Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-Primary-1

Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-Primary-1 in one sentence

This Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-Primary-1 is a leading guide for teachers on how to teach week one topic in Computer Studies for Primary One during the second term of the academic session.

General Introduction to Lesson-Note-Second-Term-Bst-Computer-Studies-Week-1-Primary-1

I prepared this Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-Primary-1 based on standard Computer Studies Scheme of work for Junior Secondary School 1 – 3 by various state ministries of education.

The state ministries of education on the other hand prepared these schemes according to the new 9-year basic education curriculum. The Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) is the official developer of the Nigerian National curriculum frameworks. The revised 9-Year BEC reviewed the number of subjects in Nigerian schools from twenty (20) to a maximum of ten (10) for JSS 1 – 3. The developers did this by adopting a conceptual framework that identified and grouped related subjects under one composite subject. Under this structure, Computer Studies (or Information Technology) is under Basic Science and Technology. The other subjects under Basic Science and Technology are Basic Technology, Physical and Health Education and Basic Science.

Accordingly, teachers may this deliver lesson in the first week of second term of the academic year.

Who may find this useful?

These lesson note guides will be useful to all teachers  especially those in Nigeria, parents who want to help their children keep up, school owners and school administrators who want their teachers to do things right.

Note however that this guide does not favour a particular lesson plan format. Instead, it is a general suggestion that can be adapted to any format of choice. The focus of the note is to provide enriched lesson content and then suggest ways of delivering such content.

 

Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-Primary-1

Teacher: PiusJoe Ankpa

School: LeadinGuides Post

Date: Look up the day that the timetable for the committee fixed the subject and the particular date that the teacher intends to teach the subjectE.g.: Monday & Wednesday, November 11 & 13, 2019.

 Period: Look up your timetable for the periods the subject occupies on the date of delivery. E.g. 6th & 3rd, 12:15 to 01:30 pm and 09:00 to 09:45 am respectively

Duration: Based on the timetable, what is the cumulative duration of the subject for the week in which the teacher will deliver the lesson? E.g. 90 minutes, 45 minutes each

Age: What is the average or range of ages of the children in the class? The students in Junior Secondary School One are typically within the ages ranging between 5-7 years.

Class: Primary 1

Class Composition: How many pupils are in the class? Typical population of students in a class arm for private schools is usually a maximum of 25 – 30 pupils with mixed abilities and moderately quiet.

Subject: Computer Studies (Information Technology)

Topic: Using the computer to play games and for typing text

NOTE: This topic span week 2 – 3. Hence, in this week, I treat using computer to play games.

Reference Materials

Ankpa, P. (2015). Tutors Manual, Smart Kids Guides to Computing. LeadinGuides Educational Technology.

Educational Resource Centre, FCT Abuja. (2014). Primary School Scheme of Work. Abuja: Educational Resource Centre, FCT Abuja.

Eugenio, S. (2017, February 9). 8 Cognitive Benefits of Playing Video Games for Kids. Retrieved from Engadget: https://www.engadget.com/2017/02/09/8-cognitive-benefits-of-playing-video-games-for-kids/

Gibson, E. (2017, May 11). Children and video games: a parent’s guide. Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/may/11/children-video-games-parents-guide-screentime-violence

Kano Educational Resources Department. (2016). New Primary School Curriculum, Computer Studies Scheme of Work. Kano: Kano Educational Resources (KERD).

Lagos State Government Ministry of Education. (2016). Unified Schemes of Work. Lagos: Lagos State Government Ministry of Education.

Nisbet, J. (2019, October 1). 27 Best Educational Games for Kids [Sorted by Subject]. Retrieved from Prodigy Game: https://www.prodigygame.com/blog/educational-games-for-kids/

O’Leary, T. J., & O’Leary, L. I. (2006). Computing Essentials. McGraw Hill.

Science Daily. (n.d.). Computer and video games. Retrieved from Science Daily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/computer_and_video_games.htm

Shelly, G. B., & Vermaat, M. E. (2012). Discovering Computers, FUNDAMENTALS; Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World. Boston: Course Technology, Cengage Learning.

Sicart, M. (n.d.). The Ethics of Computer Games. MIT Press. Retrieved from MIT Press: https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/ethics-computer-games

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Video game addiction. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game_addiction

 

Entry Behavior

This depends on the location of your school. For a school where the pupils have had only enough contact with computer, the pupils should be excited about using computer. In other places where the pupils might not have had enough contact with computer, the pupils might be nervous about using computer. And for schools in the urban areas where using computer is a regular routine, the pupils will neither be too excited nor paranoid. Notwithstanding, the pupils should generally be interested by the idea of using computer.

Aims and Objectives

At the end of the lesson, the students should have attained the following objectives:

  • Cognitive
    • Define Computer Game
    • State the purpose of playing computer game
    • Mention at least 5 computer game
    • Describe how to play selected game(s)
  • Psychomotor
    • Use the computer to play selected
  • Affective
    • Defend the essence of playing computer games

Previous Knowledge

From first term the pupils defined computer, identified different kinds of computer and computing devices, identified the parts of computer. These shall serve as entry requirements. Pupils that did not do these lessons may not

Instructional materials

  • White board and temporary marker or chalk and blackboard (chalkboard),
  • Computer Systems – one or more of desktops, laptops and/or tablet/any smart devices

Method of Teaching

Induction, demonstration and deduction

Teacher’s Activities

The teacher shall identify pupils with control issues and provide adequate guidance. S/he shall also choose suitable game for available device/platform and provide clear instructions. The teacher shall also play selected game in demonstration to the pupils; monitor, guide, group/pair and assess the pupils.

Learners’ Activities

The pupils shall actively participate in the class by asking and answering questions. They shall ask and answer questions. And they shall play and/or compete in the games, complete assigned challenges and carryout written assignments.

Presentation

The teacher presents the lesson in order of the following steps:

1.      Introduction (warm up)

To introduce the topic, the teacher asks the pupils to mention what they do/like to do during their leisure time (hobby). The teacher takes note of pupils that may mention playing with computer. Afterwards the teacher reveals that there is an interesting thing that some people do with their computer which greatly entertains them. S/he discloses that that activity is known as computer game.

Subsequently the teacher writes/displays the topic and explains the lesson objectives to the pupils.

2.      Meaning of Computer Game

In continuation of the lesson engages the pupils in a short probe in an attempt to define computer games.  After that, the teacher thoroughly explains the meaning of Computer Game:

“Computer Game is a computer activity where people interact with objects displayed on a screen for entertainment or to learn.

The teacher picks the keywords/phrase in the definition and explains.

Computer Activity means something/work that people do with a computer. “Interact” means that people communicate or react to the screen objects. This means the screen objects says or expects the player to do a specific thing – i.e. carryout a particular action – at a given moment. And when the players do the action exactly, s/he scores a point and is often given another task. The teacher explains further that sometimes the screen objects give limited time to perform the action. And if the player fails to complete the action within the time, s/he has to restart again. The teacher reveals that most computer games have smooth sweet background music and sound (effect) to give a pleasurable feeling.

Objects

The teacher explains that the object on the screen is one, combination or all of text, image and animation (moving image).

For entertainment or to learn

The teacher explains that this shows the purpose of computer game – the reason people play computer games. People play computer game to entertain themselves – make themselves happy – or to learn some skills or both.

3.      Importance of Playing Computer Games

After discussing the meaning of computer game, the teacher leads the pupils to discuss the benefits of playing computer game. Thereafter, s/he encourages them to play it as regular as possible especially for the benefits s/he shall outline and discuss.

Hence, to initiate the discussion; the teacher asks the pupils whether it is right or wrong to play computer game – and why? After the ensuing discussion the teacher lists and explains the importance of playing computer game. I mentioned some below.

  1. Computer Games help the players to learn how to control the working of body parts (eyes, ears and hands) to accomplish a particular task. This is known as coordination.

      ii.            It helps players to be able to solve problems

Computer games involve certain rules. This means that the player has to think carefully before making any move to ensure that they stay within the required rules of that particular game. The player needs to make split- second decisions that will determine whether or not he or she will advance to the next level.

   iii.            Computer Games help players to remember things

Playing computer game may require both visual and audial memory. The player is required to read or listen to the instructions which might only be provided at the beginning of the game, thus the need to remember them throughout the entire game. Mastery of the keys on your keyboard helps you easily move your characters in the game. This helps improve your memory, whether short- term or long-term.

    iv.            Computer Games help player to concentrate

Computer games especially action games, have proven to be able to capture the player’s attention for the entire period of the game. This is brought about by the player’s need to achieve certain objectives within the game, and be able to progress to the next level.

4.      Ethics of Computer Games for Kids

Before proceeding with the lesson, the teacher advises the pupils briefly on ethics of computer game. This is especially for schools in the urban region where the pupils are likely to get too attached to computer games/gadgets.

The teacher explains that although computer game has many good benefits, they must take care not to play computer game in a way that reduces their ability to do other things. S/he teaches that playing computer game in this way is called game disorder. Therefore, the teacher demands volunteer pupil(s) to describe such manner of gaming that may constitute game disorder – i.e. to mention any game behaviors they think might be bad.

Succeeding the discussion, the teacher outlines the following computer game rules and explains to the pupils:

  1. Do not pick a new game all by yourself – always let an adult see and approve the game before you play.
  2. Read all game instructions/warning – and ask an adult for clarification in you did not total understand anything.
  • Have time limit for playing computer game. The time should not be more than 4 hours each day
  1. Computer Game is a leisure activity with educational benefits; at home, you should complete your house chores before playing.
  2. Do not loss your manners to Computer Game –
    • You must pause the game when talking with an elder
    • No game at the table/mealtime
    • You must pause the game when you have a visitor or when someone enters the room and attend to them first.
    • No game when alone in commercial vehicles and crowded areas
    • You must not refuse errands for games. You can always pause the game and continue when you return

5.      Examples and Selection of Computer Games

Subsequent to the brief lesson on ethics of computer games above, the teacher leads the pupils to identify some age-appropriate educational games. After that the teacher selects appropriate games for available computing device/platform – such as android, Mac or Windows devices.

To begin with, the teacher asks the pupils to name any game they know or have played in the past. I present some list of educational computer games below. It is not unlikely that one or two of the pupils will mention popular games like Temple Run, Zuma, Fruit Ninja, Candy Crush, Solitaire, Minecraft, FarmVille, Tetris, FIFA and other similar games. The pupils may also mention games like Grand Theft Auto (GTA), Mortal Kombat and other violent games.

After the pupils name the games, the teacher initiates discussion by demanding what one could learn from each. Generally, these games increase the players’ creativity in addition to the other benefits of computer games that we mentioned earlier. Although research has not been able to find any link between playing violent games and real-life aggression or a child’s academic performance; commonsense demands that adults put some restriction on such games for children of early years. Hence, the teacher encourages the pupils to play more of the former sets than violent games. Similarly, the teacher tells the pupils that the aforementioned games are of general benefits – but this class aims to teach them a particular school subject. Therefore, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall pick and play games in which they will learn a particular subject.

Thus, the teacher lists suitable subject-based games for the devices/platforms that are available for the pupils in the class. S/he thereafter asks the pupils – preferably individually – their subjects of interest for which they will like to play the game. After the pupils make their choices, the teacher teaches the pupils how to play the games – s/he provides clear instructions and demonstrates for the pupils to see.

I recommend

The following list of games:

  1. English (Vocabulary) – Scrabble
  2. Mathematics – Maths Ninja
  3. Science – Minecraft

NOTE: These games are available for android, Windows and Mac. For other educational programmes that are appropriate for your platform, I suggest you visit your device app store.

6.      Playing the Game

After identifying at least five educational games, the teacher (preferably with the pupils) selects a game which they shall play. Thereafter, s/he demonstrates and describes how to play the game they selected. This basically includes the control and how to score points. Then assuming there is a large wall screen, the teacher invites volunteer pupil to play the game for other pupils to observe. Two or three more pupils may do same then the teacher directs each pupil to power up their device, launch the game and give it a try. While the pupils are playing the game, the teacher moves round to assist any pupil that may have difficulty.

Once the pupils are able to play the game comfortably, the teacher may pair them and assist them to set up multiplayer mode. The teacher repeats the same exercises for another game the remaining two weeks.

Different Situation

This is however different for schools in the rural area or in schools were the pupils have not had much contact with computers. The teacher has to first of all practice controls with the pupils. This may involve using another game that teaches controls. For mouse control, I suggest Zuma game – available for Windows, Android and Mac. Chicken Invader is another good game for mouse control. For screen control, I recommend Asphalt 8 – available for Android, Windows and Mac.

After the pupils have demonstrated some level of confidence at the system, the teacher can proceed to the game as I have described above.

Evaluation

The teacher assess the pupils’ attainment of the cognitive objectives by setting questions based on the games they played; psychomotor objectives by observing and rating the pupils during the game; and affective objectives through the pupils’ presentations.

Summary

Prior to the teacher giving the pupils the final assignment and terminating the lesson, s/he revises the entire lesson. S/he also summarizes the lesson into a short note which s/he gives to the pupils to copy into their computer notebooks. I present this below.

Computer Game

Meaning of Computer Game

Computer Game is a computer activity where people interact with objects displayed on a screen for entertainment or to learn.

Computer Activity means something/work that people do with a computer. “Interact” means to communicate or react to the screen objects or to do what the screen objects say or expect the player to do. When a computer game player does what the screen objects say or expect the player to do, the player scores point and wins the game.

Computer game screen objects include:

  1. text
  2. image
  3. animation (moving image)
  4. computer voice

Why People Play Computer Game

People play computer game for two reasons:

  1. To entertain themselves or to make themselves happy
  2. To learn some skills

Benefits of Playing Computer Games

Benefits of playing computer games are the good things people gain when they play computer games. Some of the benefits of playing computer games are:

1.       Coordination

This means that Computer Games help the players to learn how to control the working of body parts (eyes, ears and hands) to accomplish a particular task

2.       It helps players to be able to solve problems

Computer games involve certain rules. This means that the player has to think carefully before making any move to ensure that they stay within the required rules of that particular game.

3.       Memorization

Memorization means to be able to remember something. When playing computer games, the player reads the instructions only once. But the player must remember the rules throughout the game. So playing the game helps players to learn memorization.

4.       Computer Games help player to concentrate

To play computer game, the player is given a task to accomplish. By focusing on the task only he does it helps him to learn how to concentrate in other things.

Ethics of Computer Games for Kids

Ethics of Computer Games for Kids are the rules that tell us whether a young computer game player must obey when playing computer games. Playing computer game in a way that reduces the player’s ability to do other things is called game disorder. Obeying computer game ethics helps us not to have game disorder.

Some computer game ethics for children are:

  1. Do not pick a new game all by yourself
  2. Read all game instructions/warning
  3. Have time limit for playing computer game
  4. At home, complete your house chores before playing games
  5. Do not loss your manners to Computer Game
    • You must pause the game when talking with an elder
    • No game at the table/mealtime
    • You must pause the game when you have a visitor or when someone enters the room and attend to them first.
    • No game when alone in commercial vehicles and crowded areas
    • You must not refuse errands for games. You can always pause the game and continue when you return

Examples of Computer Games

Some examples of educational computer game are:

  1. Scrabble
  2. Maths Ninja
  3. Minecraft

Assignment

Before concluding the lesson, the teacher gives the pupils exercises based on the lesson.

Conclusion

To conclude the lesson, the teacher marks and returns the notebooks to the pupils. S/he provides necessary feedbacks and links the week’s topic to the next. S/he says that they have in the week’s lesson learned how to study with computer by playing educational games; and in the following weeks, they shall learn another way of using computer to study by watching educational films.

[qsm quiz=3]

Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1

Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1 in one sentence

This Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1 is a leading guide for teachers on how to teach week one topic in Computer Studies for JSS One during the second term of the academic session.

General Introduction to Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1

I prepared this Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1 based on standard Computer Studies Scheme of work for Junior Secondary School 1 – 3 by various state ministries of education.

The state ministries of education on the other hand prepared these schemes according to the new 9-year basic education curriculum. The Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council is the official developer of the Nigerian National curriculum frameworks. The revised 9-Year BEC reviewed the number of subjects in Nigerian schools from twenty (20) to a maximum of ten (10) for JSS 1 – 3. The developers did this by adopting a conceptual framework that identified and grouped related subjects under one composite subject. Under this structure, Computer Studies (or Information Technology) is under Basic Science and Technology. The other subjects under Basic Science and Technology are Basic Technology, Physical and Health Education and Basic Science.

Accordingly, teachers may this deliver lesson in the first week of second term of the academic year.

Who may find this useful?

These lesson note guides will be useful to all teachers  especially those in Nigeria, parents who want to help their children keep up, school owners and school administrators who want their teachers to do things right.

Note however that this guide does not favour a particular lesson plan format. Instead, it is a general suggestion that can be adapted to any format of choice. The focus of the note is to provide enriched lesson content and then suggest ways of delivering such content.

Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1


Teacher: PiusJoe Ankpa

School: LeadinGuides Post

Date: Look up the day that the timetable for the committee fixed the subject and the particular date that the teacher intends to teach the subjectE.g.: Monday & Wednesday, November 11 & 13, 2019.

 Period: Look up your timetable for the periods the subject occupies on the date of delivery. E.g. 6th & 3rd, 12:15 to 01:30 pm and 09:00 to 09:45 am respectively

Duration: Based on the timetable, what is the cumulative duration of the subject for the week in which the teacher will deliver the lesson? E.g. 90 minutes, 45 minutes each

Age: What is the average or range of ages of the children in the class? The students in Junior Secondary School One are typically within the ages ranging between 11-13 years.

Class: JSS 1

Class Composition: How many pupils are in the class? Typical population of students in a class arm for private schools is usually a maximum of 25 – 30 pupils with mixed abilities and moderately quiet.

Subject: Computer Studies (Information Technology)

Topic: Data Processing

Sub-topic: Data and Information – Meaning, Sources and Examples

Aims and Objectives:  At the end of the lesson, the students should have attained the following objectives:

  • Cognitive
    • Define data and information
    • List the types and sources of data
    • Mention examples of data and information
    • Differentiate between data and information
    • State qualities of good information
  • Affective
    • Make logical judgment based on quality information
    • Demonstrate conscious observation skills
  • Psychomotor
    • Carryout data collection/sourcing activities

Reference Materials:

MIT Office of Digital Learning. (n.d.). IMPROVING OBSERVATION SKILLS. Retrieved from MIT Open Learning: https://ccmit.mit.edu/observation/

Asun, P., Bajah, S. T., Ndu, F. O., Oguntonade, C. B., & Youdeowei, A. (2010). Basic Science & Technology UBE Edition Book 4. Lagos: Longman Nigeria Plc.

Cambridge International Corpus . (2008). Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Third Edition. Cambridge University Press .

Folorunso, O., Aduroja, O., & I, E. (2012). Melrose Computer Studies for Junior Secondary Schools. Ogun: Melrose Books and Pblishing Limited.

Ikeobi, I., Wasagu, M., Asim, A., Eyetsemitan, P., Uyanne, M., Gankon, B., . . . Bandele, O. F. (2009). STAN Primary Science. Ibadan: University Press PLC.

NERDC. (2013). 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Basic Science for JSS 1 – 3) . Kaduna: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council.

Ogunniyi, M. B., Egbugara, U., Okebukola, P. O., & Mahmoud, I. (1998). Macmillan Primary Science book 4. Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Ltd.

Simon, D. J. (Director). (2010). The Monkey Business Illusion [Motion Picture].

Sloman, L. (2019, August 30). Trapping the Tiniest Sound, . Retrieved 2020, from Scientific America: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/trapping-the-tiniest-sound/

Instructional materials

  • White board and temporary marker or chalk and blackboard (chalkboard),
  • Any two objects for producing sound
  • The Monkey Business Illusion video
  • A computer
  • A sample raw material and the processed form. For example, raw tomato and tomato paste, orange and orange juice, raw cassava and gari, millet and popcorn, etc. If none of these items is available to the teacher, a chart of same will serve.

Previous Knowledge (Entry Requirement)

The students have memorized definition of both terms – data and information – from earlier classes in definition of computer. They however, may not have clear understanding of the concepts. Neither of these is however a prerequisite for understanding this lesson.

Method of Teaching

Talk and Chalk method and project-based.

Teacher’s Activities

In addition to thorough explanation and demonstration of the concepts; the teacher shall demonstrate and guide the students in carrying out the data collection/recording activity. S/he will also mark, grade and provide adequate feedback to the students.  The teacher shall group the students based on their abilities, supervise and accept their discussions.

Learners’ Activities

The students shall actively participate in the lesson by asking and answering questions. They shall also carryout data collection activity and accurately report/present the result.   The students shall also participate in group discussions.

Presentation

The teacher presents the lesson in order of the following steps:

1.     Introduction (warm up)

To introduce the lesson, the teacher presents/displays the raw material and the processed form to the students. S/he then asks the students to identify the specimen and state the relationship between them afterwards. The teacher notes that the essence of this exercise is to induce the students’ curiosity and command their attention in preparation for the lesson. Hence, s/he directs the question(s) to seeming inattentive student. Since the exercise is also to create familiar/friendly environment in the classroom, the teacher encourages as many attempts as possible while still being conscious of the time.

After the identification of the specimens and the relationship between them, the teacher explains that they shall in the week’s lesson, begin to learn how to get a finished product from a raw material. S/he clarifies that the raw material and products are however not in agricultural terms as the ones s/he presented. Instead, since they are in Computer class, it shall be raw material and finished product in Computer terms – you might want to bring fun to class by demanding a guess (don’t kill your time).

Thereafter, the teacher reminds/demands the students to recall the definition of computer in earlier classes:

“Computer is an electronic machine that accepts and process DATA; store and give out INFORMATION based on the instruction given to it by the user”

However their definition goes, the emphasis is on DATA and INFORMATION. The teacher also reminds them how their primary school teacher probably told them that DATA is raw information while INFORMATION is raw data. S/he therefore, reveals to them that data is the raw material and information is the finished product. The teacher also points out that they shall learn how data become information in what is known as data processing.

In conclusion of the warm-up exercise, the teacher explains that before proceeding however, they shall understand in details; what data and information means. S/he therefore writes the topic – Data and Information – on the board and explains the objectives of the lesson to the students.

2.     Definition of Data

In continuation of the lesson, the teacher teaches that the term data is the plural form of datum. S/he furthers the lesson by defining and explaining both datum and data to the understanding of the students. I present recommended definition and explanations below.

Datum

Datum is a unit of any of the means of expressing facts.

Explanation

1.       A unit

A unit means one item of the means we use to express facts.

2.       Facts

Fact means something which is known to have happened or to exist, especially something for which proof exists, or about which there is information.

One distinguishing feature of facts is the existence of proofs to show for it. Hence, one of the qualities of well educated people is that they are not easily swayed by hearsays. Instead, they always verify authenticity of every rumor before believing and circulating.

Examples of what could be facts are:
  1. Color of an object – the proof is that we can see the color.
  2. The taste of an object – we prove this by tasting it
  3. The shape of an object – we can see and even draw it by making the outline
  4. The height and length of an object – we can measure it with ruler or appropriate tools
  5. The number of an item – we prove this by counting
  6. The state of an item – whether liquid, solid, gas – we prove this by feeling
  7. The texture of an item
  8. The size of an item
  9. The feeling of a person or an animal
  10. Statement of an occurrence like “there was a bomb blast”, “she was awarded”, “he is sacked”, “I am blind”, e.t.c.

Note that all these could be facts if there are reasonable proofs or information to show for it. They could also be false.

3.       Means of expressing facts

Means of expressing facts now referred to how we communicate/report (say or show) facts. The means of expressing facts are through:

  1. letters
  2. numbers
  3. letters and numbers (text)
  4. sound
  5. graphics (drawing, picture, painting)

We may also call each of this means of expressing facts medium of communication. Hence, the last form of medium of communication is called multimedia. Multimedia is a medium of communication that contains many means of expressing facts. Examples of multimedia are videos, animations and music/audio (combination of many sound elements).

From the explanations above, datum refers to a single letter, single number, the tiniest piece of sound (phonon) and the smallest unit if image (pixel – picture element). So, any of these items formed alone is a datum. Now from this it can also be said that datum does not make complete sense. For instance, writing a number or letter without saying a word or prior discussion will not make any sense.

Data

From the definition and explanation of datum above, we can derive the definition of data. Since data is the plural of datum, data can be defined as any collection or a set of one or more medium of communication expressing a fact which can be processed to make complete sense or give more meaning to support decision making.

Explanation

1.       Collection or a set

This means data is usually not a single content form such as a letter, number, phonon or pixel. Instead, it is many letters, many numbers, group of phonons, and group of pixels or combination of two or more of the content forms.

2.       Expressing a fact

This means that the collection or set of medium of communication is usually a description of a fact. Therefore, writing number 1 alone without describing what it represents is no data. Instead it is a datum. However, saying “the number of oranges left is 1” makes it data because it now describes a fact.

3.       Which can be processed to make complete sense or give more meaning

Process (verb form) in computer means performing operations such as conversion, calculation or arranging/rearranging a set of data to give a desired meaning/output. More so, a characteristic of data is that it does not make sense or complete sense. Hence, it has to be processed or it can be processed to make complete or more meaning.

4.       To support decision making

Since data does not make complete sense or there are additional meaning that one can derive, we cannot make decisions based on a given data except it is processed.

 

3.     Examples of data

Referring the students to the definition and explanation, the teacher asks them to give examples of data. S/he accepts as many attempts as possible. After that, the teacher lists some examples.

  1. Aubja
  2. Maihcel
  3. Name my is Smason
  4. Favorite color of 5 students: Green, Green, Yellow, White, Purple
  5. The shoe size of ten children: 12 11          5      10.5      10         12         13         9.5       8          12
  6. Unedited sound and video recording
  7. Unedited and indistinct outline sketch of a painting

Note that in each case, the data can be processed into a meaningful form or to give more meaning.

 

Stage Evaluation and Group Discussion

After identifying the examples of data, the teacher demands the students to ask questions. Following, s/he revises what s/he has taught so far and then asks the following questions:

  1. Which is the raw material, information or data?
  2. Data is changed into information in what is known as ___________.
    1. data processing
    2. information processing
  3. That which is known to have happened or to exist, especially something for which proof exists, or about which there is information is ________
    1. medium of communication
    2. fact
    3. proof
  4. Which one is not true of data?
    1. It is a single content form such as a letter, number, phonon or pixel
    2. Data always describes facts
    3. Ability to be processed
  5. How many qualities of data were discussed?
    1. 3
    2. 2
    3. 4
    4. 5

Group Discussion

Following the stage evaluation questions above, the teacher groups the students. Then dedicating a/some group(s) as opponent and the other(s) as proponent, the teacher directs each group to answer the following questions:

  1. List the 4 qualities of data
  2. Using the qualities of data mention in (1 ) above, prove/disprove that a letter written by some students to the Principal is an example of data.

 

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