Nigerian Government Educational Malpractices

This post with keywords, Nigerian government educational malpractices in brief

This post, Nigerian government educational malpractices describes the major educational malpractices by the government of Nigeria. It also shows how these malpractices have contributed to the fall of the quality of education in Nigeria. In conclusion, this post details how you can help to remedy the problem – by joining the Nigerian education reformation campaign.

Introduction to this post with keywords: Nigerian Government Educational Malpractices

This post, Nigerian Government Educational Malpractices, is a continuation of an earlier post. The earlier post gives a general introduction to the Nigerian Education Reformation – what it is, its objectives, the initiators and the actors. Click here to quickly read the earlier post.

This post, the earlier post and many more posts in this line are part of our series on the Nigerian education reformation. The Nigerian Education Reformation is a tagline for advocacy. An advocacy for, and promotion of ethical practices among education stakeholders to correct the many educational malpractices in the industry. This series of post is our way of giving voice to the reformation.

What the series aims to achieve

Through the series, we hope to inspire action in support of the reformation rather than passively communicating knowledge of the malpractices. It is a well-known fact that arbitrary listing of problems is not an issue for a typical Nigerian (student). We may even say the same for suggesting solutions. But, the issue has always been with implementation, putting the suggestions to work – practically acting to solve the problems. Action, consistent action; is the bedrock of any reformation.

Consequently, if you read this post and others in the series and you take the right action; then the posts shall have served their purpose. For this reason; majority of the malpractices that I discussed here shan’t be new to anyone of significant familiarity with the Nigerian education system.

Why Participate in the Reformation?

Well, whenever apolitical individuals hear something of the sort of reformation; they often feel it is a thing for some people but them. Whether true or not, this shouldn’t be so when the reformation is the field of education. This is because education is one field that everybody influences and also affects everybody.  This is not the post that I discuss how education relates to every aspect of human life. But the shortest thinking in this line will reveal ways and links between education and other aspects of our lives – even ways I may not have capture in the post.

Therefore, for a field as fundamental as education; a thing amiss equals an unbalanced society. Anyone with the required depth of understanding – of the underlying philosophy and psychology of the forgoing statement – could as well postulate that education (or the lack of its true state) is responsible for all social mishaps.

For the sake of those that will still need a reason to participate in the reformation; I have included the sections below.

The reason you should participate in the ongoing Nigerian education reformation is because it affects you.

The introduction of this section should make this clearer. There is need for reformation because there are malpractices overshadowing quality of education. When there is no quality education, the society cannot produce productive labour force. When the productivity of a society’s labour force is low, there is general imbalance and lower standard of living.

An average Nigerian in this era should understand this best. For if you are fortunate to be in the average to upper class, you will have more than enough people depending on you – people who could have been independent had the society be OK. And if you are below average, then you perfectly understand what general imbalance and lower standard of living mean.

By participating in the Nigerian education reformation, you are not only helping to repair the system to mutually benefit you. But you will be building a better society for the future generation.

Another reason you should participate in the reformation is to win the right to the law of compensation.

I have always taught this. Both in my trainings and whenever I have to write about choosing to stand up for any right course or to be indifferent. The world and all that we know of the heavens are founded on laws. These laws exert themselves within their jurisdiction without permission from the inhabitants. Every faithful student both of the natural and supernatural understands this perfectly. One of such laws, and by a very good extent very popular; is the law of compensation. The law of compensation opines that nature is a fair judge. And being so, it will reward you for every action you perform – good or bad.

I’ve seen this playing oft and now. I am sure you know people that “successfully” lived badly to end miserably. We have had people that “failed” in their good life for a happy ending. Either way, nature always has its course.

By participating in the Nigerian education reformation, you are taking a stand for the good against malpractices. In doing so too, you will automatically be commanding the entire of nature to conspire in your favour.

We have three kinds of legacy to leave behind.

First is the legacy of no legacy – nobody will remember you ever lived.

Second is the legacy of bad legacy – that which causes the progeny to cringe their faces with abhorrence or remember with indifference.

The last is the legacy of good legacy – that which inspires the posterity for greatness.

If you choose to act instead of being a bystander, read on – and be reminded of the educational malpractices by the governments. Who knows? You may be an education officer with the government or a member of the policy makers; then you will lead from the front. Otherwise, you can join your tempo to the chants of change and echoes of victory that is welling up from across the country.

Nigerian Government Educational Malpractices

Governments are the custodians of education, its guiders, policy makers and primary financiers. No wonder, governments at all level, federal, state and local, dedicate special arms and agencies for dispensing its educational duties.

The ministry of education oversees all education matters including supervision of every sub-ministry. Then there are education agencies with one special mandate or another in the administration of education and educational services. Some of these include the NCE, NUC, NBTE, NCCE, JAMB, NECO, NTI, NABTEB, UBEC, NERDC, NIEPA,  etc.

The mandates of each of these agencies and many others, are unique and central to the provision of quality education in Nigeria. These unique responsibilities collectively translate into a supposedly perfect and well-ordered system. If every government education agency discharges its duties responsibly, there will be no problems in the Nigerian education sector. This is because these agencies collectively form the foundation of the sector.

A Broken Foundation

But as Cardinal Wiseman rightly said, a break in a system does not represent “simply a link broken, but the very fastening of the whole [system] wanting; not merely a gap, or a break, made in the structure, but the foundation gone”.

The forgoing statement perfectly describes the Nigerian education system that we know today. Its very foundation seems to be gone. And what trust can be placed on a house whose foundation is gone?

The depletion of the foundation of Nigeria’s educational system is due to the ineffectiveness and lack of efficiency in its agencies. Consequently, a cardinal point of the Nigerian education reformation is to make government and its education agencies effective and efficient.

A break in a system does not represent simply a link broken, but the very fastening of the whole system wanting; not merely a gap, or a break, made in the structure, but the foundation gone

Reparation

Nonetheless, anyone with reasonable knowledge of the government’s educational malpractices – educational malpractices within government education agencies – will attest to the fact that the compromises are too much for self-reparation. The Nigerian peoples must be involved to make this possible. Accountability is the key.

Consequently, I list here below; the educational malpractices by the governments of Nigeria. These are simply headings for long discussions. We will discuss each adequately in subsequent posts.

The Educational Malpractices by the Nigerian government include:

  1. Under-funding
  2. Misappropriation of education funds
  3. Inconsistent education policies
  4. Delay in education service delivery
  5. Corruption and poor supervision

Nothing New

Do we not know the details of all these problems? In fact, a typical education student in any tertiary institution in Nigeria have listed same since far back as possible.

But again, discussing the same problems is not simply to communicate their knowledge. The objective is to spur all concerned parties – the members of the Nigerian education community – to action.

I will explore the breadth and depth of each of the headline issues that I outlined above in subsequent posts. In addition, I shall also explore the action plan to remedy the maladies.

Conclusion

As for this post, suffice it to say that you are able to:

  • Define the Nigerian education reformation
  • State the objective of the Nigerian education reformation
  • Mention why you have to participate in the Nigerian education reformation
  • List some government education agencies that forms the foundation of education in Nigeria
  • Identify five educational malpractices by the government of Nigeria

Check back for the continuation of the next article in the series.

Meaning of Quality Education in Nigeria

This post, Meaning of Quality Education in Nigeria – in brief

This post, meaning of quality education in Nigeria, is one of the fundamental principles – in the Nigerian education reformation. To us – the education reformers at LeadinGuides – the meaning of quality education in Nigeria is the same as true or substantive education. Hence, quality education in Nigeria is the end target of the reformation campaigns.

This post clearly explains the meaning of quality education in Nigeria. It is a post for all education stakeholders in Nigeria – especially those that are pushing for a change. With vivid understanding of the meaning of quality education in Nigeria, school owners and administrators will set better clear-cut targets; teachers will know where and when to throw the weight of their lessons; parents/guardians will be able to guide and support their children/wards better; and students will be able to prioritise their studies.

Introduction to meaning of quality education in Nigeria

The phrase, quality education is a common expression in our daily conversation. Most of the time, we use the phrase to imply the vague rather than the exact meaning. Nobody really cares actually, except now that it matters because we want change.

Every school owner will tell you their school provide quality education. And when they do this most times, they show the excellent results of their students/graduates. This is despite the fact that we know the ugly secret of how come about the excellent result in some cases. Even parents want quality education for their children.

But what is the meaning of quality education? How do you know if a school provide quality education? As a school administrator, how do you ensure quality education in your school?

Meaning of quality education in Nigeria

Seeing the topic meaning of quality education in Nigeria, one may ask why Nigeria? Is the meaning of quality education in Nigeria different from the meaning in another country?

To answer these, I recall the words of Dr Samuel Amaele of the university of Ilorin – “Since education is a cultural activity of the people, it means that every cultural system has its own education process. The yardstick for measuring quality and standard varies from culture to culture.” You can therefore see that since “the yardstick for measuring quality and standard varies from culture to culture”; the meaning of quality education also varies from culture to culture.

In my post on the new 9-Year Basic Education curriculum, I showed how the kind of education that a people provide depends on their education needs. Hence, the meaning of quality education in Nigeria may not be exactly the same as the meaning of education in Germany.

That notwithstanding, the world is a global village. And with share many things in common with other peoples of the world. Therefore, the meaning of quality education in Nigeria conforms to the global definition.

Global definition

Now someone may ask, “is there any global definition of quality education?” The technical answer to this question is yes.

On September 25, 2015; the United Nations (UN) – which is the largest global organization in the world – ratified the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on. The goal of the SDGs is to serve as benchmarks for every nation to ensure global prosperity – eradication of poverty, protection of the planet, and strengthening of universal peace and freedom.

You can read the full statement in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development here. The SDG goal number 4 is the SDG on education. And this SDG goal specifically defines what the countries of the world have agreed upon (ratified) as the target in education.

The SDG Goal 4

The SDG goal number 4 reads – Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.

Now the phrase “quality education”, which is the major target of the SDG on education raised some questions. Remember I said earlier that the meaning of education varies from culture to culture? Well, that came into play when UN focused the limelight on quality education. Some people argued that quality education is simply literacy and numeracy. But others measure quality education by the result from tests.

This argument became one of the reasons to bring educators from all over the world to the discussion desk. Two of the largest education groups in the world, the ASCD – Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development – and the IE – Education International lead an extensive discussion on the matter. The ASCD has members (educators) from more than 128 countries while the IE has teachers’ union from 172 countries. These two joined represent over 30 million educators from across the globe.

In February of 2017, the two groups released a joint statement in which they defined quality education without mincing words. In fact, the statement did not only define quality education but also comprehensively discusses it. See the definition below:

A quality education is one that focuses on the whole child—the social, emotional, mental, physical, and cognitive development of each student regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or geographic location. It prepares the child for life, not just for testing.

The last statement there is the summit of the global definition of quality education. So in summary, we can say that quality education is the education that prepares a child for life, not just for testing. This is quality of education on the global scale.

But…

What is the meaning of quality education in Nigeria?

Quality education in Nigeria for any given level is the education that meets the performance standard set for that level in attainment of the national education goals and in line with recent developments in the global education community.

Three important components of this meaning of quality education in Nigeria are:

  • standard for the level;
  • national education goals
  • recent developments in global education community

National Education Goals

This is the major component that distinguishes the meaning of education in Nigeria from elsewhere. Education is a fundamental social tool in any national system. The heroes of Nigeria’s liberation struggle saw education in Nigeria is the number one tool for effecting national development. Therefore, in the very first truly Nigerian conference after Nigeria’s independence; Nigerians of all ethnic groups, regions, classes and walks of life professed and ratified this in writing. This, they documented in the national policy on education.

Stating that “education as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development” means that whatever development the country seeks; must pass through the tunnel of education. This is another way of saying, “if our education system is effective, the country will develop as we want”.

Consequently, in view of the dream Nigeria of our founding fathers; they modelled (set goals for) the kind of education that is going to make that possible. These became the national goals of education. The goals are reviewed and expanded in line with current national development targets. The latest revision and expansion which occurred in 2004 – as a result of the country’s National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) – gave rise to the new national curriculum.

I discussed the Nigerian national curriculum in greater depths in an earlier post. The national education goals may be far-fetched for a non-education expert – or too large for us to measure its attainment. Therefore, suffice it simply for us to say that quality education in Nigeria at any level is one that attains the national education goals for that level.

Education Standards in Nigeria

The next component of the meaning of quality education in Nigeria is education standards. I just above that national education goals may be far-fetched for non-education expert – or that it is too large for us to measure its attainment. As a result, designated government agencies have the task of breaking the national education goals down into curriculum – the latest being the 2013/2017 Revised 9-Year Basic Education curriculum. In breaking down the national education goals into curriculum, the agencies set standards for the subjects and levels of education.

A standard is benchmark, level or target that is set by an authority for the subjects to achieve. Similarly, education standards are the established norms or targets that are set by authorized education agency/agencies or group(s) for players in education to achieve. There are three kinds of education standards. These include:

  • resource standards;
  • process standards; and
  • performance standards.

In the meaning of quality education in Nigeria, I noted that it is the kind of education that meet specifically, performance standards. Performance standards are the set goals or targets for what students should know, be able to do and character they should display at each level.

Apart from the agencies that set standards for the subjects and levels of education in Nigeria; there is also the UBEC which the law mandates to set standards specifically for the Basic Education levels. Section 9, sub-section (c) of The Compulsory, Free, Universal Basic Education and Other Related Matters Act, 2004 – which we now know as the UBE Act of 2004 – provided that the UBE Commission is to “prescribe the minimum standards for basic education throughout Nigeria in line with the National Policy on Education and the directive of the National Council on Education and ensure the effective monitoring of the standards”.

To a great extent, the UBEC has been up and doing in this special mandate. And while interested individuals can demand and acquire the minimum performance for basic education from them; the performance standards or targets that is set by the curriculum development agencies and the UBEC for each subject and grade level in Nigeria is not a suitable content for this post. Therefore, I shall here below state the general goals or targets set for each level of education in Nigeria.

General goals of each level of education in Nigeria

The National Policy on Education (2004) was specific on the general goals/objectives of primary, secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria. The policy gives about seven targets for each of the levels. These are as follows.

General goals of Primary education in Nigeria

The National Policy on Education (2004) stated the objectives of primary education are as follows:

  1. Inculcation of permanent literacy and numeracy and the ability to communicate effec
  2. The laying of a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking;
  3. Citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society.
  4. Character and moral training and the development of sound attitudes;
  5. Developing in the child the ability to adapt to his changing environment;
  6. Giving the child opportunity for developing manipulative skills that will enable him function effectively in the society within the limits of his capacity and;
  7. Providing basic tools for further educational advancement including preparation for trades and crafts of the locality.
General goals of secondary education in Nigeria

The broad goals of Secondary Education according to the National Policy on Education (2004) include, the preparation of the individual for:

  1. Useful living within the society and
  2. Higher education.

In specific terms, the objectives are to:

  1. Provide all primary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religion or ethnic background;
  2. Offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talents,

opportunities and future roles;

  1. Provide trained manpower in the applied science, technology and commerce at sub-professional grades;
  2. Develop and promote Nigerian languages, art and culture in the context of world cultural heritage;
  3. Inspire its students with a desire for self-improvement and achievement of excellence;
  4. Foster national unity with an emphasis on the common ties that unite us in our diversity;
Goals of Tertiary Education in Nigeria

The goals of tertiary education, according to the National Policy on Education (2004:31) are to:

  • Contribute to national development through high level relevant manpower training.
  • Develop and inculcate proper values for the survival of the individual and society.
  • Develop The Intellectual Capability of individuals to understand and appreciate their local and external e
  • Acquire both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individuals to be self-reliant and useful members of the society.
  • Promote and encourage scholarship and community service.
  • Forge and cement national unity, and to
  • Promote national and international understanding and interaction.

The National Policy on Education is broad in setting these goals. And we may need to break it down further for easy measurement. However, it is unquestionable that a careful study of these general goals of education in Nigeria will reveal that quality education in Nigeria remains far from being achieved in majority of the schools – primary, secondary and tertiary.

No person nor school should claim to offer quality education at any level of education until such as time as when s/he achieves the goals of education for that level.

Recent development in global education community

This is the last component of the meaning of quality education in Nigeria. Now you may ask, “why do we have to include this in our definition since the national education goals, the curriculum (standards) and the UBEC minimum performance standards for each grade level all take into consideration the recent development in global education community?”

Your guess is as good as mine – some reasonable parts of the Nigerian curriculum are outdated. But the curriculum contains the specific subject targets for each grade level. Therefore, the performance standards in these areas are also outdated. This is why anyone that claims or hopes to offer quality education in Nigeria must pursue the national education goals while at the same time independently aligning with recent developments in the global education community.

Conclusion of the meaning of quality education in Nigeria

In this post, we discussed the meaning of quality education in Nigeria. And we learned that the:

  • meaning of quality education in Nigeria somewhat conforms to the global definition of quality education.
  • Summary of the global definition of quality education is the education that wholesomely prepares a child for life, not just for testing – both for life and testing.
  • Meaning of quality education in Nigeria for any given level is the education that meets the performance standard set for that level in attainment of the national education goals and in line with recent developments in the global education community.

What this means for:

Ø  Students

Quality education is the only through education. Quality education is beyond test and exam results. It is about your whole being. It is not so much the school – everyone has their roles to play. But the role you play are the most important. They are many who graduated from school but without quality education. And their lives on the success grid is there to show for it. For your level, look through the goals again.

Make the personal decision to earn quality education for yourself. We are here to guide you, if you need assistance. Fill this form, select Instructor-Led Training and enter Personal Development in the subject, let’s begin this journey of change.

Ø  Parents

What this means for parents is that if you seek quality education for your child, you must look beyond the result many schools advertise to you. Majority of those results are made up. Watch our space for leading guides articles. For a personalize and guidance for your child, you should consider our personal development session for students. Fill the little form on the left-side of the page and we will take it up from there.

Ø  Teachers

You are the ultimate individual for delivering quality education. Lives are in your hands. The quality of your service will add or reduce from these lives. You should settle for nothing less than the highest quality and professionalism at your point of duty – from adequately planning the tiniest bit of your lessons to the most effective delivery, guiding supervision, accurate evaluation and an encouraging feedback. Learn, unlearn and relearn. Our lesson notes will get you on the way – recommend it to your head if necessary. And our Continuous Professional Training will put you on the platter of expertise and professionalism. Fill our service request form, select Instructor-Led Training and enter Continuous Professional Development in the subject.

  • School owners/administrators – I discussed in an earlier post that the people approach is the best way to sustainable growth. Quality education is contagious, leaves a lasting impression on the student, the parents and the teachers. A school these people are proud of, is a school that will stand the test of time. Quality education is hinged on quality teachers (class delivery), quality tool and quality environment. Do not stop trying your best to get the best of these components – that you can afford. And you will ensure and insure, not only quality education in your school but also sustainable growth. Our lesson notes are good for classrooms and our smart classroom facilities are choices of excellent tools.

Ø  Government (education agency officials)

Too often we forget that education, and all of its service, is no less important than the surgeon and the surgical team in the theatre. Not the slightest error by any member of the team – be it the surgeon himself, the anaesthesiologist, the nurse anaesthetist, operating room nurse, surgical tech, residents or medical students, physician assistant or even the medical device company representative – can be condoned without endangering the live on the stage. You are a member of a team whose operations affect not just a live but hundreds to thousands of lives and the society at large. The little deliberate oversights out of leniency and those of your colleagues add up to disaster in the sector & the society – lives unprepared to be lived, destinies aborted, innovations barred, development stunted, standard of living reduced and all forms of social vices propelled. Government engagements are the peoples’ trust and assignment. Fight your good course and see nature reward you.

Ø  All of us

Reformation is our only way left to reclaim quality education for the majority of Nigerians. Indeed, there are schools offering quality education in Nigeria today. But we know the estimate of the percentage. We also know these schools are not readily accessible to the majority of Nigerian students. The education that will transform the Nigerian society is that in which the majority is quality education. Participation in the Nigerian education reformation begins with the personal decision to deliver and pursue quality (true) education, stand up against educational malpractices and to advocate for the needed change.

Join our newsletter to stay updated with our latest publications on Nigerian Education Reformation and for updates on our products and services.

If you think this post is worth sharing, tap the social media icon and spread positivity.

We’ll like to hear what you think

[qsm quiz=3]

Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum

The Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum in One Sentence

This post with keywords: Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum – discusses all the past and present editions of the Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum up to the latest.

This will enable you to have a fuller understanding of the subject matter. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials.

Introduction to the Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum

The online community of the Nigerian education sector is currently inundated with a lot of information and resources. Far too many people claim to have and sell different educational materials – from curriculum to syllabus, scheme of works to lesson notes and so on.

To convolute things further, since everyone wants to sell; all claim to possess official materials – materials in-line with the NERDC curriculum. A school owner called me to request for lesson notes that are in line with the new 2020 NERDC curriculum that someone sold to her.

In the following sections, I list and discuss all past editions of the Nigerian 9-Years Basic Education National curriculum. I conclude this post by discussing the edition that schools are currently using.

The Entire 3-Series Post

This post is the second of a 3-part article. The entire article is a comprehensive post. I addressed all possible issues concerning the national curriculum as it is currently subsisting among the Nigerian education community. However, in order not to make this a tedious reading for the reader; I have shared the entire article into three part.

Part One – Meaning of Curriculum and How to Choose the Right Curriculum for your School

The first part defines what the (national) curriculum is. It enumerates the components of curriculum and discusses the types of curriculum in Nigerian schools. I concluded the first part by providing leading guides on how to choose the right curriculum for your school.

Part Two – Editions of the Nigerian National Curriculum

In the second part – of which this post is the last unit of, I discuss all the past and existing editions of the Nigerian National curriculum. This will enable you to have a fuller understanding of the subject matter. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials. Because the editions of the national curriculum are many, and to make the reading easier for you; I divided the second part into three smaller units.

The first unit – The Nigerian Indigenous and Missionary Curriculum

This unit discuss the type of curriculum that Nigerians used to train themselves before the arrival of foreigners. The unit also details the arrival of missionaries and the era of mission school with their curriculum.

The Second Unit – The Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum

I committed the second unit of part two to the Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum. This was the curriculum that the British colonial governments used to train Nigerians during colonization.

The Third Unit – The 6-3-3-4 & 9-Years Basic Education National Curriculum – Which is this post

The third unit of part two discusses the truly national curricula. It began by discussing the curriculum of the National Curriculum Conference. Then the third unit proceeded to 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. The third unit concluded by discussing the latest edition of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

Part Three – Curriculum, Syllabus, Scheme of Work, Unit of Work plan and Lesson plan

In the last part, I distinguished between curriculum, syllabus, course of study, scheme of work, Unit of Work plan and lesson plan. This last part addresses the major confusion issues between the terms.

The Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum

The Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum traces its origin to the 6-3-3-4 national curriculum. Consequently, I began this article with the 6-3-3-4 national curriculum.

The 6-3-3-4 National Curriculum

In the first post, I discussed the National Curriculum Conference and the National Policy on Education. The conference was held between September 8 and 17, 1969. The decisions at the conference eventually led to the publication of the National Policy on Education (NPE).

The National Policy on Education (NPE)

The National Policy on Education has a broad curriculum – as we had it before the UBE. The broad curriculum aims at creating enough learning opportunity for all children, irrespective of gender, age, ability, class, interest, etc. The NPE also laid foundation for the 6-3-3-4 system of education.

Implementation of the National Policy on Education (NPE)

Although the NPE is the wish of all Nigerians in writing, its immediate implementation was truncated by the Nigerian Civil war.

Consequently, when normalcy was restored, the government – of the second republic – began implementing the provisions of the National Policy on Education. First, the NPE was revised in 1981 to reflect recent developments. The civilian regime – second republic, according to the revised policy, adopted education “as instrument par excellence for effecting national development”.

Launch of the 6-3-3-4 curriculum

After the revision of the NPE, the government officially launched the 6-3-3-4 system of education in September, 1982. The 6-3-3-4 system of education means stipulated that the nation’s education shall cover six years of primary education, three years of junior secondary, three years of senior secondary and four years of tertiary education.  Accordingly, suitable curriculum was developed for the system of education.

Aims and Objectives of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The 6-3-3-4 curriculum was the direct product of the National Education Policy – which itself resulted from the National Curriculum Conference. This was the product of the yearnings and aspiration of the native people. The primary objective of the 6-3-3-4 was to realize a self-reliant and self-sufficient nation.

Content of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The 6-3-3-4 system emphasized academic and pre-vocational education. As I mentioned earlier, the curriculum was broad/comprehensive. It contained all the subjects as in the UBE edition – even more since each subject stood on their own unlike the UBE that compacted some subjects. As a result of the extensive length of subjects, the curriculum divided the subjects into two – the core and the elective subjects.

This also aligns with the 1980 West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASCE). In addition, vocational subjects were included and language policy changed. Originally, the plan was that continuous assessment would serve as the method of assessing the learners at the junior level while state and national examination would be used at the senior school level.

Implementation of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The government launched the 6-3-3-4 curriculum in September, 1982. However, when the curriculum was launched; many states were not prepared to implement it – remember the regionalization of education since Macpherson regime.

The politics of the time did not permit uniform implementation. Specifically, while the federal schools and schools in the states that was controlled by the ruling party began the implementation; schools in the states that was controlled by the opposition party did not commence implementation.

It was until the second military era in 1983 that the 6-3-3-4 curriculum was nationally implemented. Hence, the curriculum remained in use for nearly twenty years. Notwithstanding, the implementation was not hitch free. More so, the actualization of the objectives was not realized.

Experts attributed the ineffectiveness of the curriculum to a number of issues. Two major of such issues are: first, was hurried planning and financing. The curriculum was not test-run in small scale before national implementation. The second complaint was that the curriculum contained too many subjects. The later became a major reason for revision of subsequent national curriculum.

The Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC)

The second military era between 1983 and 1999 pursued a lot education policy. In 1988, the government merged Nigerian Educational Research Council; Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre; Nigerian Book Development Council; and Nigerian Language Centre to establish the Nigerian Education Development Council (NERDC).

One of the major mandates of the NERDC was to develop, review and enrich curriculum at all levels. Thenceforth, the development and revision of the national curriculum become the duty of the NERDC.

I will in the next section discuss the subsequent curriculum.

The 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

In an unforgettable event in the history of the nation, the military ceded power to civilian democratic rule. This ushered in a new era national aspirations and objectives. Accordingly, the government piloted new educational policies to meet the present aspirations and expectations.

A Respond to Global Development: Education for All

At the time a major development in the global education community was the Education for All (EFA) campaign of the United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The EFA was a part of the plans to actualize the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The World Education Forum adopted the EFA in April of 2000. It aimed that all children would receive primary education by 2015.

Nigeria, being a member of the United Nations since 1960, launched the Universal Basic Education (UBE) in September 30, 1999. Another – a most important – reason for the UBE programme was to build a new and better Nigeria that aligns to democratic principles.

The Aims and Objectives of the UBE Programme

The UBE emphasized formal basic education for all Nigerian children.  The objectives of the programme are:

  • developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and strong commitment to its vigorous promotion;
  • the provision of free compulsory Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school-going-age;
  • reducing drastically dropout rate; improved relevance and efficiency;
  • catering for the learning needs of young persons who for one reason or the other, had to interrupt their schooling;
  • Ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy; numeracy; manipulative communicative and life skills as well as the ethnical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for lifelong learning.

Scope of the UBE Programme

The UBE Programme did not cover tertiary education. Instead, it targeted education from Early Years through the first nine years of schooling – i.e. primary and junior secondary education. By lumping the first nine years of school – which is was Primary 1-6 and Junior Secondary School 3 in the 6-3-3-4 system – the UBE programme defined a new system of education for the nation. – the 9-3-4 system. The 9-3-4 system of education under the UBE programme means that there are three levels of formal education – the first level being the first nine years comprising Grade 1 through Grade 9; the second level being the 3 years of senior secondary school; and the last level being the 4 years of tertiary education.

The new system of education required a new curriculum. This curriculum is the 9-Year Basic Education curriculum.

Implementation of the UBE Programme

Though the UBE programme was launched in 1999, it did not begin implementation immediately. One of the reasons for was that there no adequate infrastructure – including appropriate curriculum.

The National Council on Education

As a result of the above, the National Council on Education was ignited to action. The National Council on Education is the highest decision making body in the education sector in the country. Its composed of members of Federal and State Ministry of Education, Education Agencies and Parastatals, Professional Bodies and Examination bodies.

2004 Education Act

In order to give more weight to the UBE programme, and also for the educational needs of the time, the government of Nigeria enacted the Free Education Act, 2004. This Act mandated all state governments to implement the UBE programme; parents to ensure that their wards compulsorily complete the UBE programme; and local government to ensure parents’ compliance with the directive. Most importantly, the Act officially restructured the school system to the 9-3-4 style.

Also pursuant to attaining the UBE objectives, the National Policy on Education was revised. The new structure was also enshrined in the revised National Policy on Education. The new structure invalidated First School Leaving Certificate (FSLC) in favour of the Basic Education Certificate (BEC).

The 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

With the new Education Act, the question of structure, finance and compliance was settled. Hence, to perfect arrangements for implementation of the scheme, NERDC developed the required curriculum. Between January and March, 2005; the NERDC convened a meeting of experts. NERDC also organized several workshops to the 9 – Year Basic Education curriculum. The NERDC did this by revising and merging the Primary and Junior secondary curricula of the 6-3-3-4 system.

In December 25, 2005; NERDC presented the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum to the NCE at its meeting in Ibadan. The National Council on Education approved the curriculum. Subsequently, the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum was introduced into Primary and Junior Secondary Schools in September, 2008 –  for effective implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme.

Content of the 9 – Year Basic Education Curriculum

The 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum reflects depth, appropriateness and interrelatedness of the curricula subjects. Also emerging issues which covered value orientation, peace and dialogue – including human rights education, family life/HIV and AIDS education, entrepreneurship skills, etc. – were infused into the relevant subjects of the 9-Year Basic Education curriculum.

In all, the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum had 20 subjects. These include:

  1. Mathematics
  2. English Language
  3. Basic Science
  4. Basic Technology
  5. Computer Studies
  6. Agricultural Science
  7. Home Economics
  8. Social Studies
  9. Civic Education
  10. Business Studies
  11. Cultural and Creative Arts
  12. Nigerian Language (Hausa, Igbo or Yoruba)
  13. Arabic
  14. French

Distribution of Subjects under the Basic Education Curriculum

Although the BEC contained 20 subjects, not all levels of the 9-Year school are expected to offer all the subjects at once. The curriculum divided the 9 years in three:

  1. Lower Basic – Primary 1 to 3 – same as Grade 1 to Grade 3
  2. Middle Basic – Primary 4 to 6 – Grade 4 to 6
  3. Upper Basic – JSS 1 to 3 – Grade 7 to 9.

The subjects are distributed such that:

  • Lower Basic offered a minimum of 11 subjects and a maximum of 12.
  • Middle Basic offered a minimum of 12 subjects and a maximum of 13.
  • The Upper Basic offered a minimum of 13 subjects and a maximum of 15.

The End of the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

As I have stated earlier, one of the major objectives of the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum was to ensure that learners acquire useful knowledge, skills and values for participating effectively anywhere in the world.

The first batch of the JSS students under the BEC completed their programme in June, 2011. Also, the Primary school pupils who will be products of the Basic Education curriculum are expected to enter JSS one by September of 2014. This necessitated evaluation of the curriculum to identify loopholes and how to make it better.

With respect to this, educators provided feedbacks on the curriculum – recommending amendments. Key of the amendments that the feedbacks recommended included repetitions of concepts – both at the same and different classes and levels – and also outdated contents. Other issues that led to the discontinuation of the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum are that:

  • The presidential summit on education which was held in 2010 identified that the curriculum was overloaded in term of the number of subjects
  • There were new national and global issues that changed the educational needs of the time – including issues of Security Education, Disaster Risk Reduction Education and issues of Climate Change.
  • Issues of modern teaching and learning methods emerged in the global education community – which the national curriculum had to incorporate.

As a result of these issues with the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum, decision reached at the Presidential Summit on the Restoration of Education in Nigeria held in October 2010 directed the NERDC to revise the BEC. The NERDC are to revise the BEC in line with – an earlier – Presidential Task Team Report on Education, and also taking into cognizance international best practices and global competitiveness, without compromising the quality of the school curriculum.

In the last section of this post below, I discuss the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

The New Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

The New Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum is the Nigerian National curriculum that came into existence in 2013 which schools are currently using now.

The problems of the 9-Year BEC that I mentioned earlier occasioned the new Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. In addition to the issues, there was new national objectives that the education had to target. That was the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS).

The National Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS)

Recall that the government of Nigeria launched the UBE programme in demand of the new system of government – in addition to being a respond to global Education for All (EFA) campaign of the UNESCO.

After one democratic administration (1999 – 2003), the needs of the nation have changed. Pre-1999, the desire of Nigerians – as well as the wish of the rest of the world for them – was a peaceful democratic regime and the access to basic education. Nigerians were tired of the violent military regime and sort alternative. They celebrated at the transition from military to democracy in 1999.

However, by the time the first democratic tenure elapsed – when the UBE programme was just beginning to take hold – the country had begun to experience the inevitable aftermath of the long years plunged by military regime. There was poverty in the land, unemployment was on the rise and the values of the citizenry began to wade.

The new (second democratic) government of the day – though the same as the previous – swung into action. To remedy the impending national issues of the day; it launched the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) on 30th March, 2004.

Objectives of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS)

The NEEDS had five major targets which include:

  • Value re-orientation
  • Poverty Eradication
  • Job Creation
  • Wealth Generation
  • Using Education to Empower the Citizenry

These objectives – just as any other national economic strategy – are hinged on education.

The Vision 2020

Four years into implementing the UBE programme – as the launched of the BEC occasioned – alongside the NEEDS, Nigeria began experiencing a growth turnaround. Conditions seem right for launching onto a path of sustained and rapid growth. Then then Governor of Central Bank saw reasons with the Goldman Sachs projections of Nigeria. Both the CBN governor and the Goldman Sachs were optimistic that Nigeria could be among the top 20 largest economy by 2020.

The government consequently launched the vision 2020 project in 2008/9. Education, being an instrument par excellence for effecting national development in Nigeria – as the revised NPE of the second republic puts it – has to see to the actualization of the vision 2020.

The problems of BEC, the objectives of the NEEDS and that of Vision 2020 compounded to induce a compulsory curriculum review. The result of that review is the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

Objectives of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

The new 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum primarily targets the objectives of the NEEDS and vision 2020. These objectives include:

  • Value re-orientation
  • Poverty Eradication
  • Job Creation
  • Wealth Generation
  • Using Education to Empower the Citizenry
  • Contributing to make Nigeria one of the top 20 largest economy in the world by year 2020

Content and Structure of the New Revised 9 – Year Basic Education Curriculum

The new 9-Year Basic Education curriculum revised the BEC from 20 subjects to a maximum of ten (10) subjects. The stakeholders that participated in the curriculum review did through a conceptual framework. The framework is such that they identified and grouped related subjects in the BEC, thereby achieving reduction in subject listings. Find the grouping in the table below:

Grouping of Subjects in Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum
Composite subject
Constituent subjects
Basic Science and Technology (BST)Basic Science, Basic Technology, Physical and Health Education and Information Technology
Religion and National Values (RNV)CRS/IRS, Social Studies, Civic Education and Security Education
Prevocational Studies (PVS)Agriculture and Home Economics

 

After the grouping, the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum has 10 subjects. The curriculum structures the subjects thus:

  • Lower Basic – minimum of 6 subjects and maximum of 7
  • Middle Basic – minimum of 7 subjects and maximum of 8
  • Upper Basic – minimum of 9 and maximum of 10

The final subject distribution is as in the table below:

Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum Subjects
LOWER BASIC

Primary 1 – 3

MIDDLE BASIC

Primary 4 – 6

UPPER BASIC

JSS 1 – 3

1.      English Studies1.      English Studies1.      English Studies
2.      Mathematics2.      Mathematics2.      Mathematics
3.      Basic Science and Technology  (BST)3.      Basic Science and Technology (BST)3.      Basic Science and Technology (BST)
4.      Cultural and Creative Arts (CCA)4.      Cultural and Creative Arts (CCA)4.      Cultural and Creative Arts (CCA)
5.      Religion and National Values (RNV)5.      Religion and National Values (RNV)5.      Religion and National Values (RNV)
6.      One Nigerian Language6.      Prevocational Studies (PVS)6.      Prevocational Studies (PVS)
7.      Arabic (Optional)7.      French7.      French
 8.      One Nigerian Language8.      Business Studies
 9.      Arabic (Optional)9.      One Nigerian Language
  10.  Arabic (Optional)

 

Implementation of the New 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

The systematic implementation of the revised curriculum commenced from Primary 1 and JSS 1 in September, 2013. Systematic implementation means that only these two – beginning – classes started using it while the other classes – Primary 2 to 6 and JSS 2 and 3 – continued with the Basic Education curriculum. The systematic implementation allowed for the gradual phasing out of the earlier BEC in subsequent years.

All primary classes ought to be using the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum since 2019. Similarly, all Junior secondary schools in Nigeria ought to be using the Revised 9 – Year Basic Education Curriculum since 2016.

The Latest Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum

I noted from the beginning of the article how someone sheepishly sold a purported 2020 edition of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum to a school owner.

I am not aware of any 2020 edition of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. The latest edition you can get anywhere – as at the time of writing this post – is the 2017 edition.

2017 Edition of the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

In 2016 there was outcry over the inclusion of Christian Religious Studies and Islamic Studies as a substituent of RNV.

The protesters agitated for Religious Studies to be made standalone subjects. Consequently, at its 62nd Meeting, presided over by the Honourable Minister of Education, Mal. Adamu Adamu, held at the Afficent Events Centre, Nassarawa, GRA in Kano from Monday 24th- Friday 28th July, 2017; the National Council on Education ratified the separation of Religious Studies into standalone subjects. This means that Christian Religious Knowledge and Islamic Studies was approved to be separated from Religion and National Values. There was no new curriculum neither of CRS nor IRS.

However, there was an addition to the Revised 9-Year BEC. Also at the meeting in Kano, the National Council on Education ratified the return of History into the national curriculum. Consequently, NERDC developed History curriculum for Grade 1 through 9.

The implementation of the History curriculum commenced in September 2019. Hence it is mandated for all schools to acquire and begin the implementation of the curriculum as well as to teach CRS/IRS as separate subjects. As at today, all schools ought to be teaching History already.

Conclusion

This post on the Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum ends the part of the 3-series post – on the Nigerian National Curriculum.

With the end of this post, you should now be able to:

  • Define or explain the term curriculum without mincing words;
  • State the components of a curriculum;
  • Confidently participate in curriculum talk within the school workspace environment;
  • Choose the right curriculum for your school;
  • Mention and differentiate the contents of the editions of the Nigerian National Curriculum; and
  • Authenticate any curriculum that someone tries to sell to you.

These however, are not all there is to curriculum. For when you talk about curriculum; other terms like syllabus and Scheme of Work comes to mind. Not only do some educators find these terms confusing, but confusion becomes more when terms like unit plan and lesson plan comes to the discussion.

Authoritatively differentiating them is the focus of the last part of the series on curriculum. Check back frequently for this post.

Spread Love

Finally, we want to reach as many educators as possible – with our well researched articles. This, we believe is a role we can play in the ongoing Nigerian Education Reformation. In addition, some of your social media connections may find this useful.

If you think so, help us accomplish our goals by sharing this with your friends.

We want to hear from you

We also anticipate and welcome feedbacks, questions, suggestions, requests and orders. If you have any of these – especially if you need any educational resource – do not hesitate to contact us via email – [email protected]; phone – 07056053189; or WhatsApp: +234-80-6768-9217  and +234-80-6734-9791

 


[qsm quiz=3]


References

The materials I consulted in writing the entire article are listed below:

Project Writers Ng. (2016, January 14). NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND PLANNING FROM 1968 TILL DATE; THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Project Writers Ng: https://www.projectwriters.ng/national-development-plan-and-planning-from-1968-till-date-the-nigerian-experience/

Adeoye, E. A. (2017). CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: THEORY & PRACTICE (A study Guide for PGD Ed) Students.

Ajayi, I. A. (n.d.). TOPICAL ISSUES IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION (A Study Guide for PhD in Educational Administration). University of Ado-Ekiti.

AKANBI, G. O., & ABIOLU, O. A. (2018). Nigeria’s 1969 Curriculum Conference: a practical approach to educational emancipation. Cadernos de História da Educação. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326884292_Nigeria’s_1969_Curriculum_Conference_a_practical_approach_to_educational_emancipation

AKPAN, G. A., USORO, H. S., & IBIRITAM, K. S. (n.d.). The Evolution of Vocational Education in Nigeria and Its Role in National Development. The Intuition. Retrieved from http://globalacademicgroup.com/journals/the%20intuition/The%20Evolution%20of%20Vocational%20Education%20in%20Nigeria%20and%20Its%20Rol.pdf

Amaele, S. (2017). HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA. University of Ilorin.

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (3rd Edition). (2008). Cambridge University Press (Armada).

Danielson, C. (2002). Enhancing Student Achievement. Retrieved from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/102109/chapters/School-Organization.aspx

Ewemade, I. (2015). National Economic Empowernment Development Strategy (NEEDS) as a Panacea for Employment Creation and Self Employment and Self Reliant. Journal of Educational and Social Research. Retrieved from https://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/jesr/article/viewFile/6557/6283

Fafunwa, A. B. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria. London: George Allen & Uniwin.

Iheanacho, E. N. (2014). National Development Planning in Nigeria: An Endless. International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment Search for Appropriate Development Strategy.

Imam, H. (2012). Educational Policy in Nigeria from the Colonial Era to the Post-Independence Period. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION.

Musingafi, M. C., Mhute, I., & Kaseke, K. E. (2015). Planning to Teach: Interrogating the Link among the Curricula, the Syllabi, Schemes and Lesson Plans in the Teaching Process. Journal of Education and Practice.

Nduka, O. A. (1975). Western Education and the Nigerian Cultural Background. Ibadan: Oxford University Press.

NERDC . (2015). NERDC Basic Technology for Junior Secondary Schools 2. Ikeja, Lagos: Learn Africa Plc.

NERDC. (2004). The National Policy on Education. Yaba, Lagos: NERDC. Retrieved from http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/AFR/Nigeria/TCH/National%20Policy%20on%20Education.pdf

NERDC. (2007). 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Basic Technology) for JSS 1 – 3. Abuja: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

NERDC. (2013). Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

Nwangu, D. I. (2009). ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION. Enugu State University of Science & Technology.

Ojebiyi, O. A. (2014). An Historical Survey of the Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria . Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.

Omoifo, C. N. (2012). ADVANCED CURRICULUM THEORY (A Study Guide for . University of Benin.

Osokoya, I. O. (1995). History and Policy of Nigerian Education in Nigeria . Ibadan: AMD Publishers.

Quinn-Young, C., & White, J. E. (n.d.). A HIstory for Nigerian Schools, Pupils Book Two. London: Evans Brothers Limited.

Soludo, C. C. (2006). CAN NIGERIA BE THE CHINA OF AFRICA? Benin. Retrieved from https://www.cbn.gov.ng/out/speeches/2006/Govadd27-11-06.pdf

Stephens, M. (2019, April 23). Does Nigeria Use British or American English? Retrieved from Naija Home Based: https://www.naijahomebased.com/does-nigeria-use-british-or-american-english/

Teniola, E. (2018, March 20). Our new national development plan. Retrieved from Vanguard: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/03/our-new-national-development-plan/

The Glossary of Education Reform. (2013, August 29). LEARNING EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Glossary of Education Reform: https://www.edglossary.org/learning-experience/

UBEC. (n.d.). About UBE. Retrieved from Universal Basic Education Commission: https://ubeconline.com/about_ubec.php

Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum

The Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum in One Sentence

This post with keywords – Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum – discusses all the curricula that foreign managed schools used to train Nigerians during colonial era. The post contains the various editions of the Nigerian national colonial curriculum. For each edition, it describes the content and the objectives – where there is considerable change.

Introduction to the Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum

The online community of the Nigerian education sector is currently inundated with a lot of information and resources. Far too many people claim to have and sell different educational materials – from curriculum to syllabus, scheme of works to lesson notes and so on.

To convolute things further, since everyone wants to sell; all claim to possess official materials – materials in-line with the NERDC curriculum. A school owner called me to request for lesson notes that are in line with the new 2020 NERDC curriculum that someone sold to her.

In the following sections, I list and discuss all the editions of the Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum. I began by discussing the objectives of the colonial education for Nigerians.

The Entire 3-Series Post

This post is the second of a 3-part article. The entire article is a comprehensive post. I addressed all possible issues concerning the national curriculum as it is currently subsisting among the Nigerian education community. However, in order not to make this a tedious reading for the reader; I have shared the entire article into three part.

Part One – Meaning of Curriculum and How to Choose the Right Curriculum for your School

The first part defines what the (national) curriculum is. It enumerates the components of curriculum and discusses the types of curriculum in Nigerian schools. I concluded the first part by providing leading guides on how to choose the right curriculum for your school.

Part Two – Editions of the Nigerian National Curriculum – which this is a part

In the second part – of which this is the second unit of, I discuss all the past and existing editions of the Nigerian National curriculum. This will enable you to have a fuller understanding of the subject matter. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials. Because the editions of the national curriculum are many, and to make the reading easier for you; I divided the second part into three smaller units.

The first unit – The Nigerian Indigenous and Missionary Curriculum

This unit discuss the type of curriculum that Nigerians used to train themselves before the arrival of foreigners. The unit also details the arrival of missionaries and the era of mission school with their curriculum.

The Second Unit – The Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum – That is this post

I committed the second unit of part two to the Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum. This was the curriculum that the British colonial governments used to train Nigerians during colonization.

The Third Unit – The 6-3-3-4 & 9-Years Basic Education National Curriculum

The third unit of part two discusses the truly national curricula. It began by discussing the curriculum of the National Curriculum Conference. Then the third unit proceeded to 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. The third unit concluded by discussing the latest edition of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

Part Three – Curriculum, Syllabus, Scheme of Work, Unit of Work plan and Lesson plan

In the last part, I distinguished between curriculum, syllabus, course of study, scheme of work, Unit of Work plan and lesson plan. This last part addresses the major confusion issues between the terms.

 The Nigerian Colonial Curriculum (1882 – 1948)

From preceding discussions – on Indigenous and Missionary curriculum; it is clear that western education became widespread in Nigeria at about 1842. And even so, the western education activities were not evenly distributed across the country. Instead, it was concentrated within Badagry and Lagos – including Abeokuta, Benin and Warri. These are the areas with pronounced activities of the foreigners – missionaries and merchants.

Start of colonialism

Although there was reasonable presence of foreigners in Nigeria since the 14th century; the foreigners had little or no interest in the politics of the land. While the missionaries settled for their works of evangelism, the merchants focused on their businesses.

There was however a turn of event between 1851 and 1861. The British foreigners capitalized on the dynastic rivalry between the King of Lagos and the Oba of Benin and gained control of the land. Eventually, Nigeria became a colony of Britain.

Delayed interest of colonial government in Nigerian education

However, the colonial governments did not immediately intervene in education. (Osokoya, 1995) noted that this was due to three reasons.

The first reason is because religious interest preceded political interest – and so it was only proper that the political government allowed the religious community to enjoy some moments of freedom. Another reason was that the colonial government is modelled after the British style – where education was decentralized and the private and religious organizations were allowed to establish and run schools on their own. Finally, the colonial government did not intervene in the education due to its cost implications.

Development of colonial government’s interest in Nigerian Education

The colonial government’s lack of interest in education did not last long. As from 1872, the colonial governments donated £30 to each of the active missionary organizations. The government increased the financial support – grant-in-aid – to £200 pounds in 1877. This was sustained until 1882.

As a natural occurrence, the grant-in-aid made the government an active contributor to the business of education. But beyond making the government an active contributor to education business of the land, the grant-in-aid also gave the government the right to claim control of the business.

Consequently, the colonial government decided to gradually intervene in the policy making in education, through what they called education ordinance. The education ordinances of the successive colonial governments included curriculum regulation among other aspects of education.

Therefore, such ordinances as those that resulted in a significant change in the curriculum include:

  1. 1882 education ordinance which produced the 1882 curriculum
  2. 1887 education ordinance which produced the 1887 curriculum
  3. The Northern Nigeria education curriculum
  4. 1916 education ordinance which produced the 1916 curriculum
  5. The 1926 curriculum

Aims and Objectives of the Colonial Education in Nigeria

I have earlier discussed that every curriculum is a means to attaining the education needs of its time. The colonial curricular are not exemptions. Just like the missionary curriculum, the colonial curricular were designed to attain the education needs of the colonial administrators for the people. The aims and objectives of the colonial education in Nigeria is to produce:

  1. low level manpower that could be cheaply used as interpreters, messengers, artisans and clerks;
  2. some indigenous youths who could help the rural farmers in planting, harvesting and processing some needed cash crops which were exported to Europe as raw materials to their industries;
  3. semi-literate citizens that could conform and be absorbed as instruments for actualizing the British philosophy of colonialism

These education needs informed the curriculum especially at the earliest period of the colonial government’s interest in education. When aims however changed with time – when native blacks and nationalists started filtering into the administration of the colony.

I will now briefly enumerate the content of each of the curriculum in the following sections.

1882 curriculum

The 1882 curriculum came into force on May 6, 1882. The 1882 West African Education ordinance enabled the curriculum. The ordinance was the government’s first formal attempt to control education in the colony. Hence, there was no much change in the curriculum – the government basically inherited the 3R’s curriculum of the mission schools. However, one major change was that the 1882 curriculum made religious studies optional. It also mandated uniform curriculum across the schools – both government and mission schools.

Content of the 1882 curriculum

The content of the 1882 curriculum include:

  1. Reading
  2. Writing
  3. English Language
  4. Arithmetic
  5. Technical Education – leatherwork, needle-work, carpentry, smithing weaving and book binding
  6. Geography – optional
  7. History – optional
  8. CRS – optional

The 1887 curriculum

It is pertinent to note that after the British succeeded in making Lagos a colony, their interest to enlarge the colony to other parts of Nigeria increased. There were a lot of expansion campaigns that were going on as the development in education within the Lagos – Badagry axis unfolded.

The successful expansion of the Lagos colony made Britain to separate Lagos from the Gold Coast – Ghana – colony. In addition to the separation of the colonies, there was increase in the number of educated Nigerian nationalists. These nationalists also increased agitation for a more Nigerian-focused education. These led to the 1887 education ordinance – which brought the 1887 curriculum.

Content of the 1887 curriculum

The 1887 education ordinance focused rather more on educational administration issues than on curriculum. As a result, the 1887 curriculum is basically the same as the 1882 curriculum. The major difference was the provision for fundamentals of science and technology education.

At around 1859, the expanding colonial government and the economy in Nigeria created the high demand for both tradesmen and higher level of technological manpower. The subsequent required the services of technologists by the colonial administration. The importation of these skilled labours from Europe will increase their financial cost of running the colony.  More so, recruiting junior technical workers from Britain – who will obviously come from the lower socio-economic class would have negative effect on their assumed superior image.

Consequently, the schools – at different times – introduced primary Science around 1859. Also during the era of the 1887 curriculum, 13 secondary schools were established – starting with CMS Grammar School in 1859.

The content of the 1887 curriculum included the following elementary and Grammar School subjects:

  1. Reading
  2. Writing
  3. English Language
  4. Arithmetic /Mathematics
  5. Needle Work – for female students
  6. Geography – optional
  7. History – optional
  8. CRS – optional
  9. Science and Technology – Primary Science and Introductory Technology
  10. Latin
  11. Classics

NOTE: Secondary schools had more subjects. However, the subjects vary from school to school.

The Norther n Nigerian Education Curriculum (1909 – 1929)

The northern Nigerian education curriculum is the curriculum that western schools used to train people of the Northern Nigeria during the colonial period.

Recall that western education in Nigeria started from the south – southern protectorate. And most of what I have discussed so far applies only to the present day western and eastern Nigeria. The southern protectorate existed nearly 40 years before northern – in 1900.

However, when the British eventually established the northern protectorate in 1900; they sought to replicate in it the educational functions they have been performing in the south – out of need. Nonetheless, the religious, political and cultural setting of the then north was different from the south. Consequently, while the British employed direct rule in the south; they applied indirect – diplomatic – rule in the north.

The northern education curriculum came into force after the colonial government established the first government primary school – Nassarawa primary School – in Kano in 1909. The curriculum remained in used – with little changes – until the Clifford education ordinance in 1926. And even the 1926 education act only regularized the curriculum rather than change altogether.

Aims and Objectives of Colonial Education for the Northern Nigeria

Soon after the creation of the Northern protectorate, the British had two immediate problems. First was how to fuse the colonial political administration with the well-established Muslim local administration.  The second major problem was how to introduce western style education in such a region where organized Islamic Education was in full progress. Hans Vischer – a missionary worker –  was appointed administrative officer to organize a system of education for the protectorate of Northern Nigeria. After research and studies, Vischer produced a report which can be considered the best statement of the aims and objectives of the colonial education for the northern Nigeria. These include following:

  1. Develop the national and racial characteristics of the natives on such lines as will enable them to use their own moral and physical forces to the best advantage;
  2. Widen their mental horizon without destroying their respect for race and parentage;
  3. Supply men for employment in the government;
  4. Produce men who will be able to carry on the native administration in the spirit of the government;
  5. Impart sufficient knowledge of Western ideas to enable the native to meet the influx of teachers, and others from the coast with the advent of the railway, on equal terms;
  6. Avoid encouraging the idea, readily formed by Africans, that it is more honourable to sit in an office than to earn a living by manual labour, introducing at the earliest opportunity, technical instruction side by side with purely classical training
Content of the Norther Nigerian Education Curriculum

Based on the aims and objectives of the colonial education for the northern Nigeria, the 1887 curriculum that the south was currently using at the time was not sufficient.  In addition, the north vehemently refused anything that has to do with the Christian missions. Consequently, they were not going to accept CRS in their schools.

The solution to this was the secular nature of the education that the northern colonial government ran. Consequently, the northern education curriculum included part of the already existing traditional education of the northern people; and part of the 1887 curriculum in the south.

 The 1916 Curriculum

The colonial government amalgamated the Southern and Northern protectorate in January 1914. After the amalgamation, the government enacted the 1916 education ordinance. This ordinance controlled education in the whole country – covering both the southern and northern region.

Content of the 1916 curriculum

The content of instruction remained largely the same as the 1887 curriculum – because the 1916 ordinance was majorly administrative in nature. However, the 1916 curriculum also added one major subject to the curriculum – Moral instructions i.e. Training on the formation of character and habits of discipline.

The 1926 curriculum

Phelps-Stoke Commission

Between 1920 to 1924, Phelps-Stoke Commission – a philanthropic organization in America established in 1911 by Miss Caroline Phelps-Stokes to enhance the religion and education of black peoples in Africa and the United States of America – set up a research team to evaluate the educational needs of Africa – especially in the area of religious, social, hygienic and economic conditions – and the educational work done so far.

The Phelps-Stoke Commission published their findings and recommendations in 1922 and 1926. Reacting to the 1922 recommendations, the British Secretary of State for the colonies set up a committee on Native Education in the British Tropical African Dependencies, in November 1923. The committee was to advise the government on educational matters.

The 1925 Memorandum on Education

In 1925, the committee packaged a comprehensive pieces of advice in a document. Nigerian Education Historians call this document the Memorandum 1925 Memorandum in education.

The 1925 Memorandum on education is the most comprehensive policy on education of the colonial government. The document also defined the Nigerian educational structure. Subsequent colonial governments based their educational policies on the recommendation of this document.

In 1926, Sir Hugh Clifford began the implementation of the 1925 Memorandum on education. The major target of the memorandum was domestication of education to suit the needs and culture of the people. Hence, even in the 1926 ordinances, the north and south still maintained independent education framework – though the government tried to harmonize things and ensure compliance as much as possible.

Consequently, in 1926; separate education ordinances for north and south came into existences – thus creating the 1926 curriculum.

Aims and Objectives of the 1926 curriculum

The aims and objectives of the 1926 curriculum include:

  1. Adaptation of education to the mentality, aptitudes, occupations, and traditions of the various peoples;
  2. Attracting the greatest importance to religious teaching and moral instruction related to the conditions and daily experience of the pupils;
  3. Localization of learning
  4. Making the acquisition of their knowledge of English and Arithmetic essential before the start of apprenticeship for skilled artisans;
  5. Instilling into pupils through the education system the view that vocational careers are as honourable as the clerical, and making them equally as attractive;
  6. Promoting better education of girls and women in the tropical African communities since educated wives and mothers mean educated homes;
  7. Instituting a complete education system, comprising infant and primary school education for boys and girls; secondary or intermediate education; vocational education; advanced education; and adult education.
Contents of the 1926 curriculum for infant, primary, middle and secondary schools

From the discussions above, it is obvious that the 1926 curriculum was an expansion of the already curricular. The key additions to the curricular include:

  1. Nigerian Languages – Hausa in the North, Yoruba in the west and Igbo in the East
  2. Cultural and Creative Art
  3. Vocational Aptitude
  4. Gardening
  5. Hygiene
  6. Religious Studies – CRS and IRS
The Amalgamation of the North and South Education Board

In 1929, the colonial government merged the education department of the north and south. However, there was no major change in the 1926 curriculum.  Instead, Hussey’s Policy on Education – which was a proposal that resulted from the amalgamation of the education departments – defined a new and uniform system of education for Nigeria.

Hussey’s Policy on Education was adopted in 1939

Although the 1926 curriculum expected learners –both in the south and north – to complete the curriculum in 14 years; it structured the 14 years differently for both regions. While the south operated the 2-6-6 structure or system – which means 2 years in elementary school; 6 years in primary school; and 6 years in secondary school – the north operated the 2-4-4-4 structure or system – which means 2 years in elementary school; 4 years in primary school; 4 years in middle school; and 4 years in secondary school.

Regionalization of Education

There was no more major curriculum change in Nigeria until the national curriculum conference. However, there were many other developments in the education sector. Customarily, almost every government comes to power with her policy – an education was not exempted. One of such major development that impacted the Nigerian national curriculum is the 1952 education act.

The Arthur Richard’s Constitution of 1946 divided Nigeria into three regions: West, East and North. Extending this further, the 1951 Macpherson’s Constitution gave each region power to legislate and make laws on education, health, agriculture and local government within the boundaries of its region.

Consequently, this constitutional provision led to the division of education department into three parallel departments, to reflect the three regions. Each region thereafter made its laws. All further developments in the sector danced to the political drum of the region.

1948 Curriculum

In1943, the government organized two commissions with a view to improving higher education in the country. The commissions include the Asquith Commission, the Elliot Commission and the Ashby Commission. Based on the recommendations of the commissions, tertiary institutions – now first generation universities – were established. In order to prepare students for the higher institution, the curriculum was expanded in the 1948 education ordinance.

The Ashby Commission Curriculum Revision

Similarly, in 1959; the government of Nigeria set up the Ashby Commission to investigate and recommend to the government – among others – on the needs for higher education in Nigeria. The Ashby commission’s report was comprehensive. It embraced the secondary, technical, commercial, veterinary and higher education needs of Nigeria. Two of the major findings of the commission’s investigation – with regard to curriculum – was that the graduate students of the then secondary education were not well-prepared for higher education; and also that the secondary education was too literal.

Consequently, the commission recommended curriculum review for the secondary education – so as to equip them adequately for the higher education. As a result, the curriculum was expanded to accommodate more subjects. Later in 1962 when the second generation universities were established the Nigerian government also established the National University Commission – to oversee and ensure quality of high education in Nigeria.

It was this curriculum that took us through independence – until the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 curriculum.

In the next section, I discuss the immediate curriculum of the 1969 curriculum conference.

The 6-3-3-4 curriculum

In the first post, I discussed the National Curriculum Conference and the National Policy on Education. The conference was held between September 8 and 17, 1969. The decisions at the conference eventually led to the publication of the National Policy on Education (NPE).

The National Policy on Education (NPE)

The National Policy on Education has a broad curriculum – as we had it before the UBE. The broad curriculum aims at creating enough learning opportunity for all children, irrespective of gender, age, ability, class, interest, etc. The NPE also laid foundation for the 6-3-3-4 system of education.

Implementation of the National Policy on Education (NPE)

Although the NPE is the wish of all Nigerians in writing, its immediate implementation was truncated by the Nigerian Civil war.

Consequently, when normalcy was restored, the government – of the second republic – began implementing the provisions of the National Policy on Education. First, the NPE was revised in 1981 to reflect recent developments. The civilian regime – second republic, according to the revised policy, adopted education “as instrument par excellence for effecting national development”.

Launch of the 6-3-3-4 curriculum

After the revision of the NPE, the government officially launched the 6-3-3-4 system of education in September, 1982. The 6-3-3-4 system of education means stipulated that the nation’s education shall cover six years of primary education, three years of junior secondary, three years of senior secondary and four years of tertiary education.  Accordingly, suitable curriculum was developed for the system of education.

Aims and Objectives of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The 6-3-3-4 curriculum was the direct product of the National Education Policy – which itself resulted from the National Curriculum Conference. This was the product of the yearnings and aspiration of the native people. The primary objective of the 6-3-3-4 was to realize a self-reliant and self-sufficient nation.

Content of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The 6-3-3-4 system emphasized academic and pre-vocational education. As I mentioned earlier, the curriculum was broad/comprehensive. It contained all the subjects as in the UBE edition – even more since each subject stood on their own unlike the UBE that compacted some subjects. As a result of the extensive length of subjects, the curriculum divided the subjects into two – the core and the elective subjects.

This also aligns with the 1980 West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASCE). In addition, vocational subjects were included and language policy changed. Originally, the plan was that continuous assessment would serve as the method of assessing the learners at the junior level while state and national examination would be used at the senior school level.

Implementation of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The government launched the 6-3-3-4 curriculum in September, 1982. However, when the curriculum was launched; many states were not prepared to implement it – remember the regionalization of education since Macpherson regime.

The politics of the time did not permit uniform implementation. Specifically, while the federal schools and schools in the states that was controlled by the ruling party began the implementation; schools in the states that was controlled by the opposition party did not commence implementation.

It was until the second military era in 1983 that the 6-3-3-4 curriculum was nationally implemented. Hence, the curriculum remained in use for nearly twenty years. Notwithstanding, the implementation was not hitch free. More so, the actualization of the objectives was not realized.

Experts attributed the ineffectiveness of the curriculum to a number of issues. Two major of such issues are: first, was hurried planning and financing. The curriculum was not test-run in small scale before national implementation. The second complaint was that the curriculum contained too many subjects. The later became a major reason for revision of subsequent national curriculum.

The Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC)

The second military era between 1983 and 1999 pursued a lot education policy. In 1988, the government merged Nigerian Educational Research Council; Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre; Nigerian Book Development Council; and Nigerian Language Centre to establish the Nigerian Education Development Council (NERDC).

One of the major mandates of the NERDC was to develop, review and enrich curriculum at all levels. Thenceforth, the development and revision of the national curriculum become the duty of the NERDC.

I will in the next section discuss the subsequent curriculum. Click here to continue to unit three of the part 2.

If you have any question or request, do not hesitate to contact us on WhatsApp: +234-8067-6892-17 or via email: [email protected]


[qsm quiz=3]


References

The materials I consulted in writing the entire article are listed below:

Project Writers Ng. (2016, January 14). NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND PLANNING FROM 1968 TILL DATE; THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Project Writers Ng: https://www.projectwriters.ng/national-development-plan-and-planning-from-1968-till-date-the-nigerian-experience/

Adeoye, E. A. (2017). CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: THEORY & PRACTICE (A study Guide for PGD Ed) Students.

Ajayi, I. A. (n.d.). TOPICAL ISSUES IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION (A Study Guide for PhD in Educational Administration). University of Ado-Ekiti.

AKANBI, G. O., & ABIOLU, O. A. (2018). Nigeria’s 1969 Curriculum Conference: a practical approach to educational emancipation. Cadernos de História da Educação. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326884292_Nigeria’s_1969_Curriculum_Conference_a_practical_approach_to_educational_emancipation

AKPAN, G. A., USORO, H. S., & IBIRITAM, K. S. (n.d.). The Evolution of Vocational Education in Nigeria and Its Role in National Development. The Intuition. Retrieved from http://globalacademicgroup.com/journals/the%20intuition/The%20Evolution%20of%20Vocational%20Education%20in%20Nigeria%20and%20Its%20Rol.pdf

Amaele, S. (2017). HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA. University of Ilorin.

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (3rd Edition). (2008). Cambridge University Press (Armada).

Danielson, C. (2002). Enhancing Student Achievement. Retrieved from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/102109/chapters/School-Organization.aspx

Ewemade, I. (2015). National Economic Empowernment Development Strategy (NEEDS) as a Panacea for Employment Creation and Self Employment and Self Reliant. Journal of Educational and Social Research. Retrieved from https://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/jesr/article/viewFile/6557/6283

Fafunwa, A. B. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria. London: George Allen & Uniwin.

Iheanacho, E. N. (2014). National Development Planning in Nigeria: An Endless. International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment Search for Appropriate Development Strategy.

Imam, H. (2012). Educational Policy in Nigeria from the Colonial Era to the Post-Independence Period. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION.

Musingafi, M. C., Mhute, I., & Kaseke, K. E. (2015). Planning to Teach: Interrogating the Link among the Curricula, the Syllabi, Schemes and Lesson Plans in the Teaching Process. Journal of Education and Practice.

Nduka, O. A. (1975). Western Education and the Nigerian Cultural Background. Ibadan: Oxford University Press.

NERDC . (2015). NERDC Basic Technology for Junior Secondary Schools 2. Ikeja, Lagos: Learn Africa Plc.

NERDC. (2004). The National Policy on Education. Yaba, Lagos: NERDC. Retrieved from http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/AFR/Nigeria/TCH/National%20Policy%20on%20Education.pdf

NERDC. (2007). 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Basic Technology) for JSS 1 – 3. Abuja: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

NERDC. (2013). Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

Nwangu, D. I. (2009). ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION. Enugu State University of Science & Technology.

Ojebiyi, O. A. (2014). An Historical Survey of the Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria . Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.

Omoifo, C. N. (2012). ADVANCED CURRICULUM THEORY (A Study Guide for . University of Benin.

Osokoya, I. O. (1995). History and Policy of Nigerian Education in Nigeria . Ibadan: AMD Publishers.

Quinn-Young, C., & White, J. E. (n.d.). A HIstory for Nigerian Schools, Pupils Book Two. London: Evans Brothers Limited.

Soludo, C. C. (2006). CAN NIGERIA BE THE CHINA OF AFRICA? Benin. Retrieved from https://www.cbn.gov.ng/out/speeches/2006/Govadd27-11-06.pdf

Stephens, M. (2019, April 23). Does Nigeria Use British or American English? Retrieved from Naija Home Based: https://www.naijahomebased.com/does-nigeria-use-british-or-american-english/

Teniola, E. (2018, March 20). Our new national development plan. Retrieved from Vanguard: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/03/our-new-national-development-plan/

The Glossary of Education Reform. (2013, August 29). LEARNING EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Glossary of Education Reform: https://www.edglossary.org/learning-experience/

UBEC. (n.d.). About UBE. Retrieved from Universal Basic Education Commission: https://ubeconline.com/about_ubec.php

Nigerian National Curriculum Editions

The Nigerian National Curriculum Editions in One Sentence

This post with keywords – Nigerian National Curriculum Editions – lists and describes all the editions of the Nigerian National Curriculum – from the time before the influence of foreigners until date.

It is more or less a detailed history of western education in Nigeria – from the curriculum perspective. This post will give a deep understanding of both the essence and content of education. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials.

Introduction to the Nigerian National Curriculum Editions

The online community of the Nigerian education sector is currently inundated with a lot of information and resources. Far too many people claim to have and sell different educational materials – from curriculum to syllabus, scheme of works to lesson notes and so on.

To convolute things further, since everyone wants to sell; all claim to possess official materials – materials in-line with the NERDC curriculum. A school owner called me to request for lesson notes that are in line with the new 2020 NERDC curriculum that someone sold to her.

In the following sections, I discuss the type of curriculum that Nigerians used to train themselves before the arrival of foreigners. The unit also details the arrival of missionaries and the era of mission school with their curriculum.

The Entire 3-Series Post

This post is the second of a 3-part article. The entire article is a comprehensive post. I addressed all possible issues concerning the national curriculum as it is currently subsisting among the Nigerian education community. However, in order not to make this a tedious reading for the reader; I have shared the entire article into three part.

Part One – Meaning of Curriculum and How to Choose the Right Curriculum for your School

The first part defines what the (national) curriculum is. It enumerates the components of curriculum and discusses the types of curriculum in Nigerian schools. I concluded the first part by providing leading guides on how to choose the right curriculum for your school.

Part Two – Editions of the Nigerian National Curriculum

In the second part – beginning from this post, I discuss all the past and existing editions of the Nigerian National curriculum. This will enable you to have a fuller understanding of the subject matter. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials. Because the editions of the national curriculum are many, and to make the reading easier for you; I divided the second part into three smaller units.

The first unit – The Nigerian Indigenous and Missionary Curriculum – which is this post

This unit discuss the type of curriculum that Nigerians used to train themselves before the arrival of foreigners. The unit also details the arrival of missionaries and the era of mission school with their curriculum.

The Second Unit – The Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum

I committed the second unit of part two to the Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum. This was the curriculum that the British colonial governments used to train Nigerians during colonization.

The Third Unit – The 6-3-3-4 & 9-Years Basic Education National Curriculum

The third unit of part two discusses the truly national curricula. It began by discussing the curriculum of the National Curriculum Conference. Then the third unit proceeded to 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. The third unit concluded by discussing the latest edition of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

Part Three – Curriculum, Syllabus, Scheme of Work, Unit of Work plan and Lesson plan

In the last part, I distinguished between curriculum, syllabus, course of study, scheme of work, Unit of Work plan and lesson plan. This last part addresses the major confusion issues between the terms.

Nigerian National Curriculum Editions

Making a list of past curriculum in Nigeria can is basically the same thing as going through the history of education in Nigeria. This is because Nigeria did not have a truly national curriculum prior to the 1969 national curriculum conference. And even after then, the politics of the country greatly influenced the education as well as the curriculum in use.

Stability set into the system only after the country switched to the current reign of democracy. Consequently, we come to know what we now have as national curriculum after 1999.

Nonetheless, I briefly gave a review of the curriculum before the 1999 era just to give you a fuller understanding of the Nigerian education environment.

This will help you to appreciate where we are coming from. You will also become conscious of your role in fulfilling the nation’s dreams.

Loosely speaking, we can say Nigeria has had six (6) different curricular: 3 regional curricular and 3 national curricular.  These include the:

  1. Indigenous Education Curriculum
  2. Missionary Curriculum (1842 – 1882)
  3. Colonial curriculum (1882 – 1948)
    1. 1882 curriculum
    2. 1887 curriculum
    3. The Northern Nigeria education curriculum
    4. 1916 curriculum
    5. 1926 curriculum
  4. The 6-3-3-4 curriculum
  5. The 9-Year BEC
  6. The Revised 9-Year BEC

As you will find out – after going through the entire article; even the briefest review of these curriculum will produce relatively lengthy reading. Consequently, I split this second article in the series into three sub-units. This will give you better and less tedious reading experience.

This first sub unit focuses on indigenous and missionary curricula. The second sub unit focuses on the colonial curricula. Finally, the third sub unit discusses the Basic Education Curriculum with its revision.

The complete series will prove to be a highly profitable reading for anyone undergoing a postgraduate programme in education – and doubly so, if in the field of curriculum studies.

The Nigerian Indigenous Education Curriculum

This is the curriculum that different peoples of Nigeria used to educate their people long before any form of foreign intrusion. Each of the Nigerian peoples had curriculum for training people to meet their educational needs.  These curricular were majorly informal in nature.

Goal of Nigerian Indigenous Education

(Fafunwa, 1974) stated that the Nigerian indigenous education has seven cardinal points. These were the purpose of education – the education needs of the time. The seven purpose of education include to:

  1. develop the child’s latent skills;
  2. develop the child’s character;
  3. inculcate respect for elders and those in authority;
  1. develop intellectual skills;
  2. acquire specific vocational training and to develop a healthy attitude towards honest labour;
  3. develop a sense of belonging and participate actively in family and community affairs; and
  4. understand, appreciate and promote the cultural heritage of the community at large

Contents of Nigerian Indigenous Education Curriculum

With the unique education needs, the indigenous peoples of Nigeria needed a curriculum to achieve the goals. (Amaele, 2017) noted that the contents of Nigerian indigenous education curriculum include:

  • Technology – weaving, sculpturing, blacksmithing, carving, farming, fishing, cattle rearing, hair plaiting, dress making, bead weaving, leatherwork, pottery, brick making, basket weaving, raffia works, mat weaving, etc.
  • Citizenship – Activities on character building, since conformity was necessary;
  • Physical Education – Physical training through physical contests, wrestling, perseverance activities, etc.;
  • Arts and crafts – carving, painting, modelling, artistic and creative pursuits, songs and dances, masquerades etc.;
  • Arithmetic – counting, games, etc.;
  • Science – Study of facts about natural environments: a father moves about with his son, introducing him to the names of different objects, plants, animals, etc.;
  • History – including stories about the gods, traditions of various societies which were preserved in folklore and regarded as legends which pass from one generation to another.

Method of Teaching in Nigerian Indigenous Curriculum

indoctrination, modelling, initiation ceremonies, reward and punishment, imitation, role play, oral literature, poetry, instruction, observation, intention, participation, apprenticeship. Emphasis is laid on practical knowledge, skills and character.

Levels of Education in Nigerian Indigenous Curriculum

The indigenous Nigerian education is well structured into four levels that are sacredly guided. One may not skip a level. There was little or no space for “special children”. Everyone must proceed the levels religiously. The levels of education under this curriculum include:

  1. Infancy – ages 0 to 5
  2. Childhood – ages 6 to 12
  3. Adolescence – ages 12 and above
  4. Higher Education – Secret Cult & traditional medicine

The Missionary Curriculum (1842 – 1882)

Although Islamic Education existed long in (Northern) Nigerian before the advent of the Christian missionaries, the current (secular western) education in Nigeria traces its origin to the missionaries.

The Islamic Education Curriculum

Off course, there was the Islamic/Arabic Education curriculum that aided the attainment of the Islamic education needs of the Muslims in Nigeria from the late 11th century. However, because this constitute a separate subject matter from that which we discussing, I shan’t say much of Islamic religion curriculum – until when I shall discuss the subjects under the current curriculum.

The Christian Education Curriculum

As I have noted above, modern education in Nigeria traces its origin to the works of the early Christian Missionaries. It was the missionaries that first built formal schools.

The Portuguese Catholic Missionaries in Nigeria

Although, the education activities of the Christian missionaries became most pronounced as from 1842 – after the abolition of slave trade; as early as 1515, the Portuguese Catholic Missionaries had established a primary school in the palace of the Oba of Benin – basically for the children of the Oba and his chiefs which they later converted to Christianity.  (Quinn-Young & White) placed the arrival of the Portuguese in Lagos to be in 1472. The Catholic missionary activities also extended to Brass, Akassa, Warri where churches and schools were established. But the Catholic influence was almost wiped out by the slave trade which ravaged West Africa for nearly three hundred years (Fafunwa, 1974).

The British Missionaries in Nigeria

The Catholic Missionaries were not the only set of Portuguese that came to Nigeria in the 14th century. Neither were the Portuguese the only Europeans to come to Nigeria. The events that followed the industrial revolution in Europe saw many Europeans in Africa – in general, and Nigeria in particular. The influx was a combination of missionaries and merchants. While the former came for evangelism; the later came for commerce. Notwithstanding, both believed in and actually used education to achieve their objectives – to the extent that the politics of the time permitted.

(Osokoya, 1995) reported that the anti-slavery works of the British interested Badagry and Abeokuta to the point that both formally invited the missionaries. In response to this request, in 24th September, 1842; the Wesleyan Methodist Society sent Rev. Thomas Birch Freeman Mr. & Mrs. William De Graft to start both Christian and education work at Badagry. This paved the way for other missionary societies into Nigeria. These included:

  • Church Missionary Society;
  • Baptist Mission;
  • Roman Catholic Mission;
  • Presbyterian Church of Scotland;
  • Primitive Methodist Missionary Society; and
  • Qua Iboe Mission.

Each of these missionary societies operated independent mission schools.

Aims of the Mission Schools

The education of the missionary societies was directed towards three principal goals. This included:

  1. Convert the students to Christianity
  2. Train indigenous manpower – including Sunday school teachers and Catechists – to carry out the evangelical work to the various local communities
  3. training of lower manpower to serve as interpreters, messengers, clerks, cleaners, etc. for the various missions and the British Businessmen

Contents of the Missionary Curriculum

(Ajayi) stated that although the missionaries had the same general aims of education as stated above, the mission schools had no uniform curriculum. For example, while the Catholic mission schools used Portuguese as medium of instruction; the non-Catholic mission schools used English Language.

Nonetheless, education historians often find a common ground for the curriculum of the mission schools. Experts generally agree that the mission schools originated the 3R’s curriculum in Nigeria which will later be inherited by the colonialists. The 3 R’s stand for Reading, ‘Riting and ‘Rithmetic.

This once again demonstrated how curriculum is a means to an end. The missionary curriculum perfectly meets their aims for educating the Nigerians at the time:

  1. They needed Nigerians that are able to Read the Bible so as to preach to, and convert the locals; hence they made reading a key component of their curriculum.
  2. The Nigerians who were to do this evangelism work also needed to be able to write to the foreign missionaries. So the foreign missionaries included Writing.
  3. Finally, the foreign missionaries wanted Nigerians that could carry out businesses in the names of the missionaries and also interpret during business transactions. This creates the need for basic Mathematics, hence Arithmetic was included in their curriculum.

Aside these contents of the missionary curriculum, (Amaele, 2017) said the missionaries also taught subsidiary subjects like agriculture, nature study, craft.

The Missionary and the Colonial Governments

The missionaries provided the independent non-uniform education to serve their evangelism purpose uninterrupted for a long time – over 50 years! However, the narrative changed with the advent of colonization. Nonetheless, this did not happen immediately the British assume control of government. For about 20 years after Britain established its colonial government in Nigeria, it did not concern itself with matters of education.

The colonial government eventually gave education thoughts beginning from 1882. With every new era of education, comes new curriculum. So was the colonial education. The objectives of the colonial education were different from the missionary education.

In the second unit of the part 2 of the article, I discussed the colonial education – the aims, objectives and curriculum. Click here to go the post.

If you have any question or request, do not hesitate to contact us on WhatsApp: +234-8067-6892-17 or via email: [email protected]


[qsm quiz=3]


References

The materials I consulted in writing the entire article are listed below:

Project Writers Ng. (2016, January 14). NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND PLANNING FROM 1968 TILL DATE; THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Project Writers Ng: https://www.projectwriters.ng/national-development-plan-and-planning-from-1968-till-date-the-nigerian-experience/

Adeoye, E. A. (2017). CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: THEORY & PRACTICE (A study Guide for PGD Ed) Students.

Ajayi, I. A. (n.d.). TOPICAL ISSUES IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION (A Study Guide for PhD in Educational Administration). University of Ado-Ekiti.

AKANBI, G. O., & ABIOLU, O. A. (2018). Nigeria’s 1969 Curriculum Conference: a practical approach to educational emancipation. Cadernos de História da Educação. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326884292_Nigeria’s_1969_Curriculum_Conference_a_practical_approach_to_educational_emancipation

AKPAN, G. A., USORO, H. S., & IBIRITAM, K. S. (n.d.). The Evolution of Vocational Education in Nigeria and Its Role in National Development. The Intuition. Retrieved from http://globalacademicgroup.com/journals/the%20intuition/The%20Evolution%20of%20Vocational%20Education%20in%20Nigeria%20and%20Its%20Rol.pdf

Amaele, S. (2017). HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA. University of Ilorin.

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (3rd Edition). (2008). Cambridge University Press (Armada).

Danielson, C. (2002). Enhancing Student Achievement. Retrieved from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/102109/chapters/School-Organization.aspx

Ewemade, I. (2015). National Economic Empowernment Development Strategy (NEEDS) as a Panacea for Employment Creation and Self Employment and Self Reliant. Journal of Educational and Social Research. Retrieved from https://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/jesr/article/viewFile/6557/6283

Fafunwa, A. B. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria. London: George Allen & Uniwin.

Iheanacho, E. N. (2014). National Development Planning in Nigeria: An Endless. International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment Search for Appropriate Development Strategy.

Imam, H. (2012). Educational Policy in Nigeria from the Colonial Era to the Post-Independence Period. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION.

Musingafi, M. C., Mhute, I., & Kaseke, K. E. (2015). Planning to Teach: Interrogating the Link among the Curricula, the Syllabi, Schemes and Lesson Plans in the Teaching Process. Journal of Education and Practice.

Nduka, O. A. (1975). Western Education and the Nigerian Cultural Background. Ibadan: Oxford University Press.

NERDC . (2015). NERDC Basic Technology for Junior Secondary Schools 2. Ikeja, Lagos: Learn Africa Plc.

NERDC. (2004). The National Policy on Education. Yaba, Lagos: NERDC. Retrieved from http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/AFR/Nigeria/TCH/National%20Policy%20on%20Education.pdf

NERDC. (2007). 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Basic Technology) for JSS 1 – 3. Abuja: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

NERDC. (2013). Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

Nwangu, D. I. (2009). ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION. Enugu State University of Science & Technology.

Ojebiyi, O. A. (2014). An Historical Survey of the Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria . Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.

Omoifo, C. N. (2012). ADVANCED CURRICULUM THEORY (A Study Guide for . University of Benin.

Osokoya, I. O. (1995). History and Policy of Nigerian Education in Nigeria . Ibadan: AMD Publishers.

Quinn-Young, C., & White, J. E. (n.d.). A HIstory for Nigerian Schools, Pupils Book Two. London: Evans Brothers Limited.

Soludo, C. C. (2006). CAN NIGERIA BE THE CHINA OF AFRICA? Benin. Retrieved from https://www.cbn.gov.ng/out/speeches/2006/Govadd27-11-06.pdf

Stephens, M. (2019, April 23). Does Nigeria Use British or American English? Retrieved from Naija Home Based: https://www.naijahomebased.com/does-nigeria-use-british-or-american-english/

Teniola, E. (2018, March 20). Our new national development plan. Retrieved from Vanguard: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/03/our-new-national-development-plan/

The Glossary of Education Reform. (2013, August 29). LEARNING EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Glossary of Education Reform: https://www.edglossary.org/learning-experience/

UBEC. (n.d.). About UBE. Retrieved from Universal Basic Education Commission: https://ubeconline.com/about_ubec.php

Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students Part Two

Introduction to Factors Affecting the Performance of Students Part Two

this post titled, Factors Affecting the Performance of Students Part Two, further outline some factors that affects student performance. Here, we examined these factors from the parent and school effects.

Academic performance refers to the level of performance in school, accomplishment or success in school. This is the core of educational growth. academic performance as the process of developing the capacities and potentials of the individual student so as to prepare that individual to be successful in a specific society or culture. It is important to keep in mind that academic performance may largely be a function of the context in which it takes place, and therefore the necessary abilities may also vary according to the context. In this regard, we can conclude that the concept, meaning and criteria of academic success may also vary according to the context.

In the initial part of this write-up, we had examined factors such as student attitude, skill and abilities of the teachers, classroom environment, development of study skill, time management, teaching-learning methods and so forth.

If you have not read the part one of this write up, simply click Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students. to go through it.

More of these factors that affect the academic performance of student are:

  1. Large Number of Students in a Class

Class congestion is  disadvantageous to the academic performance of students. Class teachers are the once who normally face this problem. It reduces their class manageability; their deliverable – they are unable to implement the appropriate teaching-learning processes and instructional strategies, which in turn affect the performance of the student academically.

The teachers are unable to make provision of personal attention and as a result of which, academic performance of the students may undergo detrimental effects. In some cases, when the number of students are large within classrooms, the teachers provide explanation of the academic concepts on black-board or through the use of technology and give class and home-work assignments. They correct the assignments, submitted to them by the students. Some students perform well, whereas others depict errors. In case of errors, the teachers usually ask them to learn from the students, who have performed well. Hence, teachers tend to move on to the next lesson in the next class, as they need to complete the syllabus within limited time.

(Maganga, 2016), also explained that, in science subjects, when teachers are providing training to students on the implementation of experiments by making use of school laboratory equipment like test tubes, other equipment and procedures, it becomes very difficult or impossible for the teacher to monitor the performance, understanding and right implementation of such practical. There are high tendencies that some of the students may not understand the procedures explained by the teacher, hence are unable to perform the experiment independently.

  1. Self-efficacy and Motivation

Self-efficacy is how people feel about themselves and how much they like themselves, especially socially and academically. Through the many pressures and daunting responsibilities of being a student, one learns and understands the importance of having a high self-efficacy in college. Having one’s academic achievement meet one’s academic expectations and desires is a major key to most college students’ self-efficacy. Having a high self-efficacy has many positive effects and benefits, especially among college students. Students who feel positive about themselves succumb less easily to pressures of conformity by peers, are more persistent at difficult tasks, are happier and more sociable, and most pertinent to this study is that they tend to perform better academically.

On the other hand, students with a low self-efficacy tend to be unhappy, less sociable and are more vulnerable to depression, which are all correlated with lower academic achievement. High academic performance influences perceived competence and motivation.

  1. Parental and Home Factor

Parental and home or environment factors greatly have effects on the academic performance of the students. Quite true that some of these parental and home/environment factors have positive effects on student’s performance; a lot of these factors tend to have negative impact on the academic performance of the students. These parental and home/environment factors are:

  • Level of Parents Education

Parents’ educational qualifications are  important aspects that  enhance the academic learning of their children. Well educated parents who are professionals such as doctors, lawyers, engineers, administrators, educationists, teachers, researchers, academicians, etc. can provide good education to their children. They can send their children to reputed schools and also provide them with all the needed materials and resources needed to promote learning. On the contrary, when parents are illiterate or have low level of literacy and how financial ability, there are unable to provide qualitative education to their children. It is also common to find with low level of education or who are out-rightly illiterate to low interest in the education of their children. This is because such parents may not have low or no understanding of the importance of education in.

  • Poverty

The problem of poverty is one of the major barriers within the course of academic achievements. The individuals residing in the conditions of poverty and backwardness experience this major problem in terms of finances. When their per capita income is low, then they experience problems in not only meeting the educational and school requirements. Also, there will be problems in meeting their living requirements, such as diet and nutrition, health, medical and so forth. Therefore, the problem of poverty is critical factor that hinder the academic performance of the students. When they do not possess the essential sources to enhance their learning, they will be unable to improve their grades.

  • Large Family Size

Extended family system and  polygamous homes often leads to large family. When there are more than two children within the family, then it is considered as a large family size. With three or more children within the family, then, usually it becomes difficult for the parents to meet all their needs and requirements, especially, when the family belongs to economically weaker sections of the society. When parents are working or are engage in full time jobs, they will experience problems in finding time for interaction with their children or in meeting their needs and requirements. More children imply increased costs. The fact remains that the upbringing of children involves large number of costs. The academic performance of the students undergoes detrimental effects as a result of large family size.

This can only be offset when there is a corresponding or higher increase to income with. If it is not so, then, more children and limited income, means reduction in the ability to provide quality education to children. It usually becomes difficult to meet the requirements of every child, in the face of large family with limited income.

  • Resources

The lack of resources, civic amenities and infrastructure are barriers towards the acquisition of qualitative education. It is vital to make provision of adequate diet and nutrition for the students, so that they are able to wholeheartedly concentrate on their studies. Civic amenities, such as, clean drinking water, electricity, technology, textbooks, stationary and other are essential to enhancing.

Lack of resources and civic amenities may impede the concentration, interest of the students upon their studies, as a result desired results may not achieve. however, with a strong determination, students may still be able to understand concepts of studies with limited civic amenities. But then, it remains a general growth what when ‘equipment’ is not available, even the most courageous will find it difficult to achieve set or desired goals. Same vein has it is economically true that input affects output. All things being equal, a student who is provided with needed resource will outperform the other student who is has poor or little resources.

  • Viewpoints and Perspectives

In the present existence, especially in rural areas, individuals who possess the viewpoints that education is meant for boys while girls are meant to learn the household chores exist. They are of the perspectives that when boys get educated, they would be able to obtain employment and enhance the well-being of their On the other hand, girls have to eventually get married; hence, it is vital for them to acquire training regarding the performance of household chores. These mainly include, preparation of meals, cleaning, washing, fetching water, and taking care of siblings and other elderly members of the household. These factors discourage girls from acquisition of education and their academic performance suffers a setback, even when they are in schools.

  1. School factors

Students’ performance has a significant relationship with the availability of enabling academic environment with facilities. Such facilities are library, experimental lab, computer laboratory, etc. in the institution. Study effort from student and the proper use of the facilities; a good match between students’ learning style enhance the student’s performance. Student performances are linked with use of library and level of their parental education. The use of the library enhances the student performance. The academic environment is the effective-variable for students and has positive relationship with fathers’ education and grade level. Provision of adequate learning facilities enhances student performance.

The contribution of school factors in influencing the academic performance of the students have been stated as follows:

  • Professionalism of Teachers

Professionalism of teachers is important, especially in their dealings with students. In this aspect, the continuous enhancement of teachers’ teaching skills, knowledge matters towards improving learning and development of the students. Professionalism of the teachers is shown primarily in the teaching-learning processes, instructional strategies, communication and their approachable attitude. Teachers who shows professionalism in these areas are acknowledged and appreciated by other staff and teachers; they are also appreciated by the students and they take pleasure in learning from them. When teachers are unhappy because students fail to complete their homework assignment and at the right time. In such cases, professionalism is shown when teachers are decent in their communication. They should explain the consequences to the students in a calm manner and any kind of harsh behavior should be avoided

  • Extra-Curricular Activities

Students usually take pleasure in the learning and acquisition of education, especially, when there is adequate provision of extra-curricular activities. Activities in school such as artworks, handicrafts, music, singing, dancing, role playing, sports, games and so forth, are extra-curricular. Students normally take pleasure in them. They are not only pivotal to the development of creativity among the students, but also in getting their, interest and willingness via the engagement in extra-curricular activities. They are able to develop their concentration towards learning through these activities. When students  involve in extracurricular activities, they perform well in their assignments and tests.

  • Rewards

Rewards, as important factors,  help in motivating the students to be more committed toward academic pursuits. They are incentives to arouse students’ interest, performance. In secondary schools, students enjoy playing and engaging in recreational and leisure activities. They in some cases neglect their studies. Especially, when they are unable to understand the concepts or have to watch a television show and so forth. Parents at home create means of motivating their children. This can be by  giving them their favorite ice-cream, take them out for dinner or give them gift etc.

People consider as stimulating factors that contribute positively in the improvement of the academic performance of the students. As teachers communicate about rewards within the classroom, then students develop the keenness to work hard for good grades. They believe that through their good performance, their parents and teachers, both would get pleased.

  • School facilities

The facilities of a school is also a factor that affect the academic performance of students. Examples of such facilities are library facilities, laboratory facilities etc. The library is the place, where students obtain the materials that used of to enhance one’s learning. Library is a building or a room that houses the collection of books, tapes, newspapers, articles and journals. Individuals read and borrow them. Library is important in the teaching-learning processes. It is regarded as one of the most important educational services. The main purpose of the school libraries is to make provision of books and the necessary materials.

Laboratory is  a room or a building, specially built for teaching by demonstration of a theoretical phenomenon into practical terms. Teachers use laboratory in  teaching-learning processes and experiments primarily related to science subjects. Within the laboratory, the teachers provide practical demonstration of the concept. The students tend to recall more what they observe rather than what they hear. Practical work in the learning of academic concepts involves students in activities. These activities are observing, counting, measuring, experimenting, recording, investigating, testing, analyzing and field-work.

Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students.

Introduction to this post with keywords – Factors Affecting Students’ Academic Performance

It is a well-known maxim in the education world that “no child is dull”. More so, majority of the educators agree that you should not write any child off. However, it is undebatable that certain learners just wouldn’t perform well in their academics – even as others continue to fly academically. This tends to create some philosophical inconsistency – for if no child is dull, then all should perform well. Why then do some students perform well while others do not?

I strongly believe that a number of factors are responsible for this disparity. Consequently, in this post; I discuss a few factors that affect the academic performance of students.

Why this article about factors affecting Students’ Academic Performance?

For the development of individuals, community, nation and the world at large; education is pivotal. To bring about needed improvements in all aspect of the human life and to be able to utilize innovative methods and techniques, enhanced educational skills are needed. However, educational stakeholders must pay attention to the factors that have the potential to affect the performance of students negatively or positively.

Education is one of the cardinal aspects that not only inculcates the essential skills,
abilities and knowledge among students, but also leads to overall growth and progress
of the students, community, nation and the world as a whole. An educated person is not only able to accomplish his desired goals and objectives, but is also able to render an efficient contribution towards the well-being of the community. The development of academic knowledge, skills, abilities and proficiency among the individuals is enhanced through learning and academic performance.

The academic performance of students in secondary schools determines the future goals, interest of student; what course they will student at tertiary level and what career path to choose and build. The extent to which a student can learn and develop is to a large degree affected by many factors.

            The Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students

The factors that affect the academic performance of students are as follows:

1.      Student’s Attitude:

Every student from secondary schools to tertiary institutions posse the ability to differentiate what is ideal and what is not ideal. Every student that succeeds possess a positive feeling towards his or her education and is conscious of his or her performance also. Such student possesses the character of diligence, discipline and resourcefulness; they are passionate readers. They give much off their time to studies, and less time for leisure activities. It is also important that such student possess a positive thought in terms of their schools, teachers and all academic subject. The lack of this traits in most students will explain low or under performance of the student. Positive attitude of student involves being goal-oriented. That is, studying for self-development and not only to pass examination. Having a clear picture of a desired future is the bed rock for a positive attitude of student.  A positive attitude of student will help the student to devote their time to tireless and passionate study.

2.      Resources of the school:

Within schools, it is vital to make provision of resources that can be utilized to enhance the academic performance of students. The textbooks, notes, learning materials, technology, library facilities and laboratory facilities, especially in science subjects should include the essential materials. When students are provided with the necessary tools and equipment, they will be able to acquire a better understanding of what is been taught in schools. In some cases, especially the students who are deprived, marginalized and socio-economically backward and are unable to afford the books and materials required for learning; they tend to depend only upon the library and other facility of the school.

3.      Skills and Abilities of the Teacher:

Teachers have an imperative role in influencing
the academic performance of the students. They are bestowed with the authority to direct all the classroom activities and administer learning. It is therefore vital for the teachers to possess the traits of professionalism and conscientiousness. They need to possess an approachable nature, listen and provide solutions to the problems experienced by the students. They should possess adequate knowledge and information regarding the subjects that they are teaching, usage of technology, modern and innovative methods in the teaching and learning processes, managing discipline and directing all of the classroom as well as school activities and functions in a well-organized manner. The teachers in some cases are strict, but strictness should be maintained within limits. The main objective of the teachers should only be to enhance the academic performance of the students and lead to their effective development

4.      Classroom Environment:

The academic concepts are made known to the students by
the teachers within classroom. Teachers have the main job duty of completing the subject
syllabus. Therefore, it is vital that classroom environment should be disciplined, and well-ordered. Within the classroom, it is vital for the teachers and the students to
implement or show the traits of morality and ethics. It is vital to promote mutual understanding and co-operation among the teachers and students as well as among the fellow students. The efficiency in the management of the classroom, consequently, introduces a well-organized and efficient management of the lesson plans, instructional strategies, teaching-learning processes and so forth. When there is discipline and effective communication among the individuals, then it would help the students learn better and improve their academic performance.

5.      Role of Parents:

Home is referred to as the place from where the foundation of
learning and education takes place. In order to produce good academic outcomes, it is vital
for the parents, children and other family members to encourage a learning atmosphere within homes. For instance, when students experience problems in certain subjects, then parents are responsible for providing help. This help may be in the form of private tuitions or they themselves may teach their children. They make provision of technology and other learning materials at home to enhance the academic performance of their children. Parents play an important role in leading to operative growth and development of their children. In schools, whatever problems that children go through regarding academics and other
areas, they normally communicate to their parents. Parents are sources of security,
encouragement and help their children in providing solutions to their problems.

6.      Social Circle:

Children get enrolled in schools not only to learn academic concepts,
but they also learn, how to interact and socialize with others. Students usually form friendly
terms and relationships with the fellow students. Forming a social circle and friendships have a positive effect upon the academic outcomes of the students. As when one has to work on a project or prepare for a test, then group study is in most cases beneficial. It also causes social satisfaction and happiness in one’s student life (Kudari, 2016). Forming a social circle proves to be beneficial to the individuals in number of ways, such as, solving academic problems, getting involved in leisure activities, sharing one’s joys and sorrows, and so forth.

7.      Motivating and Encouraging Students: –

In academic learning, some of the concepts
are difficult to learn and understand. When problems and difficulties are experienced by the students, then they need to obtain assistance from others. When students are unable to
achieve the desired grades, then instead of getting angry on them, the teachers and parents
need to make provision of help and assistance. They should motivate the students and
encourage them to do well in future. They need to understand their weaknesses and help
them. When students find certain areas difficult to learn, then teachers should repeat the
concepts, provide them class and homework assignments, so that they are able to acquire
complete understanding of the concepts

8.      Development of Study Skills: –

In order to enhance one’s academic performance, it is
vital for the individuals to develop study skills within themselves. The students themselves
need to generate awareness regarding study skills, so that they are able to produce desired
academic outcomes. Some of the study skills include, memorizing from the textbooks or
other materials, making notes, practicing writing essays and articles, especially in languages, practicing calculations in mathematics and so forth. One of the important areas is, when one is studying, it is vital to completely concentrate towards one’s studies. Inability to completely concentrate is one of the factors that leads to undesired academic outcomes. Memorizing is regarded as one of the rare techniques, hence, the teachers encourage students to acquire understanding of the concepts instead of memorizing.

9.      Time Management:

Students in secondary schools have a busy schedule, hence it is
vital for them to generate awareness in terms of effective time management. Research has
indicated that the normal schedule of the secondary school students comprise of school hours, then they need to spend some time in completion of home-work assignments. They also get involved in some kinds of extra-curricular activities and sports. Playing and getting engaged in creative activities, not only help them concentrate better, but they are able to stimulate their mind-sets. For the secondary school students, it is important to get engaged in extracurricular activities and for this purpose, they need to implement proper time management skills. It is essential for the students to create a balance between all the tasks and activities. The activities that are more important should be given more time and lesser amount of time can be spent on the activities that are less important.

10.  Teaching-Learning Methods:

The teaching-learning methods and strategies should
be appropriate and encouraging to the students. The teachers in school are the ones that
contribute an imperative part in promoting learning among the students. It is essential for
them to ensure that the teaching methods used should prove to be beneficial to the students.
For instance, if the students are able to learn better through dictation of notes, then teachers
should provide notes. If the students are able to learn better through verbal explanation, then they should promote verbal explanation and so forth. Within home, if students are taking
private tuitions of certain academic subjects such as, mathematics or science, or their parents teach them, then too, it is vital for the parents and tutors to make sure that effectual teaching-learning methods are implemented, which may encourage learning among the students and help them understand better.

11.  Approachability and Professionalism:

The teachers in school are required to be
approachable and professional in their conduct. They are the ones, whom students approach, in case they have any problems and difficulties. When the teachers are friendly and generous, then the students feel comfortable in not only approaching them, but also in clarifying their doubts. The professionalism and approachable attitude on the part of the teachers is of utmost significance in influencing the academic performance of the students in a positive manner. On the other hand, at home, parents or tutors are the ones, who supervise their studies, hence, it is vital for them to be professional in their conduct. Teaching should be implemented in a calm and pleasant manner. Any kind of harsh attitude should be avoided, as it may demotivate the students

Check out our lesson notes, school management tips and Nigerian Education reformation issues

    Works Cited

The works that I consulted include:

  • Kapur, R. (2018). Factors Influencing the Students’ Academic Performance in Secondary School in India. 1 – 25.
  • Al-Zoubi, S.M., & Younes, M.A.B. (2015). Low Academic Achievement: Causes and
    Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(11), 2262-2268. Retrieved April 25, 2018fromhttp: www.academypublication.com/ojs/index.php/tpls/article/viewFile/tpls05112262 2268/477
  • Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Vol. 15, No. 5, October, 2015, pp.49-63.doi: 10.14434/josotl.v15i5.19068
  • Entwistle, N. J. & Ramsden, P. (1983). Understanding student learning. London: Croom Helm.
  • David, N.M. (2014). Determinants of Poor Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Sumbawanga District, Tanzania. Sokoine University of Agriculture. Morogoro Tanzania. Retrieved April 25, 2018 from
  • http://www.suaire.suanet.ac.tz:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/622/Davi %20Melack.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  • Brophy, J. (1986). Teacher influences on student achievement. American Psychologist, 41, 1069-1077
  • Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement. Knoxville, TN: Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center.
  • Wenglinsky, H. (2000). How teaching matters: Bringing the classroom back into discussions of teacher quality. Princeton, NJ: Policy Information Center.
  • Robinson, K. (2013, April). How to escape education’s Death Valley [Video file]. http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_how_to_escape_education_s_death_valley? language=en
  • Srinivas, P., & Venkatkrishnan, S. (2016). Factors Affecting Scholastic Performance in
    School Children. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 15(7), 47-53. Retrieved March 25, 2020 from http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jdms/papers/Vol15 Issue%207/Version-1/J150714753.pdf
  • Lizzio, A., Wilson, K. & Simons, R. (2002). University students’ perceptions of the learning environment and academic outcomes: implications for theory and practice, Studies in Higher Education, 27(1), 27–51

The Nigerian National Curriculum – Meaning, Components & Types

The Nigerian-National-Curriculum in one sentence

This article with keyword: Nigerian-National-Curriculum authoritatively defines what the (national) curriculum is. It enumerates the components of curriculum and discusses the types of curriculum in Nigerian schools and provide leading guides on how to choose the right curriculum for your school.

Introduction to Nigerian-National-Curriculum

The surge in the availability of information resources among Nigerian academicians tends to spurn increasing confusion – in the meaning of key terms used to describe key statutory school records viz. curriculum, syllabus, scheme of work and lesson plan.

I receive requests for, and send a lot of these materials monthly. And an experience that has become somewhat too frequent is people requesting for one while they actually meant another. Each time, I have to first explain and differentiate between the confusing terms. Thereafter, I will ask, just to be sure, what they really wanted before sending.

Where Lack is Failure

For a profession such as being an educator, the inability to state the meaning and differentiate between these terms without mincing words shows a major failure. For one that it shows the teacher is not prepared/qualified to take up highly roles in the system. Lately, we have seen educators being appointed into education ministries/commissions and agencies. An instance is the appointment of Mrs. Folasade Adefiyaso as the honourable commissioner of education, Lagos state ministry of education. Hers is only but one of many of such appointments. Educators form members and head of the education ministries, commissions, agencies and committees anyways. But if an educator is unable to say the meanings and differences between curriculum, syllabus and scheme of work with certainty; how then will such an educator be able to dispense the duties of higher roles – which sometimes involves formulating and supervising the implementation of trio?

This post with keywords – Nigerian-National-Curriculum

This a comprehensive post. I hope to address all possible issues concerning the national curriculum as it is currently subsisting among the Nigerian education community. However, in order not to make this a tedious reading for the reader; I have shared the entire post in three. This is the first part.

In the second part, I shall discuss all the past and existing editions of the Nigerian National curriculum. This will enable you to have a fuller understanding of the subject matter. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials.

In the last part, I distinguish between curriculum, syllabus, course of study, scheme of work, Unit of Work plan and lesson plan. This last part addresses the major confusion issues between the terms.

Causes of the confusion in the meaning of curriculum, syllabus and scheme of work

For the much I know, there are two major causes of the confusion of the meaning pf curriculum, syllabus and scheme of work.

1.      Dictionary Definitions

The first, especially between curriculum and syllabus, is dictionaries. Looking up, the meaning of both curriculum and syllabus in the dictionary are somehow similar.

Nonetheless, it is a well-known fact that dictionaries only give general and contemporary meanings of terms. And in most professional studies, dictionary definitions are too narrow to be accepted.

Hence we can infer that those that tends to confuse the meaning of curriculum and syllabus may have overly relied on the dictionary definitions.

2.      Regional Relativeness of the meanings of the terms

Another major reason for the confusion of the meaning of the curriculum and syllabus is because the meanings of the terms are relative to the region of the world – with marked difference between American and British. (Musingafi, Mhute, & Kaseke, 2015) proved that classical American understanding of curriculum makes no clear distinction between curriculum and syllabus. Whereas, there is a clear difference between curriculum and syllabus in British system.

Hence, we can deduce that, just like in other terms, this disparity between American and British system is the cause of the confusion in Nigeria.

But which is applicable in Nigeria? Does adopting one and not another equates to wrong?

Well, unlike the English Language itself; which permits a Nigerian to choose and stick to whichever – of American and British – that suites him or her; the question of the meaning of curriculum, syllabus and scheme of work is different. So, adopting any, other than that which is accepted constitute a major wrong.

Meaning of Curriculum in Nigeria

As I stated earlier, dictionaries have not helped in clarifying the differences between curriculum and syllabus. And to make the matter worse, some even confuse both with scheme of work.

Dictionaries only give the meanings of words as people imply at the current time. This is one of the reasons we have different versions of a dictionary. More so, it accounts for why a word may have more than one meanings.

(Musingafi, Mhute, & Kaseke, 2015) proved that Americans may use curriculum and syllabus interchangeably. Perhaps, it is because American English is more or less loose than British English. For, as the same writers proved, the Brits use both words strictly – hence, if they say curriculum; they do not mean syllabus and vice versa.

Nigeria’s Lingua Franca

Although the spoken English is relatively diverse; when it comes to choosing between American and British English on official matters; (Stephens, 2019) noted that  the officially allowed language in Nigeria is the British English.

Consequently, the British meaning of curriculum and syllabus supersedes the American meaning. Be that as it may, one cannot but assume that even if American educationists want to discuss both terms at professional level; A chance is that they use British definitions to differentiate between curriculum and syllabus.

Definition of Curriculum

Although most teachers see curriculum narrowly as simply yet another book that schools need to use; professionally curriculum is broader than that. And in fact, to fully grasp the meaning of curriculum, one need to understand the educational objectives of the country. This is because curriculum, in the broadest sense, is the official documentation and the means – roadmap – to attaining such ends – objectives of education in a country

Hence, we can define curriculum as follows:

Curriculum is a plan, a statement of purpose with a specification of content and methods; of a structured series of learning experience inbuilt with the capacity for evaluation drawn based on certain rules by members of a society through which schools make the learners in the society become what society expects them to become.

Curriculum as a plan or statement of purpose

A plan means premeditated course of future action to attain a set goal. This means curriculum is not accidental. Instead, curriculum is a deliberately well-arranged piece (s) of work which need to be done to attain certain purpose – statement of purpose.

I stated earlier that to fully understand what a curriculum means, one need to understand the purpose of education – or at least, school which uses it. I will discuss this briefly from the Nigerian perspectives.

Nigeria as a country see education not only as a key component of its economy but also as the very foundation. Nigeria’s founding fathers did not only fight for the independence of the nation; but also visualize the kind of country Nigeria will be. Consequently, shortly after independence in 1962; the Nigerian government launched the first National Development Plan.

What is a National Development Plan?

A National Development Plan (NDP) is an arrangement of actions, projects or strategies to be implemented on a long-term basis by the government of a country (and its various sectors/ministries) emanating from the identification of the current and foreseeable need of the country and a congruent definition of a desired destiny.

The First National Development Plan

The first National Development Plan was largely influenced by the British. This is so even though a Nigerian nationalist, Alhaji Shehu Shagari – the then Minister of Economic Development – prepared it. Shagari prepared it in collaboration with experts from the United Nations and the Ford Foundation. In addition to this, the preamble for the first development plan in Nigeria was formulated in 1945 – in accordance with Britain’s 1940 Colonial Development and Welfare Act.

Consequently, it is safe to say that the first National Development Plan was not totally a Nigerian initiative. In fact, some Unfortunately, the Nigerian civil war truncated the first National Development Plan.

The Truly Nigerian National Development Plan

After the Nigerian Civil war ended in 1970, the federal government of Nigeria embarked – or targeted – on serious national reconstruction and rehabilitation exercises. In addition to this, the country desired total emancipation from colonialism – especially in the education sector. Two remarkable events that initialized the reconstruction, rehabilitation and emancipation process were the national conference on economic development and reconstruction and the national curriculum conference.

The National Conference on Economic Development and Reconstruction (NCEDR) and the National Curriculum Conference (NCC)

While the National Conference on Economic Development and Reconstruction focused on the national reconstruction and rehabilitation exercises; the national curriculum conference focused on the national educational emancipation from colonialism – decolonization by identifying the educational needs of the country and the role of education in attaining the national objectives.

Consequently, while the National Conference on Economic Development and Reconstruction (NCEDR) with the subsequent Second National Development Plan laid the foundation for the kind of country we desire – by setting the national objectives; the national curriculum conference (NCC) also with the subsequent national Policy on Education laid foundation for the kind of education that the nation needs – by defining the structure/system of education, setting national educational aims and objectives and specifying the content and methods of a structured series of learning experience for attaining the aims and objectives.

These two major conferences – NCEDR and NCC – with their correspondingly resulting documents (so to say) – SNDP and NPE respectively – did not only become and still remains the nation’s reference point but also the standard by which improvements are made and evaluated. For example, all activities in the nation’s education sector is referenced and evaluated with respect to the National Policy on Education (NPE). Similarly, all government’s economic and development policies is made towards attaining the five objectives of the country as stated in the Second Development Plan (SDP).

Reason for Acceptance the NCEDR/SNDP and NCC/NPE

Perhaps, this is so because both conferences were born of the Nigerian dream – devoid (to a great extent) of imperialist’s ideologies. Many Nigerians from all walks of life attended the conferences. The SND and the NPE are more or less a documentation of Nigerians saying “This is what we want, this is what will be good for us, and this is what we are going to do”.

The National Objectives of Nigeria

The Second National Development Plan stated that the five national objectives of Nigeria as a nation are:

  • a free and democratic society;
  • a just and egalitarian society;
  • a united, strong and self-reliant nation;
  • a great and dynamic economy;
  • a land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens.

The National Educational Objectives of Nigeria

Similarly, the National Policy on Education more or less stated that the role education has to play in attaining the national objectives above are:

  • the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity;
  • the inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society;
  • the training of the mind in the understanding of the world around;
  • the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competences both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in and contributed to its society.

These four national educational objectives complimented the nine key areas of nation’s education earlier stated by the national curriculum conference – including the national philosophy of education and the objectives of the then three levels of education among others.

The Link Between Curriculum and the National (Educational) Objectives

From my explanations above, you can now understand better when I defined curriculum as a statement of purpose – or a roadmap to an end.

In European countries such as the UK and Australia, it is called the national curriculum framework. A major definition of national curriculum framework is that it states what is expected to be achieved at the end of a given period of implementation. This is what I refer to as statement of purpose – what the society wants or needs.

In the next section, I will discuss curriculum as a specification of content, method and learning experience.

Curriculum as specification of Content, Method and Learning Experience

The second part of the definition I gave is that curriculum is a specification of content and method of structured learning experience inbuilt with the capacity for evaluation.

What I meant by this is that curriculum is not only a statement of purpose or expectation. It does not only say “what we want to achieve”. It also covers “what do we teach” to enable us get “what we want to achieve” – that is the content.

Educationists mostly and preferably refer to curriculum content as learning experience. This is because learning experience is a more encompassing term.

Learning Experience

Learning Experience means all the things that learners learn whether at school, home or anywhere together with all the activities they engage from which they learn during a particular period/level of education. This by general implication means all that one does as a learner.  In essence, curriculum is a specification of what a learner has to (be taught) learn and recommended activities that will help the him/her learn.

But as I stated in the definition, curriculum does not contain random list of content and activities; but structured learning activities. Structured means the learning experience has been arranged in a particular order and according to certain rules – curriculum development theories.

Specification of Methods

In addition to specifying the learning experience, curriculum also contain recommended method of delivering the structured learning experience in ways as will lead to the attainment of the objectives it targets. Educationists call this teaching method or method of teaching. Very commonly too, curriculum does not just state the method of teaching but also the teachers’ activities.

Capacity for Evaluation

The last aspect of the definition of curriculum is that the statement of purpose, learning experience and method of teaching is inbuilt with capacity for evaluation. This means curriculum also specifies how to measure whether the objectives of the learning experience has been met.

With this forgoing explanations, I am convinced you now understand vividly the meaning of curriculum.

Components of Curriculum

Let me now end with the components of curriculum – a more or less summary of the definition of curriculum.

From the discussions above, we can deduce that there are five major components of any curriculum. These include:

  1. Learning objectives (Statement of purpose)
  2. Learning Experience – what to teach, learners’ & teachers’ activities
  3. Method of teaching
  4. Evaluation Guide

Types of Curriculum

Although, educationists in the field of curriculum development classify curriculum in the broadest sense into formal and informal; curriculum in a regular school setting is divided based on source and based on level.

Types of curriculum based on Levels

If one uses the term curriculum to mean national curriculum framework, then there is only one level of curriculum in Nigeria – the federal level. This curriculum is the national curriculum.

Nonetheless, the national curriculum is split into simpler units. These units are the kinds of curriculum based on levels.

The curricular based on levels of education are:
  1. The Early Childhood Care Education (ECCE) Curriculum
  2. The primary school curriculum
  3. The Secondary School Curriculum
  4. The NBTE curriculum (for Monotechnics and Polytechnics offering National and Higher National Diplomas)
  5. The NUC curriculum – for degree awarding tertiary institutions
  6. NCE curriculum
Subject-based National Curricular

Apart from these curricular for the different levels of education, the national curricular may also be broken down into subject-based. This is the publication standard of the NERDC 9-Years BEC curriculum for secondary schools. Examples of curricular in this category include:

  1. 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Basic Technology for JSS 1 – 3)
  2. 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Mathematics for JSS 1 – 3)
  3. 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Mathematics for SSS 1 – SSS 3)
  4. Phonics curriculum
  5. Diction curriculum

Types of curriculum based on Source

Nigeria has dedicated agencies for development curriculum for the different levels of education in the country. Since 1988, the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) develops the national curriculum for Nigerian schools.

Apart from the division of the national curriculum into levels as I have just discussed above, educators sometimes name curriculum that are available in schools based on sources – that is the developers of the curriculum.

In this regard, you should first understand, a curriculum is not necessarily national in nature. For example, drawing from the national curriculum; schools may create their own curriculum. For example, although there is the unified curriculum for Nigerian universities; most universities customize the curriculum to their needs. Hence, it is possible to see one or two discrepancies between BSc Computer Science curriculum at ABU and the same BSc Computer Science curriculum at DELSU. Nonetheless, the underlying national goal for the programme is preserved in both and core courses remain the same. In this case, one may refer to both curriculum as ABU BSc Computer Science curriculum and DELSU BSc Computer Science curriculum to show the disparity and origin.

Similarly, at the Pre-primary, Primary and Secondary level; schools which have the capacity can create their custom curriculum. In that sense, we may see Queen Science curriculum, Kings College Curriculum, etc. This is however, common among few “top-class” schools.

A more common and prevailing experience in Nigerian schools nowadays to acquiring international curricular. Hence, it is common to hear and see British curriculum, American curriculum, Australian curriculum well as any other countries curriculum in Nigerian schools. These type of curricular are named with respect to their origin. Hence, British curriculum means curriculum of the UK origin; American curriculum is the curriculum that comes from the US and so on.

Type of educational philosophy curriculum

The last kind of curriculum that is common among Nigerian schools is curriculum based on particular educational philosophy. The most common of this class is the Montessori curriculum that is has been making waves in the industry.

Which curriculum should you use?

If you have read this article from the beginning up to this point, then the answer to this question should not be farfetched to you. Curriculum is not a textbook that we can buy whichever one appeals to us.

More so, if you are familiar with curriculum development processes with its guiding principles and theories; you will also understand that it should not be globalized either – although we could and do have global educational standards and objectives/aspirations. This is for one because it is a document that uniquely identifies the educational needs of a locality and tries to proffer solution to it.

How to choose the right curriculum?

In essence, before choosing a curriculum, what and whose educational needs does the curriculum address? In answering this question, you should not that a good curriculum is seldom the product of one man or some unrecognized groups. The process of developing a wholesome curriculum involves the service experts cutting across fields. Hence, that it is written in the curriculum that it addresses a particular educational need for a particular set of people does not automatically make it really so.

Another important question to ask in choosing a curriculum for you school is whether you are within the brackets of the curriculum. After sincerely answering the first question above, are you among those whom the curriculum targets? Does the curriculum meet your educational needs?

The last factor to consider in choosing the right curriculum for you school is the question of implementation. I noted earlier that some key components of curriculum are method of teaching, learners’ activities and teachers’ activities. Do you have what it takes to implement the curriculum? Are the teaching methods accessible to your teachers? How about the teachers’ and learners’ activities, can you afford the instructional materials for the activities?

Common Misunderstanding

It became necessary for me to include the section above because of the increasing of number of British, Montessori and American curriculum-based schools in Nigeria. This trend was initiated by school owners who formally taught in international schools. They probably loved the way the international schools were structured. Therefore, they think they should implement the same in their schools even though they aren’t yet an international school.

Unfortunately, many ‘not too informed’ Nigerian parents believe the practise is a sign of higher standard; and thus patronize the British and American curriculum-based Nigerian schools.

This is wrong. And it is high time we educated ourselves. Foreign curriculum addresses foreign educational needs. Majority of the learners in international primary and secondary schools graduates to continue their next level of education abroad. They take international entry level examinations. And they have reasonable of international students. Hence, it is only right that this kind of school uses the foreign curriculum to build the necessary foundation for the learners.

However, if yours is not yet and international school – I do not mean schools that have international in their names – if you do not serve majority international audience, majority of the graduates of your school will go ahead to study in Nigerian schools in their next level of education, if your school participates in NECO and WAEC – then you are training for Nigeria, use Nigerian national curriculum. You should understand education is a cultural activity of the people that every cultural system has its own education process. The yardstick for measuring quality and standard varies from culture to culture (Amaele, 2017).

How Many Edition has the Nigerian National Curriculum and Which is the latest?

The online community of the Nigerian education sector is currently inundated with a lot of information and resources. Far too many people claim to have and sell different educational materials – from curriculum to syllabus, scheme of works to lesson notes and so on.

To convolute things further, since everyone wants to sell; all claim to possess official materials – materials in-line with the NERDC curriculum. A school owner called me to request for lesson notes that are in line with the new 2020 NERDC curriculum that someone sold to her.

In the following sections, I list all past editions of the Nigerian National curriculum and discuss the edition currently in use. Check back in a few minutes.

Meanwhile, check out some of our third term lesson notes that are based on the national curriculum here.


[qsm quiz=3]x

Bibliography

Below are the works I consulted in preparing the entire article:

Project Writers Ng. (2016, January 14). NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND PLANNING FROM 1968 TILL DATE; THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Project Writers Ng: https://www.projectwriters.ng/national-development-plan-and-planning-from-1968-till-date-the-nigerian-experience/

Adeoye, E. A. (2017). CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: THEORY & PRACTICE (A study Guide for PGD Ed) Students.

Ajayi, I. A. (n.d.). TOPICAL ISSUES IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION (A Study Guide for PhD in Educational Administration). University of Ado-Ekiti.

AKANBI, G. O., & ABIOLU, O. A. (2018). Nigeria’s 1969 Curriculum Conference: a practical approach to educational emancipation. Cadernos de História da Educação. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326884292_Nigeria’s_1969_Curriculum_Conference_a_practical_approach_to_educational_emancipation

Amaele, S. (2017). HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA. University of Ilorin.

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (3rd Edition). (2008). Cambridge University Press (Armada).

Danielson, C. (2002). Enhancing Student Achievement. Retrieved from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/102109/chapters/School-Organization.aspx

Fafunwa, A. B. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria. London: George Allen & Uniwin.

Iheanacho, E. N. (2014). National Development Planning in Nigeria: An Endless. International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment Search for Appropriate Development Strategy.

Imam, H. (2012). Educational Policy in Nigeria from the Colonial Era to the Post-Independence Period. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION.

Musingafi, M. C., Mhute, I., & Kaseke, K. E. (2015). Planning to Teach: Interrogating the Link among the Curricula, the Syllabi, Schemes and Lesson Plans in the Teaching Process. Journal of Education and Practice.

NERDC. (2004). The National Policy on Education. Yaba, Lagos: NERDC. Retrieved from http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/AFR/Nigeria/TCH/National%20Policy%20on%20Education.pdf

Nwangu, D. I. (2009). ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION. Enugu State University of Science & Technology.

Omoifo, C. N. (2012). ADVANCED CURRICULUM THEORY (A Study Guide for . University of Benin.

Stephens, M. (2019, April 23). Does Nigeria Use British or American English? Retrieved from Naija Home Based: https://www.naijahomebased.com/does-nigeria-use-british-or-american-english/

Teniola, E. (2018, March 20). Our new national development plan. Retrieved from Vanguard: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/03/our-new-national-development-plan/

The Glossary of Education Reform. (2013, August 29). LEARNING EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Glossary of Education Reform: https://www.edglossary.org/learning-experience/

Nigerian Education Reformation: An Introduction

This post with keywords, Nigerian-education-reformation-introduction in brief

This post with keywords: Nigerian-education-reformation-introduction gives a general introduction to the trending reforms campaign going on in the Nigerian education sector. The post also lists and describes the reforms that education stakeholders are agitating for. You will also learn the why and how you can participate in the reform whether you are a student, teacher, school owner, government agent or a parent.

Introduction to this post with keywords: Nigerian-education-reformation-introduction

The CPE Advocacy

In December 2019, a Nigerian online group of teachers and parents under the name, Concerned Parents & Educators Network ( CPE), announced that the month of February, 2020 is Education Transformation Advocacy month for all her facebook group members.

The group, through the convener, Yinka Ogunde listed seven major items for which they are advocating:

  • Quality of Teachers
  • Dilapidated and totally out-dated school structures
  • Low budgetary allocation for Education
  • Drug Abuse, Examination Malpractice, Sexual Abuse in our school
  • Working curriculum
  • High number of out-of-school children
  • Standards and policies for effective education system

Questions

Are these the only problems in the Nigerian education system? No! The CPE group did not at any point limit the problems of the Nigerian education to the several areas for which it is agitating change. No one did. In fact, anybody with reasonable knowledge of the system will admit that the problems of the industry stretch far beyond the seven points of the agitation. Is there any exhaustive list? Can we further classify the myriad of problems to categories that is capable of being wholesomely tackled for a total overhaul of the system?

I bet to say YES! We can draft a comprehensive list of the problems in Nigerian education sector into categories that is capable of being wholesomely tackled for a total overhaul of the system. But such draft cannot be a brainstorming product of a single group of a generic nature. Facts and figures cannot be established through suggestions but by employing suitable and available mathematical and scientific research tools as well as those of the social sciences and humanities.

The Nigerian-Education-Reformation-introduction

In the regard of the forgoing, the LeadinGuides team have laid a good foundation for the course. Between 2014 and 2016, drawing upon suitable research tools that are available to typical Nigerian researchers with multiple limitations; the team put up a comprehensive list of the problems of the Nigerian education sector. They also made up the list into categories corresponding to each member of the education community as it pertains them. This is so that each category can take up their agitations independently even though simultaneous.

For such advocacy as will lead to an overhaul of the Nigerian education system cannot be done by any one group. Each group has its problems. And the problems of one group may be the solutions of another. This is what happens in any unbalanced set up. But that which we (concerned members of the Nigerian education sector) clamour for, is a balanced system – that in which everything is balanced; a system in which an injury to one is an injury to all. Not until this is achieved, the change we desire cannot be accomplished.

The Call

We must chant our songs with one voice. A voice pitched at equal note to create change rhymes and rhythms. As the indistinct voices of educators which have been calling for change in recent years coagulates into an efficacious echo; the other members must also swing to action. All sects must be proactive and rather aggressive in their campaigns just as the CPE group. If this is not done, even the achievements which the group shall attain in their campaigns shall not tarry long.

The culmination of the agitations and actions of all the sects is what members of the community termed the Nigerian Education Reformation. The reformation qualifies to be called revolution if not for the sense of violence the later tends to communicate at first impression.

Hence, the Definition of the Nigerian Education Reformation

In summary, we may define the Nigerian Education Reformation as the combination of the on-going aggressive individual agitations and campaigns of members of the Nigerian education sector against all educational malpractices and for a total overhaul of the Nigerian education system.

Let us now discuss the key phrases (underlined in the definition) in the definition

Who are the members of the Nigerian Education Sector?

Members of the education sector may be in other words known as stakeholders in education or simply education stakeholders.

An education stakeholder or a stakeholder in education is an individual or group who has a share (i.e. a role or roles) in the development and delivery of quality education and who also are affected by the result thereof.

This means anybody or group that can influence or is influenced by education is a stakeholder in education. And who can say that s/he neither influences nor is influenced by education? Hence, we are all stakeholders in education – typically starting from the government (its agencies, officials and staff), the schools (school owners, administrators and teachers), the home (parents and elder ones who play one or two roles in educating the younger ones) and the learners (at all levels).

What is an educational malpractice?

With regards to the Nigerian Educational Reformation, we define an educational malpractice is the sum total of all the wrong actions and inactions of education stakeholders which lead to reduction in the quality of education.

What does total overhaul of the Nigerian education system means?

Every and all agitations and advocacy of the Nigerian education reformation is to this end – to bring about a total overhaul of the Nigerian education system. This means to repair or improve the Nigerian education system so that every part of it works as it should.

It is undeniable that the Nigerian education system is sick and on the verge of breakdown. And the reformation is a natural way of rectification.

Now you may want to ask the following questions:

  1. What are the list of educational malpractices by the government, the school, the home and the learner?
  2. Which malpractices does the Nigerian Education Reformation addresses?
  3. Are you part of the reformers? What are your roles? How can you help?
  4. Is a total overhaul of the Nigerian Education System feasible? What proofs do we have?

The foregoing questions shall be address in subsequent articles. Nonetheless, a key question that many people ask before joining in the campaign is

Who is the initiator of the Nigerian education reformation?

To answer this question, one must first know origin or source of the idea of Nigerian Education Reformation campaign.

As to whence comes the idea or thoughts to act, Thomas Paine – who has been described as one of the great minds of the American Revolution Period – has the following to say:

“Any person, who has made observations on the state of progress of the human mind, by observing his own, cannot but have observed that there are two distinct classes of what are called Thoughts: those that we produce in ourselves by reflection and the act of thinking, and those that bolt into the mind of their own accord.” In correlation to this, Napoleon Hill opined that the later source of thoughts is a collection of all thinking ever thought by men. According to him, Nature keeps this collection invincibly in constant motion within a medium similar to ether – airwave. Napoleon called this collection the Nature’s Bible.

Source of the Nigerian Education Reformation Ideology

Let us give this theory some level of probability. Then any keen follower of the Nigerian Education Reformation will agree that the origin of the idea is none other than the Nature’s Bible – the coming together of all the change thoughts by individuals in the education industry over the years.

All concerned Nigerians have on several occasions thought about change in the education industry, and often too! When these thoughts come together, it forms the reformation mind-set. This has been picked up and implemented by several governments and individuals and groups in the past. But these did not avail much for the reason I have already stated – being more or less one-sided.

Now that we know or have theorized the source of the reformation idea, let us answer the main question

Who Initiated the Current Wave of Reformation?

Due to its multiple origin, none can claim to be the sole initiator of the ongoing reformation. It is happening spontaneously. The reformers in the south were initially unaware that some individuals are also replicating their actions in the east. The east reformers were initially unaware of the reformers in the north. They were connected only by the common origin of their ideologies – Mother Nature. Many authors, thinkers and philosophers have borne witness to human’s identity to nature. In one instance, Charles Cook observed that “[our] deepest roots are in nature.  No matter who [we] are, where [we] live, or what kind of life [we] lead, [we] remain irrevocably linked with the rest of creation.

Hope for the Nigerian Education Reformation

It is my opinion that this is the litmus test of the possible success of the reformation if all will work as they should. For it was Mother Nature who simultaneously and spontaneously placed the ideas and plans of reformation in minds of the individuals – championing and participating in it.

Ongoing Nigerian Education Reformation Campaigns

There are already many people on this train. And many more are joining. People who believe that change is possible. Different sets and individuals are reforming different aspects of the system. They are utilizing the social media to converge and form a formidable team.

Governments such as that of Lagos are drafting and implementing revolutionary educational policies and structures; we have school owners and administrators such as the CSNI reforming educational administration in Nigeria; there are veteran educationists and concerned parents such as the CPE who are fighting for the interests of teachers; and students are not left out.

The Education Sector is one that affects us all, first as an individual then as a nation. If it works, all other sectors work. You and I and everybody has a role to play in these agitations. So once again:

  1. What are the complete lists of educational malpractices by the government, the school, the home and the learner?
  2. Which malpractices does the Nigerian Education Reformation addresses?
  3. Are you part of the reformers? What are your roles? How can you help?

Check back later for the posts answering these questions. Meanwhile click here to check out our past Nigerian Education Reformation campaigns.

School Staff Job Description – General Duties of Teachers

This post with keywords – School-Staff-Job-Description-General-Duties-Teachers in one sentence

This post with keywords, School-Staff-Job-Description-General-Duties-Teachers, outlines the general responsibilities of school teachers.

Introduction to this post with keywords, School-Staff-Job-Description-General-Duties-Teachers

Today, the education industry is one of the most dynamic. Times are changing and things are changing along. The dynamism in the industry gives rise to the categorization of teachers. As a result, there are different kinds of teachers in the schools of today. This categorization is based on different factors. The most common factors that I use to classify teachers are by entry, financial status (how much money they make) and approach to work (or levels at work). Since this post is concerned basically with the categories of teachers by entry, I shall only identify the types of teachers based on entry.

Types of Teachers by Entry

The “types of teachers by entry” means the grouping of teachers based on how they became teachers – i.e. how they entered into the teaching profession. Based on this, I categorise teachers into three groups:

·         Professional Teachers

This refers to the teachers that received specialized or professional training in education with one or more teaching certifications. Hence, this category became teachers because it is their profession.

·         Natural Teachers

This refers to individuals that have a flair and most times passion for teaching, whether or not they are professionally trained. Some natural teachers may love teaching so much so that they wouldn’t trade the profession with other. They may also either be educationist or professionals in other fields but they prefer teaching to the profession of their training. Natural teachers may also be called born teachers. Under this category we also have legacy teachers – those that acquired teaching from their parents and guardians. Legacy teachers may not necessarily undergo any professional teachers training. However, by observing, engaging and involving in the teaching works of their parents/guardians, they naturally developed the teaching skills.

·         Circumstantial Teachers

This refers to individuals that become teachers as a result of certain circumstance (s). The most common reason people become circumstantial teacher is that they could not get their dream jobs (jobs in their profession) but they must survive. Another reason for circumstantial teachers is convenience – when teaching is a convenient job to support their other life engagements e.g. house wives.

Ideally, only professional teachers may teach. However, insufficient professional teachers are a historic problem in Nigerian education system. Hence, majority of the teachers in our schools even today are either circumstantial or natural teachers. Note though that circumstantial or natural teachers can become professional teachers. And we greatly encourage this.

Nonetheless, at the point of entry; most people believe their only responsibility as a teacher would be to teach – plan the lesson, go to class and deliver the lesson. Now that is not totally wrong because the word teacher comes from teach (LOL). However, there are some behind the scene tasks that a teacher must carry out to enable him/her to teach very well. Apart from this, majority of our schools nowadays are business outfits. As such, teachers as part and parcel of the business must perform some corporate duties to enable the school (business) make more profit and so that the teachers receive higher rewards.

Job Description/Duties of a Teacher

Consequently, the numerous responsibilities of a teacher are grouped into three:

  1. Academic duties
  2. Administrative duties
  3. Organizational/corporate duties

Unfortunately, many schools do not provide detailed description of each of these responsibilities in their offer/engagement letter nor in their handbook.

Effect of not providing detailed job description

John Maxwell noted that there are four basic reasons people do not perform the way they should. This include if they do not know:

  • what they are supposed to do;
  • how to do it;
  • why they should; and if
  • there are obstacles beyond their control

So when there is no proper job description, the employee will not know what to do in the first place say less of how and who s/he should do it. And the result of that is ineffectiveness and inefficiency.

So, who is this post for?

This post will be beneficial to school owners and administrators. They will be able to provide a more detailed job description for their newly engaged staff. They should note however that this is general job description. Roles and responsibilities are mostly relative. Such school owner and administrator that may use this should think of specific tasks that their staff ought to perform and include accordingly.

New Teachers will find this post of especial value. Mostly, new teachers assume that all there is to do as a teacher in school is teach. This will serve as direction to work. In schools that do not give comprehensive job description, doing as I have outlined here will set you well on the road to become an indispensable teacher.

This post shall be a great reminder to experienced teachers. And for those that have not desired without getting promotion/pay raise, this may serve as instrument of self-evaluation or guide to attaining it.


School-Staff-Job-Description-General-Duties-Teachers

Following are the general responsibilities of a teacher in   a school.

    1.     The Academic responsibilities of a school teacher are:

      1. Identifying the capabilities and needs of all learners in your class
      2. Preparing professional lesson plan and note – incorporating educational theories and industry-best practices
      3. Delivering well-planned lessons in a comprehensive way in such a way that every child is imparted and impacted
      4. Teaching according to the educational needs, abilities and achievement of the individual students and overall learners
      5. Assigning work, correcting and marking work carried out by his/her learners according to school’s homework and marking policies respectively
      6. Assessing, recording and reporting on the development, progress, attainment and behaviour of your students
      7. Communicating, consulting and co-operating with other members of the school staff, including those having posts of special responsibility and parents/guardians to ensure the best interest of students
      8. Ensuring high standards of professional practice and quality of teaching and learning of the subject/s
      9. Participating in In-Service education and training courses as well as in continuing professional development (CPD) opportunities, and taking part in action research exercises
      10. Maintaining good order and discipline (according to school disciplinary rules and procedures) amongst students under your care – in particular – and in the school – in general as well as safeguarding their health and safety at all times
      11. Maintaining tidy and orderly classroom
      12. Ensuring appropriate lesson timing – ensuring that teachers are on ground to start lessons on time and are terminated promptly
    2. The Administrative Responsibilities of a school teacher are:

      1. Keeping and maintaining important class-level statutory records viz. Lesson note, lesson plan, dairy, attendance register, scheme of work, e.t.c.
      2. Making entry and submitting records as required.
      3. Maintain confidentiality of all students/parents record and administrative issues
      4. Maintain and update all files record
      5. Organization and participating in extracurricular activities such as social activities, sporting activities, clubs and student organizations as directed
      6. Attending school meetings
      7. Reporting requested issues to the Head Teachers promptly either when requested or when necessary
    3. The organizational duties of a teacher are:

      1. Taking care of school properties
      2. Encourage parent and community involvement, obtain information for parents when requested, promptly return phone calls and answer emails
      3. Serving as a check and balance on all school policies and programmes to ensure it aligns to the school mission and vision.
      4. Suggesting to and advising school management, officer or boards on all matters of school growth, development and educational activities
      5. Participating in the planning (if required) and implementation of school marketing plans
    4. Any other responsibilities as may be decided by the school administrative team or representative from time to time.

    And there it is – the general duties of a school teacher. But don’t forget, any good employee is supposed to know the duties of both the next rank above him/her and all the duties of the ranks below him/her.


    This post with keywords – School-Staff-Job-Description-General-Duties-Teachers – provides detailed general responsibilities of a school teacher. The next post describes the duties of a head teacher.
    [qsm quiz=3]

The Effective-School-Staff-Meeting

in one sentence

This post, the effective-school-staff-meeting,  provides a comprehensive guide to school administrators, head teachers, principals, head of departments, committee chairs and school group leaders for convening and managing meaningful school staff meetings.

It will also be handy for the member of a school community, either students or teacher that may one day assume a leadership role in a school. The guide should provide observation or suggestion tips for such members of a school community in subsequent meetings. More so and even though the author uses words that may be peculiar to school environment, it is applicable to leaders of any organized group of people. Invariably it is for every one!

Introduction to the effective-school-staff-meeting

Good and important as school staff meeting could be, it is still one of the most frustrating moments for school staff or team members. It is not an uncommon experience for some staff or team members to wish not to attend a particular meeting neither is it rare to see absent-minded staff in meetings. Some of the staff just wishes the convener could just end the meeting few minutes after commencement. We’ve all been in such meetings at several times in the past.

This is probably so because many of the previously held meetings in the school are unproductive. In such unproductive meetings, there is too much waste of time. People just talk, talk and talk with little follow-up action. It features empty proposals and suggestions and towards the end, even if it is yet to reach the overstayed period, more than half the members may have become tired. Too often, members of staff are left with the question of whether the meeting is necessary at all.

Structure of the effective-school-staff-meeting

In order for this effective-school-staff-meeting guide to be most meaningful, we will start with the importance of school staff meeting, then some reasons school staff meeting is unproductive. Afterwards, we will look at the step by step guide a school staff meeting convener needs to adopt in organizing and managing more meaningful school staff meeting in future. If you are not a direct organizer of one, the information you get from here may either become your contribution in your next meeting or part of suggestion you could make to the meeting organizer in your school.

Reasons or Importance of School Staff Meeting

The importance of school staff meeting or meeting of team members cannot be overemphasized. Any school or organization that wants to grow must call for periodic meeting between her staff for the following reasons among others.

  • Giving out information in an efficient way – not office gossips
  • Making decisions pertaining to school policies, objectives of the school and the activities and programs as well as setting standards.
  • Brainstorming, sharing ideas and strategies, giving suggestions and presenting proposals on effective ways to implement plans, drawing and adopting action plans.
  • Solving problems that have a bearing on the growth of the school and her members
  • Motivating members or promoting team spirit in carrying out programs to realize the objectives of the school.

In a deliberate attempt to keep this post as short as possible, I choose not to elaborate on these points. Notwithstanding, you should go over the points once more and try to consider the scope of each. No doubt, you will agree that meeting is a key component of any progressive school or organization.

But why then is school staff meeting unproductive? What is/are the cause(s)? Let’s take a look at that.

Why most school staff meeting is unproductive

Ideally, it cannot be said that one reason is responsible for the failure of many school staff meetings. However, the multiple reasons school staff meeting fails is attributable to the inefficiency of two people – the organizers (i.e. school heads) and the participants (i.e. teachers).

How School Staff Meeting Conveners Make it Fail

In some schools, meeting conveners are the major cause of the failure of many meetings. They do this in two ways:

1.        Turning Meeting to Briefing

This is more common in big and average schools than in small schools. In fact, the higher up a school is in stratification, the higher is the level in which this happens.

By turning meeting to briefing I mean the act of not allowing EVERY participating member to make contribution freely. In such schools, the actual meeting is only held between the top officials – proprietor/proprietress, director, principals or head teachers, HODs etc.

These officials hold the meeting in two ways. They either meets before joining the rest of the teachers or they discuss while in the midst of the teachers i.e. in what is supposed to be a general meeting. Whatever, they (the officials) agree on, is then announced to the rest of the teachers (the teachers are briefed).

If the ‘executives meeting’ is held the former way, then they keep non-executive teachers waiting – I know of a very highly placed school where teachers wait for 2-3 hours before the arrival of the executives. If however, the later way of ‘executives meeting’ is adopted, then the rest of the teachers are not only made to feel stupid but also irrelevant.

Whichever way, the idea of holding a sub meeting of executives in general school staff meeting makes the general meeting un-meaningful, irrelevant and uninteresting. If everyone doesn’t have to be part of the discussion then everyone doesn’t have to be part of the meeting. I am sure they will be more grateful if you would just hold your executive meeting and then relate the executives’ resolution rater than keeping them waiting (looking stupid and irrelevant) while you meet.

2.        Not planning

This is the second way school staff meeting organizers makes meetings to fail. Even though some may have fixed meeting dates/days, many still fail to plan for the meeting and also to plan the meeting. Even if the essence of the meeting is to brief or announce executives’ resolution (s) to the teachers, there ought to be adequate planning. In the absence of planning, many things go wrong and participant loss interest in the meeting too soon for it to achieve anything worthwhile.

Later in this post, I will provide a step by step guide on how to plan for a meeting as well as the meeting itself. However, let’s first look at how participants makes school staff meetings fail.

How Meeting Participants Make School Staff Meeting Fail

As noted earlier, meeting is not one people’s affair. Instead, it is the business of two or more set of people. It is the dealing between the organizers and the attendees. As a result, the success and failure of such dealing depends on both parties. No matter how well the organizer (s) prepare(s) for meeting, it will still be a failure if the attendees fail to do their homework.

Summarily, there is only one way meeting attendees make meetings fail. This is by not planning for the meeting.

Not planning for the meeting

It is true that attendees usually do not plan a meeting. Also true is the fact that meeting organizers may be responsible for attendees’ act of not preparing for a meeting. Nonetheless, some attendees would just not prepare for a meeting – it is simply not their habit! Even if the organizers do all that is their role to do.

This singular act of not planning for school staff meeting by the attendees (teachers); leads to several odd behaviors that place the success of the meeting at stake. Some of these odd behaviors are:

1.        Arriving late at the meeting

How can they be punctual when they did not plan for the meeting? The kind of meeting attendee that would not prepare for a meeting usually rushes down when has commenced.

2.        Coming along with unfinished works

I have convened several school staff meetings in which some of my teachers come to the meeting with leftover of notes to mark. I bet they cannot effectively double themselves in this case.

3.        Being un-contributive

What meaningful thing can they contribute when they did not prepare for the meeting? Being unprepared also means they did not do underground work on the topic (s) of discussion (if at all they remember). It also implies that they did not read the minutes of the previous meeting or were they punctual enough to hear the secretary take it. All these compound into such an attendee being un-contributive at the meeting.

Similar to an attendee being un-contributive due to unpreparedness, is being unspoken due to timidity. I have also found out that some school staff meeting attendees is rather too timid for the status of a teacher. This timid set of attendees does not contribute to school staff meeting not because they lack what to say but because they are too apprehensive to say it. This form of being un-contributive too is no help to the success of school staff meetings.

4.        Initiating side talks

Yes, the unprepared attendees are often the ones to initiates side talks, gossips and murmurs. They may do this unintentionally – when they ask the punctual, attentive and active attendees to brief, remind or clarify a point. Also, if they are neither contributing nor following the discussion; then it will naturally turn out uninteresting to them. In response, they murmur. Finally, because they did not plan for the meeting, they are likely to fix another (external) appointment at a time too close to the meeting. Hence, they often obtain permission to leave before the close of the meeting – although some may be due to other official matters. If not permitted, they are first to complain of having other things to do or time.

And those are the reasons most school staff meeting as well as other meetings fail: when the organizers and attendees fail to do what they ought to do properly leading them to do what they ought not to do.

Now, how may one make effective-school-staff-meeting more meaningful?

The answer – one may make effective-school-staff-meeting more meaningful by planning both the meeting and for the meeting adequately.

Planning a meeting

Planning the meeting actually means planning the discussion. This implies what to discuss and the shape of the discussion. Consequently, the first three steps towards a successful school staff meeting are as given below.

1st Step:  List out the objectives of the meeting

Here, the organizer has to answer questions such as why do I have to call this meeting?

Is it for the attendants to deliberate on an issue or some issues? What are the issues? List them out.

Is it to give out information? Would this piece or pieces of information invoke participants’ reaction? Can the information be communicated by other means such as internal memo, text messages, emails etc. without harming its purpose? Write down the information. And if it does not require a meeting then you do not have to call a meeting.

Is the meeting to promote team spirit, motivate the staff or share new work strategies? Write this down also together with the topic as clear as possible.

Whatever the reason of the meeting is, it should be stated in such a way that participants will be able to know at a glance.

2nd Step: Prepare questions to pose on

For a discussion meeting, the organizers should draw up some open-ended questions based on each topic. These questions spur participation or contribution of participants. And at the meeting, a particular question may be directed at a particular member to ensure even ground of contribution. Issues upon which decisions have to be taken need to be thought of and written out earlier. This will help all participants understand the issues clearly and little time is wasted.

3rd Step: Set specific and clear agenda

The meeting agenda is the planned order of progression. What is the first thing to be done once all members are on seat and the next? The agenda should be clearly put out in a concise and numbered order. In drawing the agenda, one’s priority list is a key consideration. The most important items should be listed first with the least important at the end. It is also good to have the agenda clearly written on a board in the front part of the meeting hall or room.

Now that is it for planning a meeting. If you do all the things I mentioned in step 1through 3 accordingly, then you would have planned the meeting. However, all is not set for the meeting. You need to do a couple more things for the meeting to be hitch free. These things which are I discussed below should be done before the meeting commences.

Planning for the commencement of the meeting

4th Step:  Send meeting notification and distribute agenda

Participants have to be notified early about the meeting so that they can plan their schedules. Meeting notification should carry the objective (s) of the meeting and the agenda so that the participants come prepared. If there is anything that the participants have to read, attach it to the notification. Finally, the notification should remind participants to read the minutes of previous meeting and possibly bring them along.

5th Step:  Get ready any audio-visuals

Next in the line of action is to source and get all essential materials ready. A whiteboard together with a marker and a duster are essential. Other audio-visual aids such as projector, screen, charts and models should be sourced, be made ready and tested earlier.

6th Step: Prepare the place of meeting

The objectives of a meeting are sometimes defeated by the inappropriateness of the meeting place. Imagine the noisiness of a room with unbalanced seats that scratches on the surface of the floor. Or rather a dirty and poorly ventilated room where participants have to fight for comfort. Such arrangements occasionally detract the participants.

The meeting place should be clean, bright and well-ventilated. The seats should be arranged properly so that all participants can see and hear one another clearly. Should a microphone or P.A system be required, this has to be prepared and tested out before the commencement of the meeting.

Note the meeting place should NOT be prepared only at the last minute!

The Meeting: Steering towards target

With the meeting place in order, you are all set for the meeting to commence. Nevertheless, there is still tendency for things to go wild if no proper control is administered during the meeting.  I discussed some of the steering mechanisms or exercises below.

Start the meeting on time

Punctuality has to be stressed and observed not only by the participants but all parties. As noted under the fault of meeting organizers, sometimes the chairperson or other key member is late themselves.

Except if such executives are content with the present level of their school and seek no further growth; then they must take their staff opinions serious. And if they do, they would not keep the staff waiting in meetings so as to meet them at a good frame of mind, happy and ready to contribute freely.

Welcome address should encourage participation

Although how free the staff will feel to contribute at the meeting greatly depends on how the management relates with them under normal circumstances, the opening message to every member should be that of inspiration. The chairperson should motivate the participants to feel free to air their opinion in all matters that will be discussed.

Sometimes the chairperson has to assure the participant of his/her readiness to accept all contribution honestly. The atmosphere also has to be different from normal formal setup. Research reveals that more is achieved in an informal meeting setting than in formal ones.

Ensure minutes are taken

Minutes of meetings have to be clear, concise and accurate. They ought to be well-structured and arranged in proper order.

All decisions taken on issues need to be recorded without any ambiguity. Good minutes convey to members clear information, proposals, solutions to problems and decisions taken.

Limit time for each item

Sometimes meetings are overstayed because all the agenda items cannot be covered on time. Suitable time limits should be allocated for the various agenda items according to their importance. When time is running out for a particular item, the discussion on the item can be summarized to the details.

Stick to agenda

Even in a meeting of the most civilized and ordered people there are tendency to indulge in too much ramblings and discussion of irrelevant matters – deviation from the agenda. The chairperson has to ensure to keep track of the agenda and to control and bring back the meeting should it stray too far away.

Close meeting well

The chairperson has to ensure that the meeting finishes as scheduled and does not unnecessarily drag on. At the close, proposals and decisions are summarized, reminders on actions to be taken and by whom are assigned. Probably, the date and time of next meeting is also fixed. In conclusion, the chairperson expresses a word of thanks to the participants.

And this brings us to the end of the guide. Hopefully, it should lead you to a successful meeting.

Remember to ensure that the minute of the meeting is sent to every participant some time before the following meeting. This is to remind them of the actions to be taken by specified individuals as decided in the meeting. The absentees should also receive minute and important decisions taken should be explained to them.

Check out other school management issues

[qsm quiz=3]

Sustainable-School-Growth-Part-1:

Sustainable-School-Growth-Part-1: Steps to Sustainable school growth

Sustainable-School-Growth-Part-1: in one sentence

This post with keywords: Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1 outlines the steps that school administrators and school owners may adopt to achieve sustainable school growth.

Introduction to Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1

This post, Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1, is the first of a 10-series post. The complete series will help school administrators and school owners to build a formidable school that will expand exponentially.  Following our independent education seminar which was held at FCAPT, Kano on October 1, 2019; many teachers, school administrators and school owners have requested for the manuals.

This particular 10-series post is an adaption of the manual on the topic ‘Sustainable School Growth and Multiple Streams of Income for Teachers in the 21st Century Environment’.  If you wish to have the manual, send me a message through the contact page, email via [email protected] or WhatsApp on +2348067689217.

Preamble to Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1

That there is and will always be prospects in the education industry is a fact that needs no argument. There are prospects both for school owners and teachers. However and just like any other industry, business in education is dynamic and follows certain principles. There are strategies to successful ends in education business. Unfortunately, not many school owners, administrators and teachers understand this dynamism and strategies for succeeding in education business. Hence, majority of education business stakeholders, especially upcoming ones, leave their success in the hands of uncertainty. Many have lost hope and quite a number would only say “I will do my best and leave the rest for God”.

Faith is good and I believe it is necessary for success. But I do not think there need be hopelessness and uncertainty in running education business. This is because there are empirical approaches to success in education businesses as in all else. In this post – Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1 – I hope to outline the steps that school administrators and school owners may adopt to attain sustainable growth.

Pre-requisite Knowledge for Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1

In this post, Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1, I use keywords like school growth and sustainable school growth many times. I assume that you already know exactly what I imply by these terms. In an earlier post, I clearly defined school growth and sustainable school growth. In the post, I also explained why school administrators should pursue not just school growth but a sustainable school growth. If you have not read this already, click here and have a quick read.

Steps in Sustainable School Growth

I believe that you are now convinced of the effectiveness of the people-oriented growth strategy. Hence, let us look at the steps to sustainable school growth in this strategy. However, before that; it is pertinent I make you understand that I do not teach nor promise miracle growth. No! Miracles have no principles else it wouldn’t be miracle. Consequently, you should understand that sustainable school growth requires considerably effort and time. It is guided by laws and practices. I condensed the proven practices and laws – which I call principles – into ten composite components.   These are not simple suggestions but success stories of different administrators and school owners. Although it is not necessary for you to perform all of these principles in the order I list them, I prefer to call them steps to sustainable school growth.

The steps to sustainable school growth are:

  1. School re-organization
  2. Collaboration with parents
  3. Collaboration with Students
  4. Collaboration with Teachers
  5. Collaboration with Community
  6. Build Brands
  7. Increase infrastructure
  8. Expand Cash flow
  9. Financial management

Invariably, you should be familiar with some of the items of this list. Nonetheless, you must understand that each item of the list is composite. In subsequent posts, the remaining nine of the series, I shall discuss each of the list items in details. Check back for continuation of the post.

Contemporary Migration Patterns towards Wealthy Liberal Democracy like Europe and North America

The article with keywords: Migration-patterns-wealthy-liberal-democracy in one sentence

This article with the keywords, Migration-patterns-wealthy-liberal-democracy briefly discusses the reasons and seasons of migration towards Europe and North America and in the shortest term, advocates the need to regulate migration to benefit both the home and host countries being still within the scope of Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

Disclosure of this article with keywords:  Migration-patterns-wealthy-liberal-democracy

I wrote this article based on request. Hence, the length and breadth of the article was determined by the parameters that the requester provided. Specifically, the requester noted that there was no need for any kind of references including citations. Therefore, this article is void of same.

Disclaimer

Despite the lack of citations and references, this article contains empirical data from secondary sources. This is because the article is based on research from books and other websites or blogs along with the author’s prior knowledge/experience. Neither the author nor LeadinGuides claims ownership of neither the secondary data nor the cited works (though not referenced).

Contemporary Migration Patterns towards Wealthy Liberal Democracy like Europe and North America

With a GDP per capita of $57, 436, the United States of America is the wealthiest country in Northern America.  Canada is the runner up having a GDP per capita of $46, 437. In comparison, Luxembourg is the wealthiest European country as at 2018, trailed by Norway and Ireland each with GDP per capita of $104, 003; $69, 249 and $69, 231 respectively. Also top on the list of European fortunes are Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Belgium, United Kingdom and France.

Liberal Democracy

Each of the wealth capitals believes in, and adopts liberal democracy. Hence, all but Luxembourg which had implicit policy centred on accepting mainly white, Catholic, and European from Italy and Portugal, have open migration policy – US being the freest. Accordingly, these wealthy liberal democracies of the Northern America and Europe have had the largest number of migrants in the aforementioned years and in recent times. For example, majority of the number of international migrants in 2017, about 50 million representing over 19%, resided in the United States of America alone; Germany was among the second largest resident countries followed by the United Kingdom.

Migration route

Majority of American immigrants are of Asian and South American origin and European immigrants mostly are of African descent. Without doubt, there is in general term, an expansionary bias in the politics of migration in liberal democracy such that official policies tend to be more liberal than public opinion thereby enhancing the continuous growth and growth of  a region while the other swings in the pendulum of increase and decrease. Consequently, migration pattern towards wealthy democracy must be regulated, however little it may be necessary, not only towards benefitting the migrants and destination country but also the home for a holistic attainment of the objectives of liberal democracy– equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people.

Factors influencing Migrations

The push and pull factors

Migrations generally follow push and pull factors. Middle-of-the-road of the migration route depicted above is as a result of push factors – which may be economic such as unemployment; political such as civil war; social such as over population and lack of quality education; or natural such as drought and other natural disaster – driving migrants towards greener pastures with the corresponding pull factors in the foreign land. This means that anytime there is a mishap in Asia, Africa and South America, the wealthy democratic nations of Europe and North America should expect higher immigrants. This includes even political inefficiency of these regions.

Category of migrants and the big question

And as in most cases, the immigrants due to this reason are permanent migrants. Hence, though headlines and research papers indicate increasing value of remittance, the home country of the migrants usually losses the contributions they would have made to the development of their country – which should have benefitted more of their countrymen and aided in closing the inequality gap. And since there will always be push and pull factors, should this chain of imbalance loop forever?

Family migration

Another major common migration pattern towards Northern American and European   lands of affluence is the concept of family migration. In 2016, nearly a million migrants acquired European citizenship. This means these migrants become full Europeans with equal rights and privileges of the indigenous – erecting their permanent homes, building their European families. With European citizenship, members of family in their country of origin are permitted by law to join them thus engineering another round of migration. This also implies that more migrant citizenship equals more migration. For instance in 2016, family data reveals that due to the about 995, 000 that acquired European citizenship; more than 1.8 million new migrants moved to OECD (European) countries for family reasons – representing 1.6 million family formation and reunification and 270,000 accompanying family. Data also reveals that 38% of all permanent migration to OECD countries is family migration.

In conclusion

Invariably, it cannot be argued that migration has contributed and will continue to contribute to migrant’s home countries if reversed and through remittance. However, in furtherance of the objectives of liberal democracy for which the wealthy (destination) North American and European countries stand to represent, a change must be introduced – no matter how little it may be. We have observed and seen this unregulated migration since 1948 when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was made. We know and affirm that it has been a worthwhile mission. However, for the sake of better efficiency, for the sake of universal equality in the standard of living through uniform national growth of all nations; let there be a little regulation – that ensure migrants contribute to the growth of their host countries and are also reversed to contribute to the growth of their home countries – for the only constant thing is change and there is no place like home.

 

Read similar article: Comparative Study of EU and US border policies and protocols.

Comparative Study of US and EU border policies and protocols

This article with keywords: Comparative-study-US-EU-border-policies-protocols in one sentence

This article, with the keywords: Comparative-study-US-EU-border-policies-protocols, describes and compare the border policies, protocols and infrastructures of both the United States (US) and European Union.

Disclosure:

I wrote this article based on request. Hence, the length and breadth of the article was determined by the parameters that the requester provided. Specifically, the requester noted that there was no need for any kind of references including citations. Therefore, this article is void of same.

Disclaimer:

Despite the lack of citations and references, this article contains empirical data from secondary sources. This is because the article is based on research from books and other websites or blogs along with the author’s prior knowledge/experience. Neither the author nor LeadinGuides claims ownership of neither the secondary data nor the cited works (though not referenced).

NOTE: The article is continuous.  However, in order to make it easier to read, this post includes headings to guide readers.


Comparative Study of US and EU border policies and protocols; case study examples: activities of border patrol and detainment agencies

Introduction

The United States of America (USA) and European Union (EU) have maintained a bilateral relation for over sixty years. The relation started in 1953 when US ambassador visited the European Coal and Steel Community convention. Although autonomous of each other, both the US and most of the member states of the EU are allies in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).  However, the autonomous nature of the US and EU permits each to have its own policies and protocols as is the case of border control. Consequently, while the border policies and protocols of the EU are guided by the Shengen Agreement; the US has a number of federal statues, executive actions and court decisions guiding its border policies and protocols. Nonetheless both being party to, are required to conform their border policies and protocols to the New Transatlantic Agenda agreement as well as the mobility rights of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Despite their organizational fellowship and co-signatories, the US and EU have disagreed with each other on a wide range of specific issues. In what ways do the EU and the US agree and what are the differences and similarities in their border policies, protocols and infrastructures?

US vs. EU border policies and protocols

Similarities

While the US and EU has similar international border policies, their internal border control protocols vary. Prior to the 2015 migration crisis, the EU in pursuant of the mobility right of the UDHR, fourth protocol of the European Convention on Human Rights allows free and lawful entry in and out of Europe and prohibits the collective expulsion of foreigners. Similarly, the Immigration and Naturalization Act of the US allows foreign nationals to lawfully enter, work and live permanently in the US. More so, both the EU and the US have similar visa policies to control entry and exit through their borders. In like manner, the US Refugee Act provided protection for refugees and asylum seekers same as the enabling statues of the Common European Asylum System.

Differences

On the other hand, while the Shengen Agreement and Svlbard Treaty allow free migration within the EU’s Shengen Area; the US maintain autonomous immigration policies in each of its major territories hence subsisting internal border check between such territories. For instance, while a European leaving one country to another within the Shengen area does not require custom checks between the borders of those countries; an American leaving the Northern Mariana Islands to Guam or American Samoa will have to undergo immigration and customs check at the border between these territories.

US vs. EU Border Patrol

The US Border Patrol (USBP) is the US armed federal law enforcement agencies charged with the responsibility of detecting and preventing illegal aliens, terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the US as well as to prevent illegal trafficking of people and contraband. Similarly, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex), performs the task of border control of the EU Shengen Area, in collaboration with the border and coast guards of Shengen Area member states. However, although both agencies are mandated to work in alliance with the UN Convention and Protocol on the Status of Refugees; recent activities have suggested contravention. The Operation Streamline of the US DHS and DOJ has been criticized for purported violation of the rights of migrants and asylum seekers during prosecution of nearly 98,000 immigrants in 2013.  Also following the April 2018 announcement of the Trump administration of their zero tolerance policy, the prosecution of asylum seekers and migrants along the southwest border escalated. Over 3,000 children were taken from their parents who are subjected to this prosecution. In the same vein, Frontex was accused of violation of international and European asylum and human rights laws in 2009.

Conclusion to this article with keywords: Comparative-study-US-EU-border-policies-protocols

From the discus, it is obvious that there are many parallels between the border policies and protocols of the US and EU. There are also a few variations. But the central point is how these policies and protocols affect humanity. The greatest concern is for provision for the use of force in the border policies as well as the application of same in the protocols. Where use of force is allowed, possibility of the violation of rights cannot be ruled out. Hence, the legal debate for whether or not an action of the armed patrol agencies violates the rights of the refugees and asylum seekers will in no near time abate. Shall we exchange battle of words for actual pain of men? Do the US and the EU preach the aspirations of the UDHR and do the opposite? Undoubtedly, if the aspirations of UDHR must be met, as its actualization rests on these two major institutions, policymakers must take a deeper look at the statutes of criminalizing irregular entry and the possibility of their potential repeal.

Do you want follow up? Contact us

Did you enjoyed reading this? Check out  other articles on our blog

PLASTIC POLLUTION: ANOTHER THREAT TO THE MOTHER EARTH

PLASTIC POLLUTION: ANOTHER THREAT TO THE MOTHER EARTH

Human ingenuity has continued to change the annals of human history. Since the era of the Stone Age, human knowledge has substantially grown in leaps and bounds (beyond imaginable boundaries) such that what was hitherto considered inconceivable is today an event to reckon with. Judging from this perspective, it can be fairly concluded, that man has explored nature to such an extent that nature is subjected to his whims and caprices. This assertion aligns with the disposition of Vidal de la Blache, a French Geographer when centuries ago he advanced the concept of determinism. The concept demonstrates that everywhere exist possibilities; and man, as a master of these possibilities, is the judge of their use, thus man becomes the master of its destiny. True to this statement, it would be moderate to maintain that man remains an eternal Judge of the mother earth. The question that comes to mind however, is whether man has been a fair Judge in his court – environment.

Environmental pollution is not a new theme of discussion both in the academia and at the informal learning terrain as it is commonly a subject of household discussion and as long as man dwells within the planet earth, it would continued to be engaged and as consistently as possible about environmental matters as such issues are nearer to us than we ever imagine. Today, every man has an idea of what it means when discussing a polluted environment, such discussion revolves around, water pollution, soil pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, and what a view. Added to these forms of pollution is another nature threatening development – regarded as plastic pollution. The other forms of pollution as mentioned has been with humanity from Adam with varying degree of impacts especially with increasing human population coupled with increased quest for materialism. The new form of pollution is beginning to raise its ugly head against the mother earth, thus, a source of concern to all, regardless of sentiments.

What then, is plastic pollution and how is it threatening human existence?

Plastic pollution is the building up of plastic materials or objects ranging from plastic bottles, bottle caps, plastic bags, plastic trays, plastic containers, food packaging film and much more in the earth’s environment. Such accumulation concentrates on land and water bodies and adversely affects the soil, underground water, wildlife, wildlife habitat and humans.

Plastic pollution is categorized based on their sizes including micro, meso, or macro pollutants. Plastics are generally affordable and highly resistant to degradation (it is said that it takes about a century for an average plastic to degrade). These dual advantages give credence to the benefits which plastic enjoys over other pollutants which invariably have led to its high production.  It is estimated that about 300 million tonnes of plastic waste are generated every year (UN Environment Report 2018). Disposed plastics eventually find their way into the water bodies – the streams, rivers and ocean. Plastic waste is now so common in the natural environment that scientists have observed, though with dismay, that it could serve as a geological indicator of the Anthropocene era.

Composition of plastics

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET): found in water bottles, dispensing containers and biscuit trays.

High—density polyethylene (HDPE): found in shampoo bottles, milk bottles, freezer bags and ice cream containers.

Low—density polyethylene (LDPE): found in Bags, trays, containers and food packaging film. Polypropylene (PP): found in Potato chip bags, microwave dishes, ice cream tubs and bottle caps.

Polystyrene (PS): found in Cutlery, plastic plates and plastic cups.

Expanded polystyrene (EPS): found in Protective packaging, hot drink cups, etc.

 

Effects of plastic Pollutants on the environment   

The effects of plastic pollution are far reaching as its repercussions are becoming increasingly dotted on the human landscape.  It renders the soil infertile, making them agriculturally unproductive as it reduces the rate of aeration and infiltration into the soil especially the non biodegradable plastics. The most affected ecosystem as observed today in this regard is the aquatic system, which is made up of 70% of the earth’s landmass. The UN Report (2018) asserts that ten (10) water bodies including Niger, Indus, Nile, Amur, Mekong, Zhujiang, etc. are responsible for 90% of the sources of plastic pollutants which eventually ends up in our ocean where higher proportion of our aquatic organism especially fish species make their living. These organisms can become entangled (inability to move freely within the water environment) in circular plastic packaging materials, synthetic fishing nets and ropes, etc. and these are factors which have been responsible for the deaths of many marine organisms, such as fish, seals, turtles, and birds. Plastic pollutants also have the potential to poison animals, which subsequently affects human food supplies through the food web. Plastic pollution has been described as being highly detrimental to marine mammals, such as sea turtles, which have been found to contain large proportions of plastics in their stomach. When this occurs, the animal typically starves, because the plastic blocks the animal’s digestive tract. When fish feed on these plastics, they eventually end up on man’s table in the hotels, restaurants, and in the household, thus transferring the poison to man. Plastic bags can also clog sewers and provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes and pests, consequently increasing the transmission of vector-borne diseases like malaria. The foregoing underscores the dangers that stand before the destiny of men.

As observed, the mother earth has been placed in the care of man, how has man fared in this regard is the fundamental question that curious minds seek answer. Just like every living organism reacts when pushed to the wall (the level at which its resilience is being overstretched) so also the mother earth does – the mother earth is considered as a living system. An environmentalist once averred: “when man offends God, he forgives because He is known as a merciful God. When man offends man, sometimes man can decides to forgive, at other times he retaliates. Nature however, operates a distinct version, as it pays man in the same coin by which it was treated; it is similar to what is regarded as the “law of Karma”. Karma is known for its non-partisan and objectivity in transacting business with man and nature. Its transaction is devoid of cronyism, ethnicity, and the man-know-man syndrome that is prevalent in our world.

Time is running out and an urgent call is made to the consciousness of man to wake up to the responsibility of upholding the trust that divinity has entrusted to him. Worthy to mention that, it is not out of place for man to be confronted with new and sometimes daunting challenges as society continually evolves, what is out of place however, is to lack the necessary commitment and wherewithal to addressing these concerns.

The first step in the right direction therefore, is to address the question of production from the source, that is, the production points. Meaningful efforts channeled in this direction are certain to yield substantial results, thus, relevant environmental agencies are to see to it that manufacturers adopt alternative and environmentally friendly approach. In line with this, recycling should be given prominence by encouraging households and individuals to avoid indiscriminate disposal and ensure that disposable plastics are re-used and recycled. To ensure compliance and sustainability in this regard, adherers should be compensated by giving tax holiday to companies and monetary exchange for individuals and families who make “plastics return” to the companies.

Secondly, individuals should begin to take personal responsibilities towards environmental issues, by developing the mindset that we have no other place to live or survive except the one which we currently occupy – the earth. Such changes include rejecting plastics at the hotels, restaurants, provision stores, events or occasions and other places that plastics glare at us. This paradigm shift would not only ensure environmental posterity, but it will create a place worthy for all to live.

The third position has to do with enlightenment of the populace (about the dangers inherent in the consumption of non biodegradable plastics and the need to adopt better and alternative usage). This should be carried out by employing available means of mass media communication (verbal and non-verbal) to reaching out to the populace. In addition to this, campaign should also focus on addressing the unceasing quest for materialism in the society. This is to bring home the very fact that a society that is not informed is deformed.

Fourthly, countries of the world are linked together more than ever in an ecosystem; generally referred to as global village. It is a clarion call therefore, for global community particularly the environmental organizations such as United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),Earth System Governance Project (ESGP), Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), etc. to increase their tempo in ensuring legislation compliance and sanctions to erring countries. The place of such global efforts cannot be overstretched in making the earth a safer place.

In conclusion, we have evolved as a society into a time where activities of individuals, groups or society cannot be overlooked; it beckons on all concerned stakeholders therefore, (individuals, groups, society and organizations) to ensure that we are not consumed in the spirit of determinism.

 

 

 

FLOODING: A RECURRENT MENACE WITHOUT A CONCRETE PANACEA

Every nations of the world whether regarded as first or third world countries are confronted with arrays of problems, ranging from social, economic, natural, moral and what a view. Many individuals have had to pay with their sacred life especially because they lack the coping strategies or because of weak infrastructural base to help in such demanding conditions. Others are eventually subjected to life trauma because their livelihood grows wings before their very eyes having nothing to hold on to after such unforgettable experience.

Flooding can be said to fall under a “mixed category”. It is term mixed because the conditions that enhance or retard flood scenario can either be natural or what others referred to as nature at work and it could also be artificial (anthropogenic) or what is generally regarded as man-made as a result of the activities of man.

From time immemorial, right from the bible days, excess water (flood) has constituted a menace that every human being never wanted to have a share of. We were told by the Christian book of life (the Bible), that when God was angry with humanity in the days of Noah, he used water as a way of punishment to wipe out that generation. Since that historical event till present, water has continued to be either a blessing or a curse. When it is “down poured” in the right proportion, the rain can be scored or adjudged by man as a blessing as it did not only help man to grow his crops but also provides a means of livelihood for those engaged in fishing and the Fadama crop growers when the floodplain is suitable for cultivation much after the flood recedes. Individual’s however, begins to have divergent perspective about water when it is down-poured in excess invariably resulting to flooding and what is supposed be seemingly a blessing becomes a fury, a cause for concerns, thus rendering the Expensive Shit album, released in 1975, by late Afro-Beat King, Fela Anikulapo-Kuti, that water had no enemy somewhat invalid.

Flooding has constituted a nightmare especially to those living at river banks or at coastal areas. Unlike other natural disaster which takes fortune to combat like earthquake and tsunami as it is presently taking away the happiness of the Indonesian where it has claimed over 2,085 lives at the time of writing this article – October, 2018. Flood however, is predictable, and efforts have consistently being made by relevant agencies across board to ensure that they dish out necessary information to concerned stakeholders – coastal dwellers, government and non-governmental agencies among others. However, it seemed flood has defiled all efforts put in place by relevant stakeholders as observations continue to show that it is gaining an edge that is, having an upper hand. Nigeria has had its own share of flooding experiences just like other countries across globe such as India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, China, among others and Nigeria is among the fifteen countries in the world which accounts for 80% to flood vulnerability.

In the year 2012, flood took a new outlook and different dimension and it brought to Nigeria and its inhabitants lessons they would not forget in a hurry. Lives were lost, properties worth millions of naira destroyed and many livelihoods were swept off. Ever since this period, the menace of flood has been consistent with varying degrees of destruction and has continued with its ravaging “sword” ready to slay the undiscerning minds and cause irreparable damage. The 2018 flooding episode almost had similar scale of severity upon Nigerians but for the timely intervention by the Federal government who declared it a state of emergency.

The question that curious minds are quick to ask, is whether flood is a rocket science and while has it defiled all efforts, despite reasonable research and concerted efforts. The writer aligns his sentiment with those along this line of reasoning. Across length and breath, spanning north, south, east and west, unpalatable stories and scenes are seen by all and sundry and the cries of the devastated are heard even by the deaf.

The solution(s) to these perennial muddle from analysts’ perspectives seem more reactive rather than proactive. Nigeria have been widely acknowledged as a people who create “reactive solutions” – solving problems after the damaging effects rather than articulating comprehensive  proactive measures or advancing “proactive solution” to forestall or avert the “known evil”.

Nigeria is endowed with two major rivers – the Niger and Benue with several tributaries from diverse water bodies; the Niger is regarded as the third-longest river in Africa, exceeded only by the Nile and the Congo. This understanding portends that the Niger harbors vast amount of water as a basin (if it overflows flood is inevitable), and it should therefore be a ringing bell to any serious government that truly cares about the welfare of its citizen. The Minister of Water Resource, Suleiman Adamu, gave a better outlook about this scenario. He explained that: “going by the 2018 predictions, water levels on the River Niger and Benue among other major river systems would rise and remain high during the rainy season. He raised concern that some dams in the country are getting silted up, with the storage capacity also reducing. He said this would cause a lot of the water to be spilled through the waterways”. The words of the Minister are not just instructive but reveal a simple and an effective solution to some of the evils that flood can pose. From the Minister’s submission that some dams are getting silted up, again one would be    desirous to ask, when a dam is silted, what is the right thing to do?

A former Nigerian leader, President Musa Yar’adua would have delivered this mandate when he flagged –off the dredging of the Niger during his administration, years after his demise, many still regarded him as a missed messiah in Nigeria’s historical annals. Many have argued including highly placed academia and experts from various segments that flooding is a necessary evil and therefore cannot be prevented, and so we have to annually live with this necessary evil. But even when one is to consent with this line of reasoning, does it also mean that as a nation we must sit and fold our hands until we are being consumed by this necessary evil?

In societies where issues are put in right perspective,  peoples’ welfare are given topmost priority, months before disaster sets in, infrastructural facilities – physical, economic, social etc are put in place (as a shock absorber) to reduce the risk even if it cannot be averted, this is in view to enhancing the peoples’ coping strategies. Going by this arrangement, the havoc that such disaster is expected to wreck upon its citizen is drastically curtailed. Can’t we then have similar arrangement in our clime, where instead of disbursing millions of naira (where callous millionaires are made) to cater for flood victims by setting up internally displaced camps (IDPs camps) across schools, churches and mosques taking care of their feedings, security, sanitation and health, thus, rendering people refugee in their own land.

Does it take a national budget to dredge the Niger which holds enormous water capacity such that when it swells up and overflows its boundary, disaster is bound to happen. Can’t we build up the initiative of emptying the dams during the dry season for irrigation purposes (which is another way of ensuring food production throughout the year) with the expectation that the rains would soon be on its way. These are questions that beg for answers.

Although, many have advocated adjustments in lifestyle as a way of curbing the menace of flood such as avoiding indiscriminate dumping of refuse on water channels such as gutters and drainages’, not building on water channels or close to water bodies, moving upland or into the hinterlands, etc are some of the reasons advanced by this school of thought. While one considers their argument to be relevant, one can strongly contest that these are not enough reasons to intensify the fury of flood, if from the foregoing; robust preparations are put in place. It is widely acknowledged that human beings are the most inordinate set of animals to control, such that even when warnings are issued from NIMET and other government agencies for people to relocate from vulnerable terrain, the question they ask is: where should I evacuate to? Knowing the caliber of people being led should therefore inspire the government of the need to continually think out of the box in solving the problems of its people, and flood is such an in-submissive warrior until it is tamed from the root.

While one appreciate frantic efforts by the government of the day, one can only demand that investment should be channeled at the appropriate sectors including ministry of environment, National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), etc at the right time to ensure that the fury of flood, if not completely averted, “its slaying sword” would be turned blunt and many especially the “poor amongst us” are not left at the mercy of nature.