PERIOD:

DURATION

AGE:

CLASS COMPOSITION:

SUBJECT: Civic Education

TOPIC: Preventing Drug Abuse

Sub-topic: People we should consult before using drugs

# REFERENCE MATERIALS

Ajogwu(PhD), E. L. Standard Scheme of Work in Line with National Curricular(UBE EDITION) for Middle Basic (Primary 4-6). Lesam Educational.

Ojedokun, O. E., Adesina, A. D., & Adeyemi, B. A. (2010). Lantern Comprehensive Civic Education for Primary Schools (Lower Basic Edition) book 3. Ikeja. Lagos: Literamed Publications (NIG) Ltd.

# INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

• Chalk/marker and chalk/white – board
• Video clip/slides or charts of:
• A sick child asking information on drug use from wrong person resulting in getting the wrong information. Or (if no digital display is not available), a comic or narration of similar may be used.
• Each of the right persons that the pupils can ask for the right information on drug use
• Tablet candies and hard non-edible and un-harmful objects – such as gravels

# ENTRY BEHAVIOR

To understand the lesson, the pupils should know the meaning of drug and drug abuse.

# OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to list the persons that they can ask for right information on drug use.

# PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Based on the curriculum, the preceding topic is: Ways of preventing drug abuse. Hence, the pupils understand the meaning of drug and drug abuse as well as how to prevent drug abuse.

# METHOD OF TEACHING

The teacher teaches the topic by induction with the aid of charts.

# TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher shall give thorough explanation on each person, entertain questions, assess and evaluate the pupils.

# LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES

The pupils shall actively participate in the lesson discussion by asking and answering questions. They will also participate in a play/drama at the end of the lesson to demonstrate their understanding.

# PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson as in the following steps:

## Step 1: Introduction

The teacher when s/he enters the class; plays the video clip/slides or give the narration using either poster or custom-made comic as described under instructional materials. (See narration)

At the end of the narration (where the clip stopped) – as the child who was following the wrong information took the drugs, the teacher asks the pupils whether they think the child’s health will get better or not and why they think so.

After receiving enough of the pupils’ opinion, the teacher explains that drugs are not and should not be taking based on conjectures (assumptions such as it might work). Citing the video clip (narration), the teacher asks what if the drug is not for kids, what will happen to the kid – Bad things!

Teacher proceeds by explaining that to prevent bad things from happening to us as a result of drug abuse, only drugs given to us by trusted people, people who are sure of the drugs must be taken. S/he then asks pupils to mention some of such trusted persons. Afterwards, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall learn more of such persons in the lesson. Thereafter s/he writes/projects the topic on the board/digital screen before moving on to the next step.

## Step 2: People to Ask for the Right Information on Drug Use

After receiving enough attempts from pupils in the forgoing step, the teacher writes/projects the list (below) on the board/screen. And taking one at a time with appropriate picture/poster, s/he explains why each person is the right person to consult.

Teacher differentiates between the professionals – Nurses, Doctors, Pharmacists and Counselors.

At the end of the list and if no child asks until then, the teacher asks why we cannot or should not ask our friends: Is it because they do not like or love us?

Obviously not, but because they simply do not know much about drugs as the persons we mentioned.

# EVALUATION

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ understanding in the following activity/drama/play.

## Prep:

The class (teacher and pupils) cut out cardboard papers and write the names different family relations and professions on each piece. Relations and professions such as younger brother, younger sister, stranger, musician, carpenter, mechanic, e.t.c. including the six persons mentioned in the list above.

## Scene 1:

Delegated members of the class are given the labels (pieces of cardboard paper) – one for each. Then each member, well arranged, holds his/her label at an easily-seen position.

NOTE: Only one of the six persons listed in step 2 must be included.

## Scene 2:

One of the remaining members of the class is asked out of the class (the presence) of the other members of the class.

Once this member is out, the delegated members in step one who had earlier been arranged exchange their positions. Then the teacher gives each of them non-edible and also non-harmful objects (such clean gravels) except the one whose label is among the list in step 2. To this person, the teacher gives a seed of the tablet candy.

NOTE: They shall hold whatever is given to them in their fist.

## Scene 3:

Once all is set, the lone member who left the class in scene 2 in recalled to the class (where every other member is) pretending to be feeling sick. S/he shall therefore identify the right person to ask for drug (i.e. among the delegates who should hold their label for easy reading/identification). If the “sick” member identifies and asks the (one) right person, s/he gets the candy; if not, the stone (LOL).

The play is repeated, but changing the label of the one right person and position of members each time.

# SUMMARY

Prior to terminating the lesson, the teacher summarizes the class into a concise note which s/he writes/projects on the board/screen for pupils to copy after s/he revises with them. The board summary of the class is given below:

1. Parents
2. Nurses
3. Teachers
4. Pharmacists
5. Doctors
6. Counselors

# ASSIGNMENT

The following exercise is given at the end of the revision.

1. List five persons we may ask for right information on drug use
1. ________________________________________
2. ________________________________________
3. _________________________________________
4. _________________________________________
5. _________________________________________
2. What is the difference between a pharmacist and a doctor?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

• What would you tell a friend that asks you about how many drug s/he should take?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

• Why must we ask the right person before using drug?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

# CONCLUSION

The lesson is concluded by collection, marking and returning of pupils’ notebooks. Then linking the lesson to the topic for the following week: Reasons for Consultations in this format:

“In this week’s lesson, we learned that we must ask trusted people for right information on drug use, but why? Why must we ask these people? Can we list the reasons?”

It is expected that they will be unable to mention more than one or two. Hence, the teacher tells them that they will learn more reasons the following week.

## Lesson Note: Third Term Grade 1 Week 2 Mathematics

Name of Teacher: ________________________________

## School:: _______________________________________

Date: _______________________________________

Period: usually first.

Duration: 90 minutes – 30 minutes per period/day.

Age: 9 – 12 years.

CLASS: Primary One

CLASS COMPOSITION: The class should be, as in most schools divided into two: fast learners making Grade Two A (Gold or something similar) and average/slow learners making up Grade Two B (Copper or something similar).  Where population is high, there may be more than one category for each set of learners. Similarly if the overall population is not too much, both set of learners may be combined. It is assumed that the set of fast learners will be moderately quiet while the set of average/slow learners is expected to more noisy if not cold.

SUBJECT: Mathematics.

TOPIC: Simple Multiplication (4-6 times table)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to solve simple arithmetic problems involving multiplication of one by one digit number from 1 to 6.

## REFERENCE

Ajogwu, E. L. (2014). Standard Schemes of Work in Line with National Curricular. Leasam Educational (Consultantancy, Training & Publishing).

## INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of Multiplication Table and a set of counters (minimum of 72)

## PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The pupils are required to already have learned the concept (meaning) of multiplication. They should also have been taught 1 – 3 times tables.

## METHOD OF TEACHING

At introductory stage, the teacher employs deductive method then proceeds to inductive method. Midway into the class, the teacher switches to guided discovery method.

## TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher shall group the class into different categories, assign works closely, monitor the pupils as and guide them in solving problems or in performing assigned activities. S/he will also demonstrate how to carry out multiplication with counters.

## LEARNERS’ ACTIVITIES

The pupils are shall perform multiplication activities with counters and recite 4, 5 and 6 times tables.

## PRESENTATION

The lesson is delivered as in the following order of steps:

DAY ONE

### Step1                : Introduction

To introduce the topic, the teacher upon entering the class makes a multiplication sign on the board then asks one or two pupils to identify it. After the teacher has aroused the pupils and gotten their attention, s/he tells them what sign s/he made. Thereafter, s/he tells the pupils that that is the topic of the week explaining the objectives of the topic.

### Step2                Meaning of Multiplication

Soon after the forgoing step, the teacher makes the pupils to pronounce the word – “multiplication= mul-tip-li-ca-tion”. S/he pronounces it for the pupils to pronounce after him/her. After this, the teacher asks pupils whether they remember what multiplication mean.  S/he receives a few answers/attempts before revising the meaning of multiplication with the pupils:

“Multiplication means to group or count a number into a given places and then adding all the groups together.”

S/he elaborates with the following examples.

Examples on the meaning of multiplication

• 2 X 3 means count 2 in 3 places then add all together. (teacher demonstrate using counters: oo oo           oo = 6
• 3 X 4 means count 3 in 4 places and then add all together. ( teacher demonstrate using counters: ooo 000         000         000 = 12

More examples should be given for deeper understanding. Individual pupil may also be asked to give the meaning or even solve a particular question which may be asked as in the given stage evaluation below.

Stage Evaluation Question (EQ): Asked Orally

• What is the meaning of 2 X 5? Ask (volunteer) pupil to solve on the board for other pupils to see. Other pupils should be allowed to challenge the answer and the volunteer pupil also to prove his/her answers if challenged.
• What is the meaning of 6 X 2? Do as above.

…………………………Teacher may stop here for day one……………………………

DAY TWO

### Step3                Other Names of Multiplication

Once the pupils understand the meaning of multiplication, the teacher teaches the pupils that the words – “times”, “multiply” and “product” may also be used in place of the multiplication sign. Hence, that:

2 X 3 can be written as “2 times 3” or “2 multiply 3” or the “product of 2 and 3”.

### Step4                Multiplication Exercise (with counters)

Succeeding the forgoing step, the teacher leads the pupils to carry out multiplication exercises with a set of counters as shown in the examples below:

• Solve 4 X 2

How To

The teacher, picking one counters at a time from the collection; creates two groups of four counters. S/he makes the pupils to count for or with him/her as she picks each counter. Once the two groups is complete, the teacher keeps the collection away from the groups then with the pupils once more, add all the counters in the two groups together.

• Solve 4 X 3
• Solve 5 X 2
• Find the product of 5 and 3
• Multiply 6 by 2
• Solve 6 times 3

…………………………Teacher may stop here for day two……………………………

DAY THREE

### Step5                Pupils’ Activities

Thereafter, the teacher gives the pupils (either in group or individually) the following activities to solve with their counters.

Stage Evaluation Questions

Note: Teacher monitor the pupils while they solve these exercises not only to ensure that all are participating but also to see that some ‘smart ones’ are not copying from their times table

• Solve 4 X 4 = __________________________
• Solve 4 by 5 = __________________________
• 5 times 4 = _____________________________
• 5 times 5 = _____________________________
• Multiply 6 by 4 = ________________________
• Find the product of 6 and 5 = ______________

### Step6                Reading of 4-6 Multiplication Table Chart

Once the forgoing exercise has been satisfactorily completed, the teacher displays 4, 5 & 6 times table chart on the wall. If this is not obtainable, the teacher distributes a printed A4 copy to the pupils. Then s/he explains to the pupils that the chart/tables contains standard answers for multiplications of (small) numbers and that they will proof it by comparing their answers with that of the tables. The teacher explains how the tables are used.

Thereafter s/he helps the pupils to compare their answers from the previous exercises with the tables. The comparison may be done uniformly – the teacher waits for every pupil to finish the exercise, then with their books outlaid on their desks and multiplication table distributed or displayed; the teacher directs every pupil to look up EQ One (4X4). If it is, the pupils put a check (  on the question if not, they leave it unchecked. This is repeated for each of the evaluation six questions in step 5.

Having proven to the pupils by the forgoing comparison, the teacher tells the pupils that they are going to learn to remember the answers contained on the tables so they won’t need to be using counter every time. S/he then reads the chart while the pupils repeat after him/her.

## EVALUATION

After series of readings, the teacher gives the pupils the exercises under assignment to see whether they understood topic. Nonetheless, before this exercises, the teacher should ask the questions orally in the class.

SUMMARY

The teacher revises the entire lesson by:

• Reminding them that:
1. Multiplication sign is X not +
2. Multiplication means to count a number into a given places and then add all the groups together.
• Multiplication is also the same as product, multiply and times
1. 2X3 may be read as “2 times 3” or “2 multiply 3” or “product of 2 and 3”
• Reading the 4, 5 and 6 multiplication table.

## Assignments

1. Use your counters or multiplication tables to check the following. Put a tick ( in front of ones and a cancel (X) in front of wrong ones.
• 4 X 1 = 4
• 4 X 2 = 10
• 4 X 3 = 12
• 4 X 4 = 16
• 4 X 5 = 20
• 4 X 6 = 22
• 4 X 7 = 32
• 4 X 8 = 28
• 4 X 9 = 36

1. Using nine different colour pencils, draw a straight line to match each to correct answers
• 5 X 1 15
• 5 X 2 30
• 5 X 3 5
• 5 X 4 30
• 5 X 5 10
• 5 X 6 20
• 5 X 7 45
• 5 X 8 25
• 5 X 9 35

1. If one packet of pencil contains 6 pencils. How many pencils will be in:
• 1 packet = 6 X 1 = ____________ pencils
• 2 packets = 6 X 2 = ___________ pencils
• 3 packets = 6 X 3 = ___________ pencils
• 4 packets = 6 X 4 = ___________ pencils
• 5 packets = 6 X 5 = ___________ pencils
• 6 packets = 6 X 6 = ___________ pencils
• 7 packets = 6 X 7 = ___________ pencils
• 8 packets = 6 X 8___________ pencils
• 9 packets = 6 X 9 = ___________ pencils

## CONCLUSION

The lesson is concluded by collection, marking, recording and returning pupils’ exercise books and making corrections where necessary. Finally the teacher tells the pupils that the next topic will be (counting in)/multiplying things that comes in 4s, 5s and 6s in the manner below.

“Now we have finished our class for the week. Next week, I’m going to be telling you some interesting stories of things that exist in 4s, 5s and 6s.

Would you like to listen to my stories? Well then, we will meet next week.”

## Introduction

This Third Term Lesson Note,  English Composition, Week Two (2)  is prepared based on Dr Ajogwu’s Standard Schemes of Work on English Language drawn in line with the new Standard Curriculum, 9-year Basic Edition by the National Education Research Development Council (NERDC).  Accordingly, the note is meant to be delivered in the second week of third term of an academic year.

Name of Teacher:

## School: ______________________________________________________________________________________________

Date: _______________________________________________________________________

Period: ______________________________________________________________________

Duration: 90 minutes – 30 minutes per period/day.

Age: 9 – 12 years.

Class: Primary One

Class Composition: class is made up of about 30 pupils with mixed gender and abilities and it is moderately quiet.

## Subject: English Composition

Topic: How I spent my last holiday

## Reference Materials:

• Ajogwu, E. L. (2014). Standard Schemes of Work in Line with National Curricular. Leasam Educational (Consultantancy, Training & Publishing).
• Lantern Guided Composition

## Objectives:

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to clearly narrate/write, in simple but correct English, their experience during the last holiday. They should also be to correctly use capital letters, full-stop and common linking-words correctly.

## Entry Requirement:

The pupils should already be able to write neatly and differentiate between capital letters and small letters. Finally, they are required to have basic knowledge of phonics and thus should be able to spell (or at least attempt to spell) simple three-letter and four-letter words.

Teacher’s Activities:

The teacher will guide the pupils in writing the outline of the narrative and assist them with spellings.

Learners’ Activities:

The pupils are to participate in a storytelling, spelling and dictation activities as well as writing.

Presentation:

The lesson is presented as in the following progressive steps:

### Step 1: Introduction

Upon entering the class, the teacher introduces the lesson by welcoming the pupils back from holiday. S/he then demands to know how many of the pupils did or did not travel during the last holiday. Afterward, s/he writes/projects the topic on the board and then explains the objectives.

### Step 2: Meaning of Holiday

The teacher informs the pupils that before proceeding however, they have to know the meaning of holiday. Following this, the teacher asks the meaning of holiday. After receiving considerable responses, s/he explains the definition of holiday: Holiday is a time when we do not go to school but are free to do what we want at home. The teacher may make the pupils learn the spelling of holiday.

### Step 3: Oral Composition – Storytelling

Once the teacher finishes explaining the meaning of holiday, s/he invites pupils who will voluntarily tell the class how his/her holiday was spent.

For the class of slow/average learners, the teacher should first of all present one or two samples of composition on holiday (in a story form). An example of a simple composition is given below.

#### Example of composition on How I Spent my Holiday

Note: the teacher is to give an introduction before presenting the example below. The introduction may be in a format as provided in the foreword below.

Foreword: Now it is time for each one of us to tell the class how we spent our holiday. But before that, let me tell you how one boy (or girl) spent his/hers. The boy’s/girl’s name is (teacher chooses a simple to pronounce and funny name). He/she is a friend to my (son/daughter/younger sister/brother). He lives in (a city other the school’s). Last night, someone brought a letter from (the boy’s or girl’s name) to my (son/daughter/younger sister/brother). In the letter, (the boy’s or girl’s name) told my (son/daughter/younger sister/brother) how he/she spent her last holiday. After reading the letter, I borrowed it from my (son/daughter/younger sister/brother) to share the composition with you (the class). Do you want to know what he/she wrote? Ok, listen carefully as I read it.

#### HOW I SPENT MY LAST HOLIDAY

Holiday is a time when we do not go to school but are free to do what we want at home.

My last holiday started on Saturday, April 5, 2019. It lasted for two weeks. I spent the holiday with my parents in (city named earlier).

During the holiday, my parents enrolled me in holiday lesson which I attended every Monday to Thursday. Weekends of the holiday were outing days for my parents, siblings and I. On the first weekend of the holiday, we visited the National Museum and we visited Fun City Park on the second weekend. We didn’t go outing on the third week-end because it was the last weekend before resumption. So, we prepared for resumption that weekend – we washed our uniforms, pressed it, bought our school materials.

We had fun both at the National Museum and Fun City Park but more at Fun City. At the National Museum, I learned about the history of (the city) and its people while I made new friends at Fun City Park who I played and shared a lot of ice cream and cracker with.

I enjoyed the holiday. I hope for similar fun next holiday.

—————————————————————————————

Note: The teacher is expected to explain the sample, sentence by sentence taking note of words that the pupils may not understand such as those bolded and underlined. After the explanation, one or two pupils are allowed to voluntarily tell the class how their holiday was spent.

### Step 4: Writing Composition outline

After the oral composition by the pupils; the teacher encourages the pupils to learn to always record experiences in writing and to develop writing skills in general.

• Writing helps them develop better communication skills – they will be able to communicate clearer.
• Recorded experiences may become life lessons later
• They may become professional writers – writing as their occupation such as publishers, secretaries, authors – teacher may cite some young authors Chizoba Ekene, Michelle Nkamankeng, Munachi Mbonu, e.t.c.

Following this, the teacher explains that the first step in writing a composition is drawing an outline – that is, what and the order one intends to write. Thereafter and using the sample composition above; the teacher guides them to write the outline for the composition by questioning – guided discovery – as given below:

• Who can tell us the first thing my friend said (wrote) in his/her composition?

• After that, what was next?

Answer: When the holiday began and how long it lasted

• The interesting places s/he visited and interesting things s/he did.
• Whether or not s/he had fun

Once the outline has been drawn, the teacher allows the pupils to write their personal answer to each question. This is preferably to be given as homework so as to allow parents/guardians or siblings to help them in remembering some things.

The homework should be given in this format:

MY LAST HOLIDAY

• What is holiday? ___________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

• When was your last holiday? __________________________________________________
• How long was the holiday? ___________________________________________________
• Which interesting places did you visit? __________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

• What interesting thing(s) did you do during the holiday? __________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

• Did you enjoy the holiday? ___________________________________________________

The teacher pause the lesson here for the day and continues from step 5 the following.

### Step 5: Study of Related Words and Grammar

Upon the submission and subsequent marking of the forgoing exercise and redistribution of books, the teacher lists out related words (that the pupils will likely use when writing the composition), explain the meaning and practice the spellings with them.

SHORT LIST OF WORDS LIKELY TO BE USED

Holiday, started, began, interesting, during, chocolate, enjoy, etc.

RELATED GRAMMAR

The teacher briefly explains the following grammatical rules to be observed by the pupils.

• Each sentence starts with a capital letter.
• Names of persons, places and days of the week must also starts with capital letters.
• Every sentence ends with a full-stop (period).

The teacher also revises linking words:

• And – we use it to link two positive or two negative sentences e.g. I was sick and could not eat. We went to the party and we enjoyed it.
• But – we use but to link one negative sentence to another positive sentence – e.g. I was sick but could eat three full bowls of rice. We went to the party but we did not enjoy it.
• Because – we use because to give reason for something – e.g. I ate the rice because I was hungry.
• Also – we use also to add something to a list. At the party, we saw John and Joshua; we also saw Dennis and his father.
• Next – we use next to link two things following each other,
• While – we use while to link two things that happened at the time – e.g. I was sweeping while my sister was cooking.

## Evaluation: Actual Writing

After the activity above, the teacher seats or arranges the pupils and prepares them to write – get them their books, sharpen pencils, writes date.

After that, the taking one question at a time, asks pupils while they write the answers continuously (i.e. without numbering). The teacher directs and guides them to give paragraph and apply the grammatical rules where necessary.

## Summary

After the evaluation and marking of the pupils’ work, the teacher reviews the entire class/lesson:

• Meaning of holiday
• Component of composition on holiday (the outline)
• Grammatical rules to remember

## Conclusion

The teacher concludes the lesson by returning the pupils’ books and given them assignment on the next topic – Travelling by Road:

• Which two areas must roadside walkers know?
• What is zebra crossing?
• What is a sidewalk?
• What is traffic light?
• In traffic light, red means _________, orange means __________ and green means _______
• Mention three safety rules for road travelers

# Introduction

This Lesson Note: Grade 1 Civic Education Third Term Week 2  is prepared based on the new Standard Civic Education Curriculum drawn by Dr Ajogwu Ejila in line with the (9-year Basic Edition) National curricular by National Education Research Development Council.  In is a second week, third term lesson note. Accordingly, the note is meant to be delivered in the second week, third term of an academic year. All necessary components of a standard lesson note have been included. Thus, it is suitable for use in any [Nigerian] school that implements the aforementioned syllabus after a little modification.

Name of Teacher: ________________________________

## School: _______________________________________

Date: _______________________________________

Period: ___________________________________

Duration: 30 minutes

Age: 9 – 12 years.

Class Composition: class is made up of about 30 pupils with mixed gender and abilities and it is moderately quiet.

## Subject: Civic Education

TOPIC: Meaning of Personal Hygiene

## REFERENCE MATERIALS:

1. Ajogwu, E. L. (2014). Standard Schemes of Work in Line with National Curricular. Leasam Educational (Consultantancy, Training & Publishing).
2. momjunction.com
3. livestrong.com
4. healthline.com
5. hygieneexpert.co.uk

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Comic book, Video/Slides, Charts

## OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to define personal hygiene; identify and differentiate between those people that practice personal hygiene and those that do not. The lesson should also result in adaptive change in the pupils.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: Although not a requirement for understanding the lesson, (based on the curriculum) pupils are assumed to have been taught the consequences of living in dirty environment the previous term.

METHOD OF TEACHING: Guided discovery and inductive

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES: Storytelling at introductory stage and continuous assessment.

LEARNERS’ ACTIVITIES: Listening, Discussing Asking and Answering of Questions; and self examination.

## PRESENTATION:

The lesson is delivered in such steps as follows:

### Step 1            Introduction

To introduce the topic, the teacher adopts one of the following approaches:

• Using Video Clips

This will by far leave the longest lasting memory on the pupils. Thus, this is the recommended approach:

Assuming that an electronic display is available for the teacher to use in the classroom under appropriate seating arrangement, s/he plays the accompanying video clip for this lesson note and explains each scene as the video plays (narration contained in the video park). By the end, the topic would have been excellently introduced.

• Using Comic / Narration

The teacher creates a storytelling environment, takes the pupils through each representation while explaining it to them.

• Outright Storytelling

In the event that none of the methodologies could be employed due to unavailability of resources, the teacher adopts a traditional storytelling method to introduce the topic using the story narration accompanying the note. Inasmuch as the effectiveness of this will be the same as the previous methods, it is still better than the usual “writing the topic on the board and explaining it” custom.

In each of these methodologies, the topic is well explained and the objectives are well capture and made obvious for the pupils to identify. The content of these introductory approaches also touches other aspects of the entire less which makes other steps a natural process.

### Step 2              Meaning of Personal Hygiene: Deeper Explanation

Even though the meaning of personal hygiene is well capture in the introductory contents, it is not a substitute for the teacher’s explanation. Hence, at this stage, the teacher writes/projects the definition of personal hygiene on the board/screen, then reads and explains it word for word. This way, the pupils not only get to know the meaning of personal hygiene but also the pronunciation and meaning of the words used in the definition.

### Step 3              Note Writing

The teacher copies/projects the definition on the board/screen for the pupils to copy down in their notebooks. At the time the pupils are writing, the teacher moves round to see that every pupil is writing well.

# EVALUATION

Once the note has been copied by the pupils, submitted to the teacher, marked and returned to the pupils; the teacher evaluates the pupils’ understanding of the lesson by giving them the exercises under assignment

# SUMMARY

This is the board summary which the pupils should copy into their notebooks. The teacher should also revise the note after s/he has marked the notebooks.

PERSONAL HYGIENE

Personal Hygiene means keeping our body and clothes clean all the time.

When somebody practice personal hygiene his/her environment is clean, his/her body is clean and does not smell or have bad odour and his/her cloth is always neat.

Environment means all the things around us.

ASSIGNMENT

The pupils’ understanding is evaluated by giving them the following assignment.

1. Write “Good”, “Poor” or “Bad” in front of each of the following to rate the level of hygiene in the following people.
• Dirty room, clean clothes, dirty and smelly mouth: ______________________
• Clean teeth, clean body, clean room and neat clothes: ______________________
• Dirty teeth, dirty body, dirty room and dirty clothes: ________________________
• Mal Umar’s room is dirty, his office is dirty, but his body is clean. His level of hygiene is ______________
1. Homework

Observe the following in your or your parent’s room, observe and write the following:

• Are clothes, books and cutlery scattered around the room? Yes/No
• Do you always press your uniform and all your clothes? Yes/No
• Take your uniform and smell it, does it smell? Yes/No
• While breathing through your mouth, block the air with the palm of your hand so that the air moves upward through your nose, does it smell? Yes/No
• Is your hair bushy/scattered? Yes/No
• Perceive your armpit, does it smell? Yes/No

# CONCLUSION

The topic is concluded by marking the assignment and returning the notebooks to the pupils or the right shelf. The teacher makes correction where necessary then ends the lesson by linking the week’s lesson to following week’s topic in something like this format:

“This week, we learned the meaning of personal hygiene. Next week, we shall learn the ways we can practice personal hygiene”.

[qsm quiz=3]

# Introduction

This Lesson Note: Primary (Grade) One Third Term Week 2 PHE is prepared based on Dr Ajogwu’s Standard Schemes of Work. The Scheme of Work was drawn in line with the new Standard Physical and Health Education Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the National Education Research Development Council. PHE alongside Basic Science, Basic Technology and Information Technology is classified under Basic Science and Technology in the new curriculum.  Accordingly, the note is meant to be delivered in the second week, third term of an academic year. Note that the focus of the note is on the content and not the lesson plan format. Nonetheless, any teacher can easily draw lesson plan from the note into his/her school’s format.

Name of Teacher: ________________________________

## School: _______________________________________

Date: _______________________________________

Period: ___________________________________

Duration: 30 minutes

Age: 9 – 12 years.

Class: Primary One

Class Composition: class is made up of about 30 pupils with mixed gender and abilities and it is moderately quiet.

## Subject: Physical and Health Education

TOPIC: Identification of Various Foodstuffs in the locality

# References

Ajogwu, E. (2014). Standard Schemes of Work in Line with National Curricular. Leasam Educational (Consultantancy, Training & Publishing). Leasam Educational (Consultantancy, Training & Publishing).

Binda, L. (2016). 10 Delicious Foods From Northern Nigeria Everyone Must Try. Retrieved 2017, from OMG Voice: http://omgvoice.com/lifestyle/10-delicious-northern-nigeria-foods/

Teach Yourself Hausa. (n.d.). Hausa Food (Abincin Hausawa)(Fuud). Retrieved 2017, from Teach Yourself Hausa: http://www.teachyourselfhausa.com/hausa-food.php

# Instructional Material

Basic Science and Health Education Step 3, Pictures, Charts, Videos of/or samples of foodstuffs

# OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to list common foodstuffs in the locality and identify a given foodstuff – both in local dialect and English language.

# Previous Knowledge

The pupils know the meaning of food and are able to list some examples of food probably in the local dialects

# ENTRY REQUIREMENT

No previous knowledge is required for the pupils to understand the lesson. However for the fact that this particular note was written in Hausa community (residence of author) pupils who have been residents of the locality will have added advantage. Notwithstanding, the lesson should be full of excitement even for the newcomers as it will be exploring the language of their new community with them.

# METHOD OF TEACHING

Chalk and talk, Excursion, Discussion

# TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES: Locating Nearby Restaurant, Cooking, Tasting, Supervision

This depends on available instructional materials. Assuming the teacher will adopts all the method of teaching given above; then s/he is expected to carry out the following:

• Locate a nearby eatery (restaurant) and make arrangement for the pupils’ visit. This includes sitting arrangement and selection/preparation of selected food varieties. Alternatively, if the school runs School Meal/School Lunch Program, the teacher should arrange with the Canteen Attendant.

N.B: The excursion arrangement also involves notifying the school management and parents. Be sure to discuss the excursion activities given under learners’ activities. Also, take note of pupils that are allergic to a particular food.

• Cooking, should the school neither run a cafeteria nor are there nearby restaurant or perhaps they may be restaurant but excursion not feasible; the teacher may resort to cooking the sample foods by himself/herself (perhaps funded by the school management) as another alternative. Last alternative will be assigning the foods to the pupils to bring as their lunch the day that step 3 will be taught.
• Tasting, the teacher should preferably taste the food before asking (interested) pupils to do same
• Supervision, during food tasting exhibition, teacher should ensure that pupils observe cafeteria etiquette.

NOTE: If majority of the pupils are native to the place, there may be no need for excursion or tasting exhibition since they probably may have eaten the foods before. A very good substitute will be to ask each child to bring a particular food for lunch on the day of the lesson.

# LEARNER”S ACTIVITIES

Assuming the teacher chose to embark on excursion with the pupils, they shall voluntarily observe and taste some food of choice. The pupils may be required to discuss their favourite food with classmates. At evaluation, the pupils should engage on Names of food Challenge.

# PRESENTATION

The lesson is presented as in the following progressive steps.

## StepI                Introduction

Upon entering the class, the teacher begins by asking the pupils the food each ate for breakfast, lunch and supper the day before. However, prior to using the words – Breakfast, Lunch and Supper, the teacher should use ‘in the morning’, ‘in the afternoon’ and ‘in the evening or at night’ respectively until the words have been explained. For example, “what did you eat for breakfast?” becomes “what did you eat in the morning today?”

It is likely that the pupils will answer by mentioning the traditional (vernacular) names of the food. The teacher writes the pupils’ answers as they mention the food. Afterwards, the teacher writes the topic on the board and tells the pupils that the week’s topic is identification of common foods in the community. Thereafter, s/he explains the lesson objectives.

## StepII             Meals of the day

Once the teacher explains the topic and its objectives to the pupils, s/he explains the terms that describe the different meal of the day:

Breakfast – the first meal of the day eaten in the morning.

Lunch—meal eaten at noon or in the afternoon

Supper – food eaten in the evening or at night before going to bed.

Note: Dinner is the heaviest food of the day whether lunch or supper.

## StepIII          Listing the common food in the (Hausa) community

As soon as the pupils grasp the meaning of the terms, the teacher leads them to list the common food in the locality. The teacher asks the pupils to name a food each (at this point, the pupils may be allowed to mention the names in the local dialect). In the end, the teacher adds from his list if necessary. The common foods in Hausa community have been listed here:

## COMMON FOODS IN HAUSA COMMUNITY

• Tuwo Shinkafa
• Tuwo Masara
• Miyan Kuka
• Miyan Taushe
• Miyan Kubewa
• Funkasau
• Kifi
• Kunu
• Nama
• Masa or Waina
• Dambu
• Zogole
• Fura da Nono
• Kosai
• Koko
• Alale
• Suya
• Zobo

• Talia
• Meat pie
• Plantain chips
• Doughnut

• Mangoro
• Lemu
• Kankana
• Ayaba
• Kwakwa
• Dibino
• Abarba
• Cucumber

## ENGLISH NAME or NEAREST ENGLISH DESCRIPTION

### SWALLOWS

Tuwon ShinkafaRice balls
Tuwon MasaraHard maize pudding

### SOUPS

Miyan KukaBaobab (ba-o-bab) Soup
Miyan TaushePumpkin Soup
Miyan KubewaOkra Soup

### SIDE DISHES

ZogoleSpiced Moringa
FunkasoMillet Pancake

### FRIED AND BAKED

GurasaThick Pancake
KosaiBeans Cake
Masa or WainaRice Cake

### DRINKS

ZoboRoselle (ro-zel) Drink
Fura da NonoFresh (cow) milk and Millet
KunuGruel
KokoPap

### MEAT (NAMA)

33)   KilishiJerky Meat
35)   Bushenshen KifiDried Fish
36)   Danya KifiFresh fish/ice fish

### FRUITS

37)   MangoroMango
38)   LemuOrange
39)   KankanaWater melon
40)   AyabaBanana
41)   GwandaPawpaw
42)   AbarbaPineapple
43)   DibinoDate fruit
44)   Nagidan GonaCucumber
45)   AgwalumaWhite Star Apple
46)   KwakwaCoconut

### OTHERS

47)   Shinkafa48)   Rice
49)   TaliaSpaghetti
50)   DoyaYam
51)   MasaraMaize
52)   AlcamaWheat

After listing the foods, the teacher may now take the pupils to the school cafeteria or nearby restaurant, where arrangement had been made. Or if the foods were cooked by the teacher or brought by the pupils, the teacher sits the pupils in an open well-lit and neat area. There, the teacher takes sample of each food, show it to pupils and tells them the English name. Although this would not yield equal understanding, in the event that samples are not available, the teacher uses pictures of foods. This also will be less fun for the pupils and the teacher will have to talk more.

For each food, after it had been identified – shown to the pupils and the English name taught, the teacher tastes it and asks pupils that are interested to also have a taste of it. After the second food had been tasted, the teacher asks the pupils to say which tastes better.

In the end, the pupils may be asked to say their favourite food, this time using the English names.

## StepV              Reading: Foods in Our Community

The teacher thereafter displays the food chart or writes both the Hausa and English names of foods on the board. S/he reads and asks pupils to read after him/her.

## StepVI           Note Writing: Foods in Our Community

The teacher then writes the note on the board for pupils to copy. While the pupils write, the teacher moves round to see that they are writing well.

# EVALUATION

This is done through challenge and exercises.

## Challenge

The teacher carefully pairs pupils. The pupils, taking turns, name a food in local dialect and demands that the partner tells him/her the English name. If the partner gets it right, s/he got a mark which the teacher records on the board after the class had clapped for him/her.  If the partner could not name the food in English, the pupil that asked tells the partner. If both got it wrong, the teacher tells the class and the class claps for the teacher.

Note: the teacher may choose to ask the pupils orally instead of the challenge.

## Exercises

After the class challenge activity, the teacher gives the exercises under assignment which may be done either as homework or class work.

# SUMMARY

This is the board summary of the class that the pupils shall copy on the board and which the teacher will also revise at conclusion.

# Food in Our Community

The foods we eat are called meals. Breakfast is the first meal of the day that we eat in the morning. Lunch is the meal we eat at noon or in the afternoon [from 11.30 am to 2 pm]. Supper is the food we eat before we in evening or at night.

## ENGLISH NAME or NEAREST ENGLISH DESCRIPTION

### SWALLOWS

Tuwon ShinkafaRice balls
Tuwon MasaraHard maize pudding

### SOUPS

Miyan KukaBaobab (ba-o-bab) Soup
Miyan TaushePumpkin Soup
Miyan KubewaOkra Soup

### SIDE DISHES

ZogoleSpiced Moringa
FunkasoMillet Pancake

### FRIED AND BAKED

GurasaThick Pancake
KosaiBeans Cake
Masa or WainaRice Cake

### DRINKS

ZoboRoselle (ro-zel) Drink
Fura da NonoFresh (cow) milk and Millet
KunuGruel
KokoPap

### MEAT (NAMA)

55)   KilishiJerky Meat
57)   Bushenshen KifiDried Fish
58)   Danye KifiFresh fish/ice fish

### FRUITS

59)   MangoroMango
60)   LemuOrange
61)   KankanaWater melon
62)   AyabaBanana
63)   GwandaPawpaw
64)   AbarbaPineapple
65)   DibinoDate fruit
66)   Nagidan GonaCucumber
67)   AgwalumaWhite Star Apple
OTHERS
68)   Shinkafa69)   Rice
70)   TaliaSpaghetti
71)   DoyaYam
72)   WaikeBeans
73)   MaizeMasara
74)

# ASSIGNMENT

1. ________________________ is the first meal of the day. (Breakfast/Lunch)
2. The meal eaten at noon is called ____________________. (Supper/Lunch)
3. The meal we eat at night is called _____________________. (Supper/Breakfast).

Using your ruler and a set of ten colour pencils – one colour for each food, draw a straight line to match the Hausa to the English Names of the food below.

Shinkafa                                                                                                                                                                               Yam

Orange                                                                                                                                                                                 Zobo

Miyan Taushe                                                                                                                                                                    Pineapple

Date fruit                                                                                                                                                                             Rice

Gwanda                                                                                                                                                                               Lemu

Doya                                                                                                                                                                                      Pumpkin Soup

Spaghetti                                                                                                                                                                             Dibino

Abarba                                                                                                                                                                                 Spiced Moringa

Roselle (ro-zel) Drink                                                                                                                                                      Pawpaw

Zogole                                                                                                                                                                                  Talia

# CONCLUSION

The lesson is concluded marking the assignment and returning pupils’ notes. Then teacher makes correction where necessary while revising the class and relates the week’s lesson with the following week’s – Sources of foods

[qsm quiz=3]

## Civic Education Lesson Note: Primary 4 Term 3 Wk 2-3 & 4-5

Civic Education Lesson Note: Primary 4 Term 3 Wk 2-3 & 4-5

INTRODUCTION:

This Third Term Lesson note on Civic Education for Grade Four is prepared based on (Ajogwu(PhD)) Standard Schemes of Work drawn in line with the new Standard Physical and Health Education Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the National Education Research Development Council. Civic Education is one of the major subjects under Religion and National Values (RNV) in the new national curriculum by Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). The other subjects being Security Education, Social Studies, CRK and IRK. Accordingly, this note is suitable to be delivered in the fourth and fifth week of the third term of the academic year. All necessary components of a standard lesson note have been included.

TEACHER:

SCHOOL:

DATE:

PERIOD:

DURATION

AGE:

CLASS COMPOSITION:

SUBJECT: Civic Education

TOPIC: Responsibilities of Constituted Authority

# REFERENCE MATERIALS

Ajogwu(PhD), E. L. Standard Scheme of Work in Line with National Curricular(UBE EDITION) for Middle Basic (Primary 4-6). Lesam Educational.

Campsilos.Org. (n.d.). Why take field trips? . Retrieved 07 05, 2017, from Campsilos.Org: http://www.campsilos.org/excursions/hc/fieldtrip.htm

CCMIT. (n.d.). IMPROVING OBSERVATION SKILLS. Retrieved 07 05, 2017, from CCMIT.MIT.EDU: https://ccmit.mit.edu/observation/

Daniel, J. S., & Christopher, C. (Directors). (2010). Selective Attention Test [Motion Picture].

Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council (NERDC). (2015). Civic Education for Primary Schools (9-Year Basic Education Edition). West African Book Publishers Ltd.

O, E. O., A, D. O., & B, A. A. (2015). Lantern Comprehensive Civic Education for Primary Schools book 4 (Nine Basic Education). Ikeja, Lagos: Literamed Publications (Nig) Ltd.

Penalysis. (2016, September 17). CONSTITUTED AUTHORITY AND TYPES. Retrieved July 05, 2017, from PENALYSIS: http://penalysis.com/constituted-authority-types/

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

• Chalk/Marker and Chalk/White Board
• Digital Display – LCD or projector
• Video clips/Slides/Charts of:
• A rioting community or group calmed by either a leader or security agency and/or a traditional ruler settling dispute
• An offender or (traffic) rule breaker being warned or arrested by appropriate agency
• A community, group, local or national leader awarding, supervising and commissioning developmental projects such as roads, hospitals, school, e.t.c.
• A military contingent warding-off terror or robbery attack
• Meeting of regional leaders or representatives
• A polling unit in which hoodlums preventing citizens from voting are being arrested by security agencies who also stays to ensure that citizens vote according to their will
• Lawmakers or monarch enacting law.

ENTRY BEHAVIOURS

The pupils should already know the meaning of constituted authority and the duties of citizens to constituted authority.

OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils are expected not only to be able to list the responsibilities of constituted authorities but also show behavioral change: they should thenceforth see constituted authority as important member of the society instead of “lucky lords” and should be able to teach others to do the same.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Based on the curriculum, the preceding topic is “Duties of citizens to Constituted Authority”.

METHOD OF TEACHING

Teaching by induction and field trip

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

• The teacher shall, before the commencement of the lesson, arrange for pupils excursion to the nearest traditional leader or government secretariat. These include visiting or obtaining permission from the school authority and the place and person to be visited as well as other necessary preparations.
• S/he shall guide/supervise the pupils to and from the excursion
• Assessment/Evaluation – the teacher shall evaluate the pupils at an ongoing basis and at the end of the lesson to ascertain whether the objectives are met.

LEARNERS’ ACTIVITIES

The pupils shall actively participate in the lesson by listening, asking and giving presentations.

PRESENTATION

The lesson is presented in such progressive steps as follows:

## Step 1: Introduction

Upon entering the class, the teacher impresses upon the minds of the pupils, the general but incorrect notion that political or traditional leaders (constituted authority) do not perform any work because they have servants to serve them and aids to assist them. This may be done in any way that is suitable to the teacher and which will yield expected result. Nonetheless, we suggest simple and interactive alternative way below:

• The teacher asks how many of the pupils are either from a royal home (i.e. whose relative is a monarch) or whose relative is a popular (high profile) political leader.

If there is none, proceed to the next step, or if there is, the teacher asks if such relative always work or does any work for the government to pay him/her and what work.

It is expected that the pupils will say that the relative does no tedious work.

• The teacher then tells the pupils the more common public opinion about political or traditional leaders – they are very rich people that do not do any work but instead, they have anything they want, any day, any time. S/he may give illustrations to make solidify the claim.
• Thereafter, s/he asks for the pupils’ opinion: Do they think that kings/queens and politicians work? Why do they think so (whether yes or no)? Teacher receives a couple of answer and allows a few minutes of discussion (talking mostly being made by and among the pupils).
• Following the discussion, the teacher introduces the topic by telling the pupils that the topic of the week is to know whether kings/queens and such popular politicians work and which work(s) they do.

However that not just kings, queens and popular politicians but that as they learned the week before that kings, queens and popular political are but only examples of constituted authority, they shall be learning the general responsibilities of constituted authority. Thereafter, the teacher explains the objectives of the topic to them and writes/projects the topic: RESPONSIBILITIES OF CONSTITUTED AUTHORITY on the board/screen then continue with step 2.

## Step 2: Explanation of terms

Before advancing further into the lesson, the teacher revises the last lesson and explains the meaning of responsibility to the pupils.

They had learned in the last lesson that constituted authority means an individual or group of people conferred with authority (power) and backed by the law to work on behalf of a community (group of people like association, village, town), state or country. For example,

At the family level, the persons that have the authority to act on behalf of the other members of the family are father and mother who are backed by natural and local law.

At school level, the constituted authority is (members of) the school management including the prefects, teachers, headmasters, head teachers, principals, rectors, provosts, vice chancellor e.t.c.

The teacher asks the pupils and together they list the constituted authorities at:

• Religious institutions (Churches/Mosques) level – pastors, priests, Imam, e.t.c.
• Town or community level – kings, queens, chiefs, e.t.c.
• Local government level – L.G Chairman and local government workers.
• State government level– governors and state government workers.
• Federal government level – the president, senators, ministers and other federal government workers.

After revising as given above, the teacher explains the meaning of responsibility as it is used in the topic: the works or duties that the constituted authorities ought to perform. S/he thereafter explains that although the responsibilities of the various constituted authorities vary from level to level, there are some responsibilities common to all of them.

The teacher then asks pupils to name some of such common responsibilities. After listing a couple, s/he asks for specific responsibilities of kings, queens or popular political leader (whichever they shall be visiting during the excursion). They are likely going to be unable to list more than two or three, consequently the teacher tells them that they shall be visiting such person to know more of his/her responsibilities. Thence, the teacher proceeds to step 3.

## Step 3: Excursion

Having made every necessary “external” preparation for the excursion earlier, the teacher now prepares the pupils for the excursion as follow:

• Discuss the purpose of the excursion – To know more of the responsibilities of the constituted authority.
• Teach Them Observation Skills – Teach them how to listen and observe critically for accurate description or gathering of information:
• They should learn to ignore distractionsuch as other kids’ watching or talking to or about them there.
• Pick and Focusthere, they should pick one thing (at a time) –seen or heard, that interests them, focus and pay attention to it and gather (by asking where necessary) as much information on it as possible[1].
• Sketch and Jotto remember what there had observed, they should learn how to describe by sketching and jotting on their notes (They may practice this by describing a given object in the class).
• Introduce Area Vocabulary – teacher should make a list of words that may likely be used during the excursion.
• Show Photographs or Poster of the place if possible
• Discuss how to ask good questions there – The class (teacher and pupils) should brainstorm and draw-up a list of open-ended observation questions that the pupils may ask to gather information during the visit.
• Assign Pupils to different roles – including who asks which question, how takes care of First Aid kit, e.t.c.
• Finally, discuss standard of conduct – what is the standard way of doing things such as greeting there? Let the class (teacher and pupils) brainstorm and formulate rules they must observe there.

Once the pupils’ preparation is complete and all papers and things taken, excursion begins!

## Step 4: Discussion

Upon return from the excursion, the teacher lets the pupils to discuss what they learned from the trip before progressing to the common responsibilities of constituted authorities in the next step.

## Step 5: General Responsibilities of Constituted Authority

Following the discussion, the teacher explains the common responsibilities of constituted authority with the video clips, slides charts. S/he plays or displays the clips then explains to the pupils what each clip means after asking their opinion of what they think was happening in the clips or charts. The responsibilities are listed below:

• Maintain law and order
• Settling disputes
• Developing the place
• Protecting lives and properties
• Representing the people
• Protecting the political rights of the citizens
• Making laws

EVALUATION

The pupils’ understanding of the topic is done through debate, presentation and assignments.

### ASSIGNMENT:

See assignments below.

### DEBATE

The essence of the debate is to evaluate he behavioral impact of the lesson on the pupils.

Narration:

Mr. Umar is a banker. On Monday, Mr. Umar was getting late for work so he drove as fast he could. Unfortunately, he got to a traffic light when it was only a second for the light to turn red. However, since Mr. Umar would be late if he delays any longer and there was no vehicle coming because it was at early hours, he tried beating the traffic. Too bad for him, traffic wardens were watching from a distance so he was arrested just before he crossed the light. The next day, Mr. Umar was fired for not going to work the previous day.

After the narration above, the teacher asks whether the traffic wardens did the right thing by arresting Mr. Umar, seeing that there were no vehicle on the road and the arrest cost him his job. Based on the pupils’ answers, s/he groups them into two: One group to speak in favor of the traffic wardens and the other group to counter the first group.

Each group is allowed to sit together to list and discuss their points. After some minutes, the teacher calls them for the debate.

### PUPILS’ INDIVIDUAL PRESENTATION

After the debate (and after teacher’s verdict), the pupils will be given homework: a 3-minute presentation on the topic: A Society without Constituted Authority which should be presented individually in their next class (the following week).

SUMMARY

Prior to hen end of the lesson, the teacher summarizes the entire lesson into a concise lecture note which is written/projected on the board/screen for the pupils to copy. Afterwards the teacher revises the lesson. The board summary is as given below (teacher may add where s/he deems fit).

## RESPONSIBILITIES OF CONSTITUTED AUTHORITY

Responsibilities of constituted authority mean the works or duties of constituted authorities perform or ought to perform. The common responsibilities of constituted authorities include:

• Maintain law and order
• Settling disputes
• Developing the place
• Protecting lives and properties
• Representing the people
• Protecting the political rights of the citizens
• Making laws

ASSIGNMENT

After revising the lesson, the teacher gives the following exercises either as class or home works to the pupils.

1. Which one best describes constituted authority?
1. An individual conferred with authority but not backed by the law
2. A group of people backed by the law without authority
• An individual or a group of people conferred with authority and backed by the law to act on behalf of the people.
1. Responsibilities means _________________________________________________________
2. Is class captain a constituted authority? Yes/No
3. Which one of the following persons is not a constituted authority?
2. Reverend Fathers
• Imams
1. Governors
1. Why the leader of bad gangs not a constituted authority is even though he acts (speaks) on behalf of the gang? _________________________________________________________________
2. Mention four responsibilities of performed by all constituted authorities
1. _____________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________
• _____________________________________________________________________
1. ______________________________________________________________________
1. Mention one thing you should do when a constituted authority fails to perform his responsibility:
1. ______________________________________________________________________

CONCULSION

The topic is concluded by marking and redistribution of pupils’ notebooks then linking the lesson to next topic: Traffic Regulations:

This week, we learned that it is one of the duties of constituted authorities to make laws (rules and regulations) while in the week before, next week we will learn about the rules our constituted authority has mad about traffic or road use.

[1] If digital display is being used, teacher may run the 1-minute video test by (Daniel & Christopher, 2010) of Monkey Business Illusion available Daniel’s YouTube Channel. Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJG698U2Mvo