How to Become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher

How to Become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher

How to become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher in Brief

How to become or inspire a highly efficient teacher recommends ages-long approach to boosting employee work performance.

Every Employee Wants to Do a Good Job

Newsweek magazine once quoted the President of Hyatt Hotels in the following words: “If there is anything, I have learned in my 27 years in the service industry, it is this: 99 percent of all employees want to do a good job”. And this is true. Starting from ourselves, there is hardly any time when you and I deliberately decided to do a shabby job. Or can you remember any time that you said to yourself, “today, I will do this work so bad that my supervisor (employer) will be angry at it”? I believe there isn’t any of such time. Or if there is, it will be far too less often to be significant.

And this is same for the majority of employees. Most employees want to be among the favourite. They want to be commended for jobs well done. They want bonuses, salary increment, and promotion. Every leader can attest to the trueness of this because they have experienced it first-hand.  Therefore, with 99 percent of employees falling within this category; it is rather illogical to think that any employee will deliberately choose to do a bad job.

Yet, Many Employees Perform Badly

Yet, we see them. Workers with very low turnover. Those that fall short of standard in the discharge of their duties. They have not too good attitude to work. Still, they desire commendations, bonuses, salary increment and promotion.

Are you a leader in any organization? Can you think of any member(s) of your staff that falls within this category? How many are there, 1, 2, 3 or more? Note their names, I will tell you what to do.

Also, if you are an employee; do you always feel unappreciated even though you always try your best at work? You never get a commendation, no bonuses, no salary increments and no promotion. Then, this piece is yours too, keep reading.

To the leader, did it ever occur to you that those (annoying) members of your staff desiring commendations and reward while they perform below standard are actually unaware of their score? Let me tell you.

As a school administrator, I have had to interview a lot of applicants in the last 7 years. And there is one particular question that naturally pops up in my mind during interviews. After perusing the CV of someone that has worked in “too” many organizations within a short period of time, my curiosity always asks why such applicant keep leaving the different organizations.

Who’s To Blame?

The answer I got as reply to this question in January of 2022, is the same as I have received on many occasions over the years. The applicants faulted their employer’s lack of appreciation for their service although they always do their best. No doubt, this says a lot about the applicant.

But the frequency of that same answer also tells me something unique about all workers; an insight that is invariably helpful to all leaders. And it is that most of the under-performers in your team, do not know they are not performing up to expectation. As far as they are concern, they believe that they are doing their best. This is no speculation but a well-known fact. And to help you put a figure to your organization’s unique situation; have your staff take the Employee Self-Evaluation test.  The result of such exercise will lead you to your individual staff’s inner perception of their performance. In addition, it will also help you infer more accurately, what they expect of you to keep the organisation growing.

Misrepresentation Performance Index

However, the misrepresentation of an employee work performance goes in two ways. It is not only that the employer may wrongly assume that every of his or her employees can accurately place their individual work performance index corresponding to theirs. But the employees can as well develop inaccurate perception of their delivery – like feeling they are doing their best when in truth, they have not hit the boundaries. For this purpose, every employee that feels he or she is underappreciated at work should head for individual Employee Self-Evaluation test. Do this, and be as sincere during the test to yourself as possible. Then, discuss the result with your trusted colleague(s) and your superior. This should clear the cloud of insatiable expectations cast by unreal perception of one’s performance.

Whether an employer/a leader conducts this test, or an employee individually takes the evaluation test; the result may reflect one or more common factors. One of such common factors you will find out, is that one or more member of your staff is underperforming. This may not be deliberate. But that does not stop it from negatively affecting your organization. As result, it is important that you tackle underperformance headlong.

Tackling underperformance is a matter of urgency. And any organization that wants to attain sustainable growth, must approach it as such. The underperformance of one member of staff left unchecked, can influence the delivery of other staff. In addition, it automatically adds to the daily stress of the employer/leader. You must understand that evil more influential than good, wrong than right. So, the underperformance of one member of staff is enough to neutralize the hard work of the rest of the team.

Solving the Problem

The question is not whether or not to tackle underperformance. Instead, it is about how to tackle it. Knowing that “99 percent of all employee want to do a good job” but majority often fail, how do we help those that fall short of standard smash their goals?

The answer begins with knowing why people do not perform up to expectation. Thankfully, a lot of researchers, life coaches and authors have done great justice to this question. Ferdinand F. Fournies gave the best answer to this question in his bestseller, “Coaching for Improved Work Performance”. According to Fournies, there are four common reasons why people do not perform the way they should. The four major reasons people do not perform the way they should is because they do not know:

  1. what they are supposed to do
  2. how to do it
  3. why they should; and if
  4. there are obstacles beyond their control

Making Your Staff 100% Efficient: Teachers’ Induction Training

Since we have identified the reasons for underperformance among staff, solving the problem becomes easier. However, before we discuss the solutions to the problem of inefficiency among staff, let us consider a few realities that relates to the causes. This will help you to diagnose your organization first-hand.

Fact 1: Majority of Teachers do not read to understand their job description in detail

The first solution to the problem of staff inefficiency is giving a concise job description at engagement. Sadly, some organization with rather casual approach to business do not have any form of contract with their staff say less a job description. We will address this later.

But assuming that your organization does have contract agreement with detailed job description; one will expect that new employees will read to understand such document. Let’s not put a figure to this because we know the reality: majority of employees do not read their job descriptions to understand it. Instead, they browse through and toss it around. Afterall, they have done this before.  

It does not stop there. Among the few that read and understand their job description, some soon forgets.

For these reasons, it is not enough for you to give job descriptions. It is equally important for you to work them through it thoroughly.

Are you an employee, this is where you deliberately create a checklist against each item on your job description. Beyond that, create a system for rating your capability in handling each task in your assignment.

Fact 2: Papers and length of years does not always translate to efficiency

If you have being an administrator long enough, you will agree to this fact. Some people are just too good at crafting killer résumé and performing at interviews. But that is it.

I am talking about people that have the necessary qualifications (papers) and years of experience. Yet, after you employ them; their performance does not reflect their qualifications. This is a sad reality of our country today. The fact that people have the qualification does mean they know how to do the job. As a result, we have to amplify the second reason for staff inefficiency according to F.F Fournies.

As an employer, you have to make it part of your corporate culture to always give employees hands-on training on how to do their job.

As a staff, you should understand the concept of doing your job within context. You do this by enrolling and participating in quality training that uniquely adapts to your workplace.

Fact 3: Majority of Teachers Have Lost Touch of the Reason for Doing Their Jobs

This fact does not need elaboration. But I will explain it from another context. More and more teachers have to understand the business dimension of education. As such, majority demands commensurate financial rewards.

Unfortunately, it is difficult for schools to offer such rewards if the teachers are not efficient. And since the teachers seek the reward to be efficient, it is deadlock! The result is that teachers continue to not have reasons for them to be efficient.

The Solution: How to Become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher

So, schools must always lead the initiative. To attain sustainable growth like I discussed previously, schools must always give their teachers reasons to do their job efficiently. This does not necessarily mean financial rewards. In fact, before any financial reward, schools should first provide proper guidance. And the best way is through training.

Similarly, independent teachers that want to excel regardless of the school they work must continually seek reasons to do their job efficiently. They can do this by enrolling for relevant training.

All-in-One Teachers’ Induction Training

The LeadinGuides Teachers’ Induction Training is an all-in-one efficiency masterclass for teachers. Though, primarily targeted at new teachers, it is also a generic Continuous Professional Development programme for experienced teachers.

This training helps teachers and schools to directly and effectively tackle the problems of inefficiency at workplace.

In addition, it helps schools to align the minds of their teachers to the organization’s aspirations, draw out their untapped potentials and motivate them towards helping the school attain her goals and unlock unexploited growth channels.

Participants will develop “teacherpreneurship” mindset and improve on their practical teaching skills. At the end of the training, they will become top contributors to their organizations. Most importantly, they will learn how to establish themselves, to earn more and live a fulfilling life.

This is one of the highly valuable training programs we are delivering to the international audience at Northford Center for Advanced Studies, Abuja.

Click here to join LeadinGuides TIT today

Closing Attendance Register Termly

This post, Closing Attendance Register Termly, in one sentence

This post, Closing Attendance register termly; provides step-by-step guides on how to correctly close students’ attendance registers for every term.

This guide is for schools and teachers that use the traditional (manual) attendance register. However, schools and teachers that use modern attendance system can also benefit from this post. Since modern attendance systems are merely an automated version of the traditional, learning – or remembering – how the traditional system works can help you identify missing features in your existing automated attendance system.

Introduction to Closing Attendance Register Termly

Closing attendance register termly is similar to stocktaking in mainstream businesses. According to accounting tools, stocktaking means counting and calculating the amount of goods you still have at the end of a trading period. No business can sustainably grow without minding their stock.

Similarly, sustainable school growth also requires that schools are intentional about their “stocks”. This means counting and calculating the number of students you still have at the end of each term. And using this to prepare reports to support administrative decisions.

Why is it Important to Close Attendance Register at the end of each term?

The importance of closing attendance register termly cannot be overemphasized. Three of such importance are:

1.      To Project Work Coverage

One of the key data that we obtain from closing attendance register is the length of the term. This takes into consideration all the holidays and observances during the term. Knowing this will enable supervisors to project the extent of work that a teacher could possibly have done during the term.

A shorter term means lesser coverage. And a longer term means teachers could have possibly cover more corresponding to the curriculum.

2.      To explain individual learner’s academics

Generally, data from attendance registers are key indicators of a learner’s approach to studies/schooling. Closing attendance register helps teachers to summarize these indicators for the term. Was a student more regular in school this term than the previous? Is the reverse the case? How does this correlate to the learner’s academic performance?

Closing register for the term helps you to get the answer to these questions. And as I explained in a previous post, a falling regularity is an indication that something is wrong somewhere. And a dutiful teacher or an intentional administrative will be able to quickly arrest the situation – if necessary.

3.      To determine growth or loss

The single most important piece of data from closing attendance register termly is the average attendance for the term. This is the piece of data that enables teachers and administrators to spread attendance trends over the entire term.

The average attendance for the term shows the attendance per day throughout the term. Any class that has an average of less than 50% per day is already heading for problems. More than that, it also says more about the teacher in that class.

In addition, many school managers take the cumulative average attendance of the whole school for the term. The result of this is a reflection of the internal happenings in the school – whether good or bad; growth or loss.

Education supervisors may ask questions about the average attendance for the term. And based on the explanation, it is may be an indicator of the quality of education in the school.

How to Close Attendance Register for the term

There are basically five steps in closing attendance register for the term.

  1. Calculate individual student’s total attendance for the term
  2. Bring forward individual student’s total attendance for the previous term
  3. Calculate individual student’s cumulative attendance
  4. Calculate the total class attendance for the term; also, for boys and girls
  5. Calculate the average attendance for the term

Let’s discuss each of these with examples.

Individual Student’s Total Attendance for the Term

This is the first step in closing attendance register each term. In earlier post, I discussed how to mark attendance register. What I didn’t include however, was the weekly total at the farthest right of the attendance sheet.

Each student’s row has 10 columns each per week from week 1 to week 15. This is where teachers mark the daily attendance as I discussed earlier.

After the 15th week for marking daily attendance, there are additional 15 single columns. The columns have number 1 to 15 corresponding to the number of weeks. And the columns have common title – Weekly Total (see picture below).

Closing Attendance Register Termly - Weekly Total Bank
Columns for Weekly Total

Weekly total

The weekly total is the total number of times a child is present for each week. Teachers calculate the weekly total attendance every week alongside the weekly class percentage attendance. To get the weekly total for each student, simply count have times the child was present for that week. Remember that you are to record each day present twice – morning and afternoon. Therefore, if a student is present throughout the week – i.e., from Monday to Friday; then the weekly total of such student will 10.

Look at the example below (click to see full image).

Register Design with Sample Data
Register Design with Sample Data

From the graph sheet, the first student – Adim Andrew – was present for four days in week 1. He was absent on Tuesday. Since school opens twice (morning and afternoon) per day, it means Andrew’s total attendance for the week is 8.

How to Count Weekly Attendance Total
How to Count Weekly Attendance Total

The teacher writes this at the far right, under number 1 of the weekly totals.

Week 1 Weekly Total for first student
Week 1 Weekly Total for first student

The same goes for the second and third students – Allan Francis and Anayor Akpan respectively. They were present for the five days of week 1. Hence, their weekly total both 10.

But look at the fourth student’s attendance – i.e., Emeka Okafor’s. His weekly total is 9.

Week 1 Weekly Total for first three students
Week 1 Weekly Total for first three students

Do you know why? That’s right. He was absent for just the afternoon session on Thursday. So, that means 10 minus 1 session; which is 9.

Now that we can work the weekly total, let’s go ahead and fill in the week 1 and 2 totals for all the students. You can try this independently. The final result should be as below:

Sample Attendance Sheet with Weekly Total for two weeks
Sample Attendance Sheet with Weekly Total for two weeks

How to Calculate Individual Student’s Total Attendance for the Term

Individual student’s total attendance for the term is the sum all of his/her weekly totals.

For example, in the sheet above; we marked the register and recorded the weekly totals for just two weeks. Assuming the school opened for only those two weeks that term, then the individual student’s total attendance for the term is the sum of the two weekly totals.

Therefore, for the first student – Adim Andrew; his total attendance for the week is 8+6 which is 14. Similarly, the total attendance of the second student – Allan Francis – is 10+8 which is 18. The teacher records this at the “Total

Can you work out the rest of the students’ total attendance for the term now? Great! At the end, you’re your sheet should look like this:

Closing Attendance Register Termly - Individual Student's Total Attendance for the term
Individual Student’s Total Attendance for the term

Importance Notice in Calculating the Total Attendance for the term

Firstly, the attendance sheet above is only a sample. Schools actually hardly open for just two weeks in a term. Instead, schools typically open for 11 to 15 weeks each term. This means that you will have to calculate individual student’s weekly total for at least 11 weeks each term. After this, you obtain individual student’s total attendance for the term by adding all the weekly totals from week 1 down to week 11, 12, 13, 14 or 15 as the case may be.

Secondly, teachers normally calculate the weekly totals at the end of each week. In fact, register managers verify the accuracies of your computations using the weekly totals. Immediately after calculating individual pupil’s weekly total each week, teachers also calculate the class’s total attendance for the week.

Total Weekly Attendance

Below the 15 columns for weekly totals of each student, you will find two other columns. The two columns are for “Times School Open” and “Total Attendance for each week” respectively. In my sample register above, the 15 columns run into these two columns (see areas with red borders below).

Attendance Register Showing Times School Open and Total Attendance per Week
Attendance Register Showing Times School Open and Total Attendance per Week

Times School Open

Times School Open refers to how many sessions the school had for each week. Teachers have to specify this at the end of every week. Good enough, this does not require much calculations.

Typically, schools have two sessions per day. This is why we mark each day twice. So, if school opens from Monday to Friday; then the total sessions will be 10.

Why? Monday to Friday is 5 days. Each day has two sessions. So, 2 times 5 is 10.

For instance, in the register above; school opened throughout the week during the first week. So, going down from weekly total column for week 1; under Times School Open, I have to write 10.

Attendance Register Showing Times School Open for Week 1
Attendance Register Showing Times School Open for Week 1

However, if for some reason; school opens for 4 days such as when there is public holiday for a day. Then times school open for that week will be 2 times 4 which is 8.

Going back to the sample register sheet again, you will notice that school opened for just 4 days during the second week. There was id-kabir holiday for one day. Hence, Times School Opened for week 2 is 8. Correspondingly, I wrote 8 in the week 2 column as below:

Times School Open for the Week 2 - if there is public holiday
Times School Open for the Week 2 – if there is public holiday

Total Attendance for each week

Total attendance for a particular week is the summation of all the students’ weekly totals for that week.

For example, the weekly totals for week 1 in the example above are 8, 10, 10, 9 10, 10, 8, 10, 10, 10, 10, 8, 8, 10 and 10. Therefore, to get the total attendance for week 1, we simply add these weekly totals which gives 141. This is what I will write as the total attendance for each week under week 1.

Closing Attendance Register Termly - Total Attendance for each week - 1
Total Attendance for each week – 1

Can you work out the total for week 2? That is going to be the sum of all the weekly totals for week 2. And this is equal to 6+8+8+8+8+8+8+8+8+8+8+6+6+8+8 = 114. This, I write under total attendance for week 2.

Total Attendance for each week - 2
Total Attendance for each week – 2

Note the tally

Observe that the total attendance for each week tallies with the total morning + total afternoon in working the percentage attendance for the week.

For instance, total attendance for week 1 – i.e., 141; is equal to total morning + total afternoon (71+70) for week 1. Similarly, total attendance for week 2 – i.e., 114; is equal to total morning and total afternoon (57+57) for week 2.

Corresponding Weekly Totals
Corresponding Weekly Totals

This must always be the case. Otherwise, your entry has an error somewhere.

Bring forward individual student’s total attendance for the previous term

This is the next step in closing attendance register termly. It is to bring forward, individual student’s total attendance for the previous term.

I explained at the beginning of this post, that one of the essences of closing attendance register termly; is to enable us compare each student’s attendance trends over a period of time.

This is why we have to bring the total attendance for previous term forward. This helps us to compare the previous term’s attendance with the current – so as to determine any changes that may require special attention.

Since you already know what the total attendance for the term is. And how to calculate it too. Bringing forward the total attendance for the previous term is easy. Simply flip back the register to the previous term’s page. Check the total attendance for the previous term. And write it down under the bring forward column for the current term.

In my example, I am just going to write some arbitrary figures as brought forward. So, below is the current look of the sample attendance register that I am trying to close for the term.

Closing Attendance Register Termly - Brought Forward
Arbitrary Brought Forward of previous term’s total attendance

Please note that there is no bring forward for first term. This is obviously because there was no previous term in the new academic session – since first term begins the session.

Calculate individual student’s cumulative total attendance for the term

This is the third step in closing attendance register. The individual student’s cumulative attendance is the sum of total attendances for the current and previous term. It is as simple as that.

Taking the sample register above for an example, the cumulative attendance for the first student 14 + 96 which is 110. Cumulative attendance for the second student is 18+120 which is 138 and so on.

The teacher writes this at the last column which has the title “Cumulative Total Attendance”. Having worked this for all the students in the sample sheets, the result is as follow:

Individual Student's Cumulative Total Attendance
Individual Student’s Cumulative (Total) Attendance for the term

Total Class Attendance for the term

Second to the last step in closing attendance register termly is to calculate the total class attendance for the term. The total class attendance for the term is the summation of all the students’ total attendance FOR THAT TERM.

Note that the total attendance for the term is different from the brought forward and the cumulative total attendance. It is the first of the three, at the far right of the sheet.

Total Attendance Column - You add all the numbers in this column to get the total class attendance for the term
Total Attendance Column – You add all the numbers in this column to get the total class attendance for the term

From the sheet above, the total class attendance for the term is 14 + 18 + 18 + 17 + 18 + 18 + 16 + 18 + 18 + 18 + 18 + 14 + 14 + 18 + 18 = 255.

Alternatively, you can also get the total attendance by adding all the total attendance for each week. From the sheet above, this will be 141 + 114 which is the same 255.

You should write the total attendance in its box. This is just below the last three columns:

Where to Write Total Attendance for the term  after calculation
Where to Write Total Attendance for the term after calculation

Total Attendance for Boys and Girls

This is self-explanatory. In entering names of students into the register, teachers usually differentiate those of male from those of female students. They do this traditionally by entering names of female students in red ink. However, some teachers simply give a couple of rows between those of boys and those of girls as I have done in the sample sheets above.

Thus, it is easy to calculate the total attendance for boys and girls. To get that of boys, look under total attendance for the term; and add the total attendance of male students only.

From the sheet above, this gives us 14 + 18 + 18 + 17 + 18 + 18 + 16 + 18 + 18 = 155.

Similarly, to get the total attendance for girls, look under total attendance for the term; then add the total attendance of female students only.

From our sample sheets, this gives us 18 + 18 + 14 + 14 + 18 + 18 = 100.

Write the total attendance for boys and girls in the corresponding fields.

Total Attendance for Boys and Girls
Total Attendance for Boys and Girls

Average Attendance for the term

The last step in closing attendance register for the term is to find the average attendance for the term. And this is pretty straightforward.

The average attendance for the term is the total attendance for the term divide by the total number of times school opened for the term.

That is, (Total Attendance for the term)/(Number of times school opened).

From our sample attendance sheet, school opened for only two weeks – a total of 10 + 8 = 18 times. And the total attendance for the term is 255.

Therefore, the average attendance for the term is  255/18 which is equals to 14.17. We write this in its column as shown below:

Closing Attendance Termly - Average Attendance for the term
Closing Attendance Termly – Average Attendance for the term

From the average attendance for the term, we can deduce that out of 15 pupils in the class, at least 14 comes to school every day. And this is an excellent attendance for the class.

And with that, we have concluded the process of closing attendance register termly. Please let me know if you find this helpful.

Classroom Story – Pre-Nursery First Term Social Studies Week 2 – 3

This Classroom Story – Pre-Nursery First Term Social Studies Week 2 – 3 serves as introduction to the Lesson Note – Pre-Nursery First Term Social Studies Week 2 – 3.

Before commencing the lesson, the teacher narrates the story to illustrate the objectives of the lesson.

However, in telling the story; teachers should note that I deliberately wrote the story in simple sentences to aid easy assimilation. Based on educational psychology, at this age; children find short simple sentences easier to understand than others. Hence, teachers should observe this even while narrating the story – indeed in all conversation with children.

More so, I avoided pronouns in the story. That is in attempt to further simplifies things for easy comprehension. Teachers should try as much as possible to narrate the story in a language most suitable for the learners. Note that you may also narrate the story in local dialect, provided all the pupils understand the vernacular.

Classroom Story – Pre-Nursery First Term Social Studies Week 2 – 3

There are two boys. The name of the first boy is Okopi. And the name of the second boy is Amedu. The two boys live with their parents. And their parents have a friend. The name of their parent’s friend is Oroko.

One day, Oroko visited Okopi and Amedu’s parents. Oroko came to the house. He knocked at the door – rang the doorbell. Okopi and Amedu’s parent answered the door.

The parent asked: Who is there?

Oroko answered: It is Oroko your friend.

The parent happily opened the door. They greeted. Then, the parent told Oroko to come in. Oroko thanked the parent. Both of them went inside the house.

Okopi and Amedu greeted Oroko. Oroko greeted the children. He asked Okopi: “How are you?” Okopi answered clearly: “I am fine, thank you sir!” Then Oroko asked Amedu: “How are you?” Amedu answered silently: “Fine, thank you sir.” Oroko did not hear Amedu very clear. But he decided to ignore.

Then Oroko asked Okopi again: “What is the name of your school?” And Okopi answered loudly again; “The name of my school is ——————–.” Oroko said good!

Oroko also asked Amedu: “What is the name of your school?” But Amedu did not answer. Oroko asked Amedu again. Still, Amedu did not answer.

Then Oroko told their parent that Okopi is a smart child. Oroko thought that Amedu is not smart. So, Oroko was happy with Okopi. Oroko gave Okopi some gift. But Oroko did not give Amedu any gift.

Do you know Amedu is also smart? Yes, Amedu is smart but because he did not talk clear enough, Oroko thinks that he is not smart.

If you are smart, you have to show it so you can get the right reward!!

Conclusion

After narrating the Classroom Story – Pre-Nursery First Term Social Studies Week 2 – 3 in the simplest to understand form for the pupils, the teacher proceeds to step 2 of the lesson. Click here to go back to the lesson.

[qsm quiz=3]

Lesson Plan Guide – Entry Requirement Guide

This Lesson Plan Guide – Entry Requirement details how to correctly and easily write Entry Requirement in your lesson plan or lesson note.

Introduction to Lesson Plan: Entry Requirement

Perhaps one of the most frequently asked questions during our Instructional Design training is the difference between previous knowledge and entry requirement. To some – especially new teachers, both are the same but simply a matter of choice of terminologies.

Nonetheless, this is not so. Known instructional design models place previous knowledge and entry requirement under different stages of the instructional design process. This fact is known to every experienced instructional designer.

In this post, I will trace the reason why some people confuse one for the other. More so, this post differentiates between entry requirement and previous knowledge in the simplest and easiest to understand terms. Finally, this lesson plan guide: entry requirement explains how to correctly and easily write entry requirement in your lesson plan/note.

That some teachers think it really doesn’t matter whether or not one correctly writes entry requirement in their lesson plan; is the reason school administrators and supervisors must ensure that teachers do. Did you ever wonder why some students do not understand some lesson even though 99% of the rest of class understand it? Well, this is one – such student may not have attained the entry requirement for that lesson.

But how do you know whether a student possesses the entry requirement or not if you did not even give it a good thought? You won’t even be able to effectively and efficiently help such student catch on!

Read on

Meaning of Entry Requirement

Entry behaviour or entry requirement is the prerequisite knowledge, skill and attitude expected of a learner to possess before he or she can understand a new lesson.

Compare this definition of entry requirement with that of previous knowledge. And it may be obvious to you why some people confuse one for the other.

The distinguishing word in the definition of entry requirement is prerequisite. While Entry Requirement as well as Previous Knowledge are experiences in relation to the current topic; entry requirement is the experience that the student MUST possess before he or she can understand a new lesson. Whereas, previous knowledge is just any experience at all that relates to the topic.

In other words, we can say that all entry requirement is previous knowledge; but not all previous knowledge is entry requirement.

An example to illustrate meaning of Entry Requirement

Take JSS 2 topic in Computer Studies: Practical Graphic Design for example. Any experience that the students may possess that relates to Graphic design may aid their understanding – i.e. getting the most – of the topic. Such include:

  • Meaning of graphic design
  • Examples of graphic design packages
  • Knowledge of graphic products like ID Card, Business card, posters, cover art, etc.

Now, although all the points I have mentioned above are previous knowledge for our topic: Practical Graphic Design. However, we may not regard any as entry requirement. This is because not possessing of the above does not stop the student from acquiring the practical graphic design skill.

Instead, a point we may consider as entry requirement for the topic is the ability to manoeuvre pointing devices like mouse and others. This is because, under normal circumstances, if a student cannot control pointing devices; then it will not be possible for such to acquire practical graphic design skills. To make the student acquire the skill, the teacher must first of all teach the student how to control pointing devices.

Does the explanation above clarify the meaning of entry requirement for you? I hope it does. Let us now see why people confuse entry requirement for previous knowledge

Why do some people confuse Entry Requirement for Previous Knowledge and Vice Versa?

Well, the answer is simple: both entry requirement and previous knowledge describe the knowledge, skill and attitude that a student possess in relation to the current topic.

But,

Is Entry Requirement or Entry Behaviour the same as Previous Knowledge?

No, entry requirement or entry behaviour is not the same as previous knowledge. I have explained this earlier.

 What then are the differences between Entry Requirement and Previous Knowledge?

Well, from my earlier explanation the differences should be clear to you now. But for further clarity, let me categorically state it again.

The differences between entry requirement and previous knowledge include:

  1. Previous Knowledge is the experience – knowledge, skill and attitude – that a student possesses which relate and can aid or hinder the understanding of the current topic; while entry requirement is the experience – knowledge, skill, and attitude – that a student is expected to possess before he or she can understand the current topic.
  2. Previous Knowledge may be formal or informal experience – experiences they acquire from the school or outside environment like home; but entry requirement is mostly formal – experiences that the student acquire from school.
  3. According to instructional design models; previous knowledge is under analysis of learners under general characteristics; while entry requirement is analysis of learners/content under specific competencies or entry behaviour. Simply put; we may place Previous Knowledge under Analysis phase of the ADDIE while we may place entry requirement under Design.

How to Easily Write Entry Requirement in Your Lesson Plan

The final spot in the Lesson Plan Guide: Entry Requirement is how to easily write entry requirement in our lesson plan.

After deciding the learning goals and using measurable verbs to state acceptable evidence of attainment (according to UbD Model), or specifying content and objectives (according to Gerlach and Ely model); Gerlach and Ely model provides that the next phase of the design step is Assessment of Entry Behaviour. Similarly, the ASSURE model mention analysis of specific learners’ competencies as part and parcel of learner analysis.

It is quite easy to set entry requirement. You can determine the entry requirement for your lesson plan by asking yourself questions on each of the lesson objectives and answering the questions accordingly.

Here is the two-step approach:

  1. Pick each of the lesson objectives and ask yourself: “what does the student need to already know, what attitude does he/her need to already possess; and what skill does s/he need to already have acquired before s/he can attain this goal?”
  2. Write your answer to question 1 above; and that becomes your first entry requirement!

Note however, that general competencies that learners in a particular level will normally possess may not be written as entry requirements. Instead, you should write only specific competencies. Let me further illustrate as well as conclude with the following example of entry requirement.

[qsm quiz=3]

Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge Guide

Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge Guide in One Sentence

This Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge Guides detail how to correctly and easily write previous knowledge in your lesson plan/note.

Introduction to Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge

Many teachers tend to automatically write the last topic as the previous knowledge for every new lesson. Although this may be, and is often right in most cases; it is not always the case.

So, when not and when is it right to take the previous lesson as the previous knowledge? How may we correctly and easily write previous knowledge? Is there a systematic approach?

There sure is a systematic approach. I provide that, and the answers to the other two questions in this guide.

Note: This is only a part of my guide on how to write standard lesson note or lesson plan in Nigeria. It is one of the articles that educators rate to be the best on the subject in Nigeria. Click here to check it out.

Meaning of Previous Knowledge

Previous knowledge refers to any kind of experience that the learners possess in relation to the topic under discussion – whether formal or informal, organized or unorganized.

This definition implies that any kind of experience at all – it may knowledge, it may be a skill or some form of behaviour – that the learners possess and that relate to the new topic; may be assumed as previous knowledge.  Hence, it is not only the previous topic that equals previous knowledge.

When previous topic is not equal to previous knowledge

Take SSS 3 Mathematics for instance, Week 2 topic – Matrix; and Week 3 topic – Simple & Compound interests; have no surface connection. That is, Matrix is not related to Simple Interest at the surface level. Knowledge of matrix does not directly aid the understanding of simple interest; neither will lack of the knowledge of matrix hinder the understanding of simple interest. As such, we cannot say the previous knowledge for week 3 is week 2’s topic.

When previous topic is equal to previous knowledge

However, as I noted earlier; there are times that teachers may consider previous topic as previous knowledge. Such time is when the previous topic relates to the new topic. That is, when the knowledge of the previous topic can affect the understanding of the present topic – either positively or negatively.

Take JSS 1 History for example, Week 1 topic – meaning of centralized state; relates to Week 2 topic – The Hausa States. If a student did not understand the meaning and features of a centralized state; then s/he may find it a bit difficult to understand the lesson on The Hausa States as an example of a centralized state.

So, I believe you now understand when not and when a previous topic may serve as previous knowledge.

Nevertheless, you should take note of the difference between Previous Knowledge and Entry Requirement.

But is that all? What else may serve as previous knowledge for a lesson?

From the definition of Previous Knowledge that I gave earlier; it is clear that what my serve as previous knowledge is not limited to the previous topic. In fact, I have also noted that previous topic may not even serve as previous knowledge altogether.

Then, in such case; what else may serve as previous knowledge?

The answer is this: Unorganized experiences of the learner. The previous topic may not or may serve only as an aspect of previous knowledge. This is the formal or organized knowledge aspect. But as the definition contains, previous knowledge may also include informal or unorganized experiences. The informal or unorganized experiences that may form part of previous knowledge are experiences the learners gain from their social and cultural activities – including the practices, norms and values of their societies.

For instance, prior to teaching Simple Interest; the learners already have experienced transactions involving interest. Hence, they know that a trader trades to earn interest though may not have thought of the systematic way of determining interest – which the topic aims to make them do.

Another example is SSS 1 chemistry. In treating properties of acid, the students have probably tasted unripe fruits and know it to have sour taste. A final example is in treating diseases in a certain rural community; they pupils may believe the attribution of epilepsy to some sort of superstition.

These kinds of experiences that will either facilitate or hinder assimilation of the current lesson all form part of previous knowledge.

Is it compulsory to include previous knowledge in Lesson Plans? If yes, why so?

We come now to the rationale behind previous knowledge in lesson planning.

Is it compulsory to include previous knowledge in lesson plan? Yes, it is.

But why is it compulsory?

  1. Teaching and learning is systematic
  2. Provide different angles for teachers to engage with learners
  3. Help students to remember new lessons

Teaching and learning being systematic

Teaching has been defined as a systematic process of transmitting knowledge, attitudes and skills in accordance with professional principles.  By extension, learning is also done in a systematic way. And the general pattern is from known to unknown. So, by writing previous knowledge, the teacher that will deliver the lesson will be able to ensure the systematic nature of teaching and learning.

This fact, supported by Piaget’s principle, must be remembered by teachers. Keller in the ARCS ISD models categorically noted that instructors can make lesson relevant to the learner by using familiar language and examples. This can be implied in this case that you, as the instructor – or the instructor if you are writing lesson plan for another – have to know what the learners are familiar with so as to use it.

Providing different angles for teachers to engage with learners

Without much talk, previous knowledge helps teachers to know at every point in time; the perspective of the learners. And as such, also know how the teacher will present issues in a way they will be able to contribute and understand.

Help students to remember new lesson

Apart from helping learners to understand new body of knowledge, planning your lesson from the previous knowledge helps learners to easily associate new concepts with existing one thereby facilitating retention and remembrance.

Renowned educational psychologists such as Ivan Pavlov adequately proved this fact.

How to determine Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge

Now that we know the meaning of previous knowledge; what does and doesn’t constitute previous knowledge; and the rationale behind including previous knowledge in lesson planning; let us now discuss the systematic approach to determine and write previous knowledge.

Summarily, there are two major ways to determine previous knowledge after the sources. These are:

  1. By looking up the scheme
  2. By considering the socio-cultural experience of the learners

Looking up the scheme of Work/Syllabus/Curriculum

The scheme of work, syllabus and curriculum are developed by experts who understand the systematic and interrelatedness of topics. Hence, the topic for the week before; usually serve as previous knowledge for the following week. Nonetheless, you must know that this is not always the case.

I have adequately explained when not and when such is the case.

Considering the socio-cultural experience of the learners

The second way to determine the previous knowledge for a topic is to consider the socio-cultural experience of the learners. You think of the social and cultural aspects of the learners’ daily living that relates to the topic.

Now, as a systematic way to write the previous knowledge for a topic, you should ask yourself two questions. And the answers to these questions will automatically become the previous knowledge.

Question 1: Is this topic related to any previously learned topic in the scheme of work or syllabus?

Now to be able to answer this, ensure you study your subject syllabus thoroughly. This is not a problem for experienced teachers. Another point to consider when you want to answer question 1 is what I mean by “related”. By related I mean if the previous topics in any way affect – either aid or hinders the understanding of – the current topic.

Question 2: What other things or experiences from the learners’ environment can be related to the topic?

An example of previous Knowledge

To conclude this guide on Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge, let us look at my previous knowledge for JSS1 Information Technology note on data processing.

First, I asked myself question 1: Is this topic related to any previously learned topic in the scheme of work or syllabus?

Then in answering this question, I know, from my experience of the 9-Year Information Technology curriculum; that the students have memorized the definition of both data and information from earlier classes in definition of computer.

Then I asked myself question 2: What other things or experiences from the learners’ environment can be related to the topic?

Also, in answer to the second question, the students have unorganized knowledge of the existence of data. For instance, they know that the school has the data of all the students and staff.

Thus, both answers become my previous knowledge for my note. And I stated it as in the image below:

How to Capture and Retain Learners’ Attention

How to Capture and Retain Learners’ Attention in One Sentence

This post, How to Capture and Retain Learners’ Attention, discusses professional approach to make learners’ willing to learn.

Introduction to How to Capture & Retain Learners’ Attention

The problem

Among the many feedbacks that I received over the last one to two months, is this recurring question. A good number of teachers, especially parents and new ones seem to find it difficult to teach their wards. This is not because the wards find it difficult to learn. But it is because the teachers find it difficult to capture and retain the learners’ attention throughout the lesson period. For a few moments, such teachers capture the learners’ attention. Then in the next moment, the learners are doing something else or not paying attention to the teacher. They just will not listen. The teacher that hasn’t yet the experience will feel frustrated. But there is no more cause for alarm. There is no experienced teacher that is so unfortunate as to not have had such type of learner under his tutelage in the past.

A Fact Leading to Solution

Off course, learning is a willful act. This means, except the learner is willing to learn; no teacher can make him/her learn – except by means of the style of the ancient cruel lords of the fields and industries. There is no teacher nor parent that I know who want the ward to remember them as cruel lords of the arena.

Why would any teacher want that when there is an alternative, a better and professional approach?

Over the years; experts in the field of education, philosophy and psychologists – who took time to study the science and art of learning – have come to arrive at proven facts about the matter. In continuance, professionals in education including curriculum specialists, instructional designers and teachers are able to formulate specific solutions to the issue from the known facts.

Any experienced of the aforementioned professionals is able to proffer this kind of solution almost instinctively. In fact, learning how to capture and retain learners’ attention is one of the cardinal points of our instructional design training.

That being said, this post describes one of such solutions in layman’s language. This is to make possible for just about anybody with genuine desire to help learners to be able to capture and retain the learners’ attention – to make the learner willing to learn.

Where this solution ends: for you to seek outside assistance

Inasmuch as this post guides you to capture and retain learners’ attention; there are situations that you will need professional assistance. Such situation is when a child’s lack of attention is due to mental health condition. There is a mental health condition in which children are often in a state of activity or excitement and unable to direct their attention towards what they are doing. This condition is called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This condition normally requires the assistance of a professional to resolve. Thus, you may consider it beyond what a parent or (unspecialized) teacher can handle alone. As such, it is also beyond the scope of this guide.

Very Well Mind has a comprehensive discussion on ADHD. This include guide to help you know if your child has ADHD and what you can do. Click here to check the article on Very Well Mind.

Assuming your child does not have ADHD, but the “regular” difficulty in concentrating at studies; or if you are a teacher and seek ways to capture your learners’ attention and retain it throughout the span of your lesson – for effectiveness; the following guide should be of help.

The Model to Capture and Retain Learners’ Attention

I noted earlier that experts in education and/or psychology took time to study the art and science of learning. I also pointed out that from their studies, they have come to arrive at proven facts about the matter. One of such experts whose work is central to this guide is John Keller. John Keller is an American educational psychologist. Keller worked on an aspect of instructional design, motivational design.  The motivational design opines that learners learn more and better when they are motivated to do it willingly – when they see reasons to learn.

Consequently, based on his research findings; John Keller formulated the ARCS model.  The ARCS model serves as a template for instructors/instructional designers to incorporate learner’s motivation into their instructional contents/activities – so as to make and keep the learners to want to learn thereby ensure higher productivity.

The ARCS Model

Keller’s ARCS model broke learner motivation down into four components. These components are Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction. While attention describes ways of making the learners notice the teacher and the interest that the learners display in what the teacher is teaching; the other components explains motivations that will make the learners to want to keep learning.

Going beyond capturing attention

The fact that your learner notices and picks interest in what you are teaching does not mean s/he will want to keep learning. To do this, you must ensure that certain conditions are met. In this post, I describe ways of making the learners notice the teacher with interest in what the teacher is teaching. Then in another post, I succinctly addressed the other components.

Levels of Motivation (Needs)

However, before I describe attention in detail; it is important to note that motivation theorists have proven that motivation is both spontaneous and induced. Inducing motivation is rather by gratification or satisfaction of motivation needs. Hence, theorists have identified different motivation needs. Further, they categorized these motivation needs into higher and lower orders.

For example, consider Abraham Maslow’s categorization of motivation needs below.

Maslow’s Theory of Motivation

Abraham Maslow in his theory of human needs identified seven vital human needs according to level of urgency or exigency. These are:

1.       Physiological Needs

These are the biological or survival needs of man – including the desire to eat food when hungry, drink water when thirsty, the need for rest, sex, air and to excrete unwanted materials from the body systems.

2.       Security and Safety Needs

The need for safety and protection from danger or external aggressors. The desire to seek for conducive or peaceful abode.

3.       Love and Belongingness Needs

This involves the aspiration of man to establish a cordial relationship with others. The desire to love and be loved.

4.       Achievement Needs

The desire to attain success or freedom drives man to go extra miles.

5.       Self-Esteem Needs

These are the things we desire in order that our ego will be boosted.

6.       Aesthetic Needs

The desire to pursue or admire beautiful things.

7.       Self-Actualization Needs

The desire to have uncommon opportunity to differentiate oneself from others.

General Rule of Motivation

And the general rule is that if a higher order needs in not satisfied, then lower needs will be irrelevant and will not be pursued. From this categorization of needs, we know that a learner will most likely neither pay attention to you nor learn when s/he is hungry; thirsty; tired; sexually excited; in want of fresh air or when in a smelly environment; and when s/he need to urinate/defecate.

Similarly, a learner may not pay attention to you or learn if s/he is afraid for one reason or another. This is why you cannot beat a student into understanding or learning. We can say the same for love and belonginess need. It is a common experience that students hardly learn if they dislike the teacher for one reason or another.

With what we know of self-control, we know that these things are truer with younger learners. Schools and teachers understand this. As such, they always try as much as possible to satisfy the higher order motivation needs of the learner before teaching. But parents who teaches their children at home have to ensure that the higher order needs are satisfied to maximum impartation.

How to Capture and Retain Learners’ Attention

Now that we understand some important motivation concepts, let us look at the ways to capture and retain learners’ attention:

To Be Continued

How to Calculate Weekly Class Percentage Attendance

Introduction to how to calculate weekly class percentage attendance

This post describes in simple terms how to calculate weekly class percentage attendance. Weekly percentage attendance is the percentage ratio of the actual turnout of the learners in a particular class to the expected turnout for a given period of time that school opens.

In an earlier post (click to read), I discussed the importance of daily attendance register. The daily marking of the register itself provides data which serves as input. However, working out the percentage makes generalization of data possible which in turn enhances some of the importance I discussed earlier.

A particular need for working out the weekly class percentage attendance is that it serves as a tool for identifying general study behavior/attendance curve. This in turn aid supervising body/bodies to quickly arrest and dealt with any ugly trend. Teachers, administrators and education supervisors also use the weekly class percentage attendance to forecast and/or explain academic performances.

Wrong Way: How to Calculate Weekly Class Percentage Attendance

Before I discuss the correct way to calculate weekly class percentage attendance, let me quickly set aside the wrong way that most (new) teachers do it.

Consider the two (sample) weekly attendance register sheets below. I will use both for this illustration and also to explain the correct way to calculate weekly class percentage attendance.

NOTE: I discussed how to mark attendance register in an earlier post. Click here to quickly read the post.

First Wrong Method: Total attendance divide by total number of students

In my over 10 years as a school administrator, one of the wrong ways that new teachers calculate weekly class percentage attendance is this: to divide the total weekly attendance by the total number of students on roll.

Take for instance, in figure one above, the total attendance for the week is 71 + 70 = 141. And the total number on roll is number of boys (9) + number of girls (6) = 15. Hence, new and unsuspecting teachers will simply but erroneously calculate the class percentage attendance for week as . Thus getting 9.4 as the class percentage attendance for the week.

Now, notice the closeness of that answer (9.4) to the correct answer (94%) as I have shown in the diagram. Despite this nearness, please understand that both the method and the final method are wrong.

Obviously, 9.4 is too insignificant to be a correct value for class percentage attendance for the week. In fact, I should stress that any weekly class percentage attendance below 50% is an indication of a great anomaly. The administrator or supervisor of such a class/school must take drastic action to turn things around. For one, it could mean that the class teacher is doing some serious wrong. Then that may also mean abysmally poor academic activities (rock bottom standard). For the worst part, such insignificant weekly class percentage attendance could mean permanent loss of students to the school.

Sighting Error at a glance

Therefore, now that I have brought your attention to the forgoing, you should know that both the method and final value are wrong ways for calculating weekly class percentage attendance. And additional tip here is that once can tell wrong weekly class percentage attendance by simply glancing at the percentage value. At no time should the percentage should be as low as a single digit nor as high as over 100.

Second Wrong Method: Total attendance times 10 divide by total number on roll

If you carefully inspect the first wrong method above, you will realize that “smart” but unwary teachers can attain the correct answer by simply multiplying the total attendance by 10 then dividing by total number on roll.

Take for example, in figure one above; the total attendance for the week is 141. And the total number on roll is 15. Therefore, teacher that adopts this wrong method will calculate their weekly class attendance as . Although this method gives the correct answer of 94%; it is not absolutely correct. It is only correct if school opens for the complete 10 times in a week.

However, if there is any public holiday within the week; then this second will not give the correct value.

Consider figure 2 above for example. There was IDL KABIR BREAK on Thursday of that week. Hence, school opened for 8 instead of the 10 times in a week.

If we go by this method, then we could have calculated our class percentage attendance for the week as  As you know, this will give the percentage value as 76%.

This is different from the correct answer that I have indicated in the sample sheet. Hence, though this method may yield correct answer every week of no holiday; it is not correct.

Notwithstanding, it is safe to say that if the teacher intends and is sure to remember to use this method only for weeks that school will open for the complete 10 times per week; then such teacher may use this method.

Regardless, the safer and better thing to do is to use the correct method – the method that will yield correct answer at all times. This is the correct way to calculate weekly class percentage attendance.

Correct Way: How to Calculate Weekly Class Percentage Attendance

Now that we have discussed the ways that (new) teachers wrongly calculate weekly class percentage attendance; let us look at the correct way to do it.

Please refer to the two (sample) weekly attendance register sheets above when necessary.

There are six simple ways to calculate weekly class percentage attendance. These include:

  1. Calculate total attendance for the week
  2. Calculate the total number of students on roll
  3. Note the number of times school opened for the week
  4. Multiply the total number of students on roll by the number of times school opened for the week
  5. Divide the total attendance for the week in step 1 by the answer you obtained in step 4
  6. Multiply the final answer in step 5 by 100

This method works and yield correct answer at all times.

Examples of How to Calculate Weekly Class Percentage Attendance

Consider the first sample weekly attendance register sheet above.

1.       Calculate the total attendance for the week

Total attendance for week = Mornings Total + Afternoons Total.

The total attendance of the class for the week is the sum of all Mornings total and Afternoons Total. Mornings total means the total count of present on Monday through Friday mornings of the week. Similarly, Afternoons total means the total count of present on Monday through Friday afternoons of the week.

Example (Sheet) 1
Mornings Total

Looking at the sample register sheet 1, you will observe that 15 were present on Monday morning; 14 were present on Tuesday morning; 14 on Wednesday morning; 14 on Thursday morning; and 14 on Friday morning. Adding all of these gives us 71 as Mornings total.

Afternoons Total

In the same vein, looking at the same sample register sheet 1, you will also observe that 15 were present on Monday afternoon; 14 were present on Tuesday afternoon; 14 were present on Wednesday afternoon; 13 were present on Thursday afternoon; and 14 were present on Friday afternoon. Adding these will gives us 70 as Afternoons total.

Total Attendance for week is Mornings Total (71) + Afternoons Total (70) = 141.

Write this answer down and proceed to step 2.

Example (Sheet) 2
Mornings Total

As for example sheet 2, you will observe that 15 were present on Monday morning; 14 were present on Tuesday morning; 14 on Wednesday morning; Thursday was public holiday so no data; and 14 on Friday morning. Adding all of these gives us 57 as Mornings total.

Afternoons Total

The afternoons total for sample sheet 2 is the same as the mornings total. Therefore, Afternoon Totals for sheet 2 is also 57.

Correspondingly, Total Attendance for week is Mornings Total (57) + Afternoons Total (57) = 114.

Write this answer down and proceed to step 2.

NOTE: I explained the concept of morning and afternoon in an earlier post. Click here to read the post.

2.       Calculate the total number of students on roll

The next step after getting the total attendance for the week is to determine the total number of students on roll. This is simple. Simply add the number of boys and the number of girls.

Looking at the sample register sheet 1, you will observe that there are 9 boys and 6 girls on the register. Therefore, the total number of students on roll is  Similarly, the total number of students on roll for sample sheet 2 is 15.

Worthy of note under number of students on roll is that if a student has already been transferred from the class; s/he must be excluded from the number on roll though his or her name may remain on the register until the end of the term.

3.       Note the number of times school opened for the week

Next, note the number of times school opened for the week. This is pretty simple. For standard two continuous sessions a day; the school opens twice per day. But for schools that run two separate sessions a day, school opens once per day.

Therefore, in a week (i.e. Monday through Friday); school opens 10 times for standard two continuous sessions per day. Equally, school opens 5 times for schools that run two separate sessions per day. Majority of schools (public and private) in southern and north central Nigeria runs standard two continuous sessions. Conversely, majority of schools (public) in north-eastern and north-western Nigeria run two separate sessions per day.

One-day public holiday or break in schools that run standard two continuous sessions a day means the number of times school opened for the week will be reduced by 2 – because school opens twice a day (Morning and afternoon).

Take for instance, in the second sample sheet above; there was IDL KABIR break on Thursday of the week. That means school opened for 8 times – 10 -2.

So, now going back to our examples;

Number of times school opened for sheet 1 = 10; and

Number of times school opened for sheet 2 = 8.

4.       Multiply the total number of students on roll by the number of times school opened for the week

The next step is to multiply number of students on roll in step 2 by the number of times school opened for the week in step 3:

For sample sheet 1: Total number of students on roll = 15; and number of times school opened for the week is 10. Therefore, the product is

Likewise, for sample sheet 2: Total students on roll = 15; and number of times school opened for the week is 8. Thus, the product is

With these values, we are ready to proceed to step 5.

5.       Divide the total attendance for the week in step 1 by the answer you obtained in step 4

We are almost there!

The second to the last step to calculate weekly class percentage attendance is to divide the total attendance for the week in step 1 by the answer we obtained in step 4 earlier. Easy!

For sample sheet 1: the total attendance for the week which we obtained in step 1 is 141; while the answer we obtained in step 4 for the same sample 1 is 150. Thus, the answer is .

Correspondingly for sample sheet 2: the total attendance for the week which we obtained in step 1 is 114; while the answer we obtained in step 4 for the same sample 2 is 120. So, the answer is .

And that is it! All that is left is for us to take the final answer to percentage as I have shown in step 6 below.

6.       Multiply the final answer in step 5 by 100

The last step to calculate weekly class percentage attendance is to multiply by ratio by 100%.

As for example 1, this gives us  Therefore, the class percentage attendance for the week is 94%.

Equally, example 2 gives us  Therefore, the class percentage for the week is 95%.

Conclusion on how to calculate weekly class percentage attendance

This post is one of the guides in our Teachers’ Induction Training. The Teachers’ Induction Training (TIT) part and parcel of our Instructor-Led Training (ILT). All our Instructor-Led Training is both a mind reorientation and skills impartation session for teachers. It aligns their minds to the vision and mission of their school, draw out their untapped potentials and motivates them towards helping schools attain her goals and unlock unexploited growth channels. The training also incorporates educational marketing expos. This further helps the school to continuously take advantage of the strongest marketing agents – her teachers.

The Teachers’ Induction Training (TIT) is particularly for new teachers. Apart from the overall objectives of our ILT, the TIT particularly provides guidelines for teachers to perform at their best and to get the best they can from the profession.

If you are teacher and would like to enroll for our Teachers’ Induction Training (TIT) to position yourself for getting the best out of the teaching profession, please click here to message me on WhatsApp, or click here to send me a direct mail.

Also, if you are a school owner or administrator and will like to us to train your staff, please click here to send a message to me on WhatsApp or Click here to send me a direct email.

[qsm quiz=3]

Setting Lesson Objectives

Setting Lesson Objectives in Summary

This post, setting lesson objectives discusses the three domains of educational objectives. It also provides a step-by-step guide on how to set the objectives for each – starting with the cognitive domain.

Introduction to Setting Lesson Objectives

Since I published How to Write Standard Lesson Note in Nigeria, and the differences between lesson plan and lesson note; both have risen to become one of the most popular guides on the subject in the Nigerian cyberspace. Google Analytics also shows that it is one of the posts that our site users read most frequently.

The guides however, are not complete. This is because I only gave the briefest description of the components of a standard lesson plan. Consequently, in this and subsequent posts; I will describe in further details, each of the components. I excerpted this from my on Instructional Design Manual for Nigerian Classrooms. It is the manual that I use for manual in our Instructional Design Training – very comprehensive. If you have missed out of our multiple Instructional Design trainings in the past and will like to have the manual; kindly pick it up on Paystack or chat me up on WhatsApp.

Lesson Objectives

Key to setting Lesson Objectives is being able to correctly define it. Hence, I begin with my definition of lesson objectives thus:

Lesson Objectives are the specific and measurable knowledge, skill and character that a topic is meant for the teacher to impart on the learners.

Lesson objectives is a key component of every lesson plan. And it is also under the design phase of Instructional Design Model. In addition, it is also the central point of every lesson. As a result of this, all Instructional Design Models captures this particular component. The Gerlach and Ely Instructional Design Model specifically outlined what lesson objectives should contain.

From the definition, you can note that the components of lesson objectives are three – knowledge, skill and character. These three components of lesson objectives are what educators/educationists refer to as the three domains of educational objectives. Educational objectives are the statements of what education (program) aims to impart on learners. Therefore, saying that the general three domains of education objectives to include knowledge, skills and character; means that whenever any education process is taking place, it aims to give the learner some new knowledge, skills (practical abilities) and real change in character. The jargon for these three domains of educational objectives are cognitive, psychomotor and affective respectively – with psychomotor being more professionally narrow in meaning than I imply. I will briefly discuss each of the domains of educational objectives in next section. I explore more details on this in the instructional design manual.

REMINDER: You can get the manual for better understanding. kindly pick it up on Paystack or chat me up on WhatsApp.

The three domains of educational objectives

1.       Cognition or Cognitive Objectives

The cognitive lesson objectives are the mental and conscious thinking skills that a lesson/topic aims to impart on the students. Educational theorist divided the cognitive domain into six subsets including:

  1. Knowledge
  2. Comprehension
  3. Application
  4. Analysis
  5. Synthesis
  6. Evaluation

You will find the shortest and simplest explanation of each of these in the manual. For now, I assume you are now able to define/explain the cognitive lesson objectives. Hence, I will proceed with setting lesson objectives for cognitive domain.

Setting Lesson Objectives: Cognitive Domain

Before I proceed to mention the steps in setting a good lesson objective, let me quickly mention this well-known fact. The fact is that setting cognitive lesson objectives is mostly not a problem for Nigerian teachers. This is because our education has unduly been too focused on cognition at the expense of skills and character. Every good scheme of work – or curriculum – does not only contain the topics that it expects teachers to teach learners of a particular level. But it also outlines the objectives of each topic as well as the instructional materials – alongside the teacher’s and learners’ activities.

The snag of

The Nigerian curriculum/scheme is that most part of if only outlines the cognitive objectives. Accordingly, most part of our examinations – for the few practical – only accesses the cognitive objectives of education. This is sadly and especially so with the social sciences and commerce. The affective domain is the most neglected domain in the Nigerian education system.

In fact, I personally believe this is one of the reasons for the current level of decadence in the society. More so, teachers must know that every topic carries with it some (separate/unique) objectives for each domain. As such, I ensure that majority (if not all) of our lesson notes do not only contain objectives; but different objectives for each domain.

In this post, I focus on guiding teachers to set cognitive objectives professionally.

Setting Cognitive Lesson Objectives

The guide to setting lesson objectives (in general) is contained on the definition of lesson objectives. Therefore, to set lesson objectives for any of the domains, we need to refer to the definition. The definition does not only tell us what a lesson objective should contain. But it also gives us the characteristics of a good lesson objective namely specific and measurable.

Characteristics of a good lesson objectives

Lesson Objectives should be specific

The specific characteristics of a lesson objective means that every good lesson objective should be timebound. You specifically state when you expect the learners attain the objectives. The Gerlach and Ely Instructional Design Model particularly advocated the specificity of lesson objectives.

Lesson Objectives should be measurable

The second characteristics of a good lesson objectives that we get from the definition is measurable. A lesson objective is measurable when there is a standard way of ascertaining its attainment. In other words, how will the teacher be able assess the learners to be sure they have acquired the objectives?

With these two characteristics of a good lesson objectives, we can now adopt a standard step to setting lesson objectives – for the cognitive domain in this part.

Steps to Set Cognitive Lesson Objectives

The steps to setting lesson objectives for any domain is the same. Variations in one domain from another only lies in identifying the goals and the right terminologies for each. I will discuss the general steps and these variations for the three domains starting with cognitive in this post.

The general steps in setting lesson objectives are:

  1. Make the lesson specific
  2. Identify the domain goals for the topic
  3. State the identified goals in measurable wordings
Making a Lesson Objectives Specific

As I explained earlier, specific lesson objectives mean that the teacher has stated the time for the learners to attain the objectives. Depending on the duration of the topic as the scheme has stated, the time for the attainment of a lesson objectives maybe a day, some days, weeks, months or program. But for a typical weekly lesson, teachers make their lesson specific by beginning with:

“At the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to:” So begin writing your lesson objectives, start with the phrase above to make it specific.

Identify the domain goals for the topic

By this, I mean that you should list out the targeted mental and conscious thinking abilities that you/the topic expects the learners to be able to perform within the time you specified above. If you are using any standard schemes just like these ones, doing this should be very easy. Our schemes as well as any other standard one contains the cognitive objectives.

However, the objectives so listed are usually do not cover all assessment area as Wiggins & Mc Tighe advocated for in their Understanding by Design model. Consequently, I prepared the following questions to guide teachers in identifying the cognitive objectives for every topic:

  1. What cognitive objectives are stated in the scheme?
  2. What common questions are set from the topic in external examinations?
  3. Is there a definition or concept to remember? – concepts that the learner will build on in future studies.
  4. Is there any important list – to mention – in the lesson?
  5. Is there any concept that memorization will help the learner concretize?
  6. Will there any concept that the learners will need to experiment?
  7. Will the lesson require the students to apply the concept in choosing between options?

If you write down the answers to these questions diligently, then you will have the cognitive objectives for the lesson. Note however, that before you answer these questions, you should go through the scheme, the recommended textbook and possibly past question papers – including for external examinations like NCEE, BECE, WASSCE, NECO, etc.

State the identified objectives in measurable wordings

The final steps in setting lesson objectives is to the identified objectives in the correct wordings. This is one of the major distinguishing features between lesson objectives drafted by professionals and non-professionals. For the later, can see objectives like:

  • At the end of the lesson, the students should know the meaning of food.
  • By the end of the week, the students should understand what changes are.

Even now, those that do not already know may be wondering what is wrong with the objectives above. Well, the short answer is that the objectives are wrong because of the underlined words used in the statements. Inasmuch as these words describes the overall phenomenon of what we aim for the students to attain, the words are not measurable. This is for the fact that when someone knows or understands something, we cannot say except we assess them. Consequently, the professional standard is that teachers use the words that they can use to both explain the phenomenon and also assess the learners.

For this reason,

educators have a list of verbs that teachers may use to state lesson objectives – for the different domains. In truly professional studies, educators even categorize the verbs into the different forms or divisions of the domains. This way, each of the division of cognition that I mentioned earlier has different verbs that teachers may use to state the objectives.

In this post, I will not list the verbs for each form of cognition. Instead, I will mention some of the verbs that you can use to state cognitive objectives. Anyone with a reasonable knowledge of the English Language and meaning of the forms of cognition, will instantly be able to pick the right word for any given form of cognition. Hence, you do not need to memorize them.

Some Words/Verbs Used to Set Cognitive Lesson Objectives

Some of the verbs that teachers can use to set cognitive lesson objectives are:

define, repeat, state, mention, name, list, enumerate, record, recognize, acquire, identify, criticize, estimate, calculate, judge, choose, select, infer, appraise, compare, rate, argue, etc. and their synonyms.

My simple tricks for teachers

during my training, is that teachers should use verbs/words that they will normally use to set assessment questions to also state the objectives. For example, if I were to set say examination question to assess the learners if they know the meaning of food; I will use words like define food. Hence, instead of stating my objective that “At the end of the lesson, the students should know the meaning of food.” I will write the objective as “At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to define food or state the meaning of food”.

In the restatement, you will notice that I can use both define and state in setting assessment question.

Conclusion

In this post, I discussed the meaning of learning objectives. I also explained the three domains of educational objectives. Finally, I outlined the steps to setting cognitive lesson objectives. The entire content of this post is culled from my comprehensive Instructional Design Manual for Nigerian Classrooms. The complete manual unedited manual contains a lot of more professional topics in layman explanation. With it, you will be able to write bulletproof lesson plans, evaluate lesson plans professionally. You will also learn how to ensure that your learners do not easily forget what you teach them.

If you will like to have the manual; kindly pick it up on Paystack or chat me up on WhatsApp. In subsequent posts, I will discuss how to set lesson objectives for the remaining domains of educational objectives – affective and psychomotor.

[qsm quiz=3]

Classroom stories 2: The Twin Who Refused to Collect Biscuit!

Introduction to the twin who refused to collect biscuit!

The short story – the twin who refused to collect biscuit – is a one of my classroom stories. Storytelling is an effective tool for teaching young learners. The concept and imaginary of a story well told, lives a lasting perception that enhances assimilation and permanence. I particularly recommend short – 5 minutes – stories as either part of introducing a lesson or illustrating a concept.

I wrote this, the twin who refused to collect biscuit, for teachers to use as part of introduction to a lesson – Lesson Note Primary 1 First Term Spoken English Language Week 1.  The teacher that intends to go with my recommendation should spare no effort in ensuring a realism in telling the story. More so, take care so as not to over dwell in the story.

For the sake of better output, I recommend the teacher paints or draws – creates – the pictorial representation of the characters in the piece. Don’t worry about your pitiable painting/drawing skills, kids love imperfection J. Endeavor to use local names for the twin in the story – Ejuma and Okopi are the respective names for male and female twin in Akweya local community. I use twin for personalization with both the male and female pupils.

NOTE:

This piece in itself may not serve the purpose and pleasure of reading.  For the intention is not to serve as companion at leisure but to hint the underlying concepts – that the accompanying lesson is meant impart. Therefore, if you seek the pleasure of reading; I recommend one of the numerous medieval classics – search here. I bet any of those will appease the wrath of your disappointment. Let me below to write for the kids in my heart.

The Twin Who Refused to Collect Biscuit!

This is Ejuma and Okopi – narrator shows the ugly painted pictures J. They are twins – explain the term.   Yesterday, Ejuma and Okopi went to market with their mother. At the market, Ejuma and Okopi met their mother’s friend, Ochanya – a female name. Ochanya speaks only English Language; because nobody (of the twins and mother) understands her language. Now, the twins’ mother told them – in their Akweya language – to greet her friend. The children murmured the greeting to their mother’s friend. So, their mother commanded them to speak louder. Then the twin greeted their mother’s friend, Ochanya, louder. But their greeting made everyone to laugh!  – |teacher asks why everyone laughed>> It was because they greeted good morning in the afternoon.

However, Mrs. Ochanya only smiled. And she responded correctly. She was happy that the children greeted her. So, she said to Ejuma, “check hands with me” but Ejuma did not. Then Mrs. Ochanya turned to Okopi. And she also said to Okopi, “check hands with me”. But Okopi also did not! Instead of checking hands with their mother’s friend, the children looked at her.

Nonetheless, Mrs. Ochanya really wanted to thank the children for their good behavior of greeting her. So, she thought of what to do for them. After thinking, she turned to them. And said, “come and take biscuit”. Sadly, both Ejuma and Okopi did not move an inch. The woman got angry. She did not give the children the biscuit. She now thinks the twins are just stubborn.

Discussion

Succeeding the narration, the teacher asks the pupils’ opinion on the story:

  • Do they think the twins were truly stubborn? The answer is no. Because being stubborn shouldn’t have stopped them from collecting the biscuit
  • Why then did they not do the things Mrs. Ochanya asked them to do? That is because the twins did not understand what she said.

Subsequent to the discussion, the teacher tells the pupils that in order not for them to be like the twins; they have to learn to greet and the simple things people would tell them to do. Then s/he tells them that they are going to start the learning thence. In conclusion, the teacher explains the objectives to the pupils.

How to Mark Daily Attendance Register

This post with keywords, how to mark daily attendance register in brief

This post, how to mark daily attendance register is a guide for new teachers. It gives a concise definition of attendance register. The post also discusses the importance of attendance register. Finally, this post guides (new) teachers on how to mark the daily attendance correctly.

No more mistakes and cancellation in the register. Save yourself the burden of having to listen to a pissed off head explain this to you vaguely. Approach the task and argument with confidence.

To school owners and administrators, this may be just the best way for you to explain – how to mark daily attendance register – to your teachers.

 

Introduction to how to mark daily attendance register

When I first got a teaching job, I was paranoid about everything before I did it – whether I was going to do it right. Under normal circumstances, I am an introvert – you won’t believe that if we met in the classroom. So, although I asked new colleagues at work; I didn’t always like it. That is probably because I thought asking about everything would show that I was not capable for the job – is that true?

Well, one of those tasks that I battled with was how to mark daily attendance register. Somehow, my employer felt like I was 100% able to the tasks. So, at due time; the head handed me the daily attendance register for my class – without reasonable orientation. I am a bit of a perfectionist as well. Hence, I spare no effort in my paranoia to read up anything I could find on how to mark daily attendance register. When I was done, lo and behold; I did not only mark my register well but I also discovered mistakes in others and suggested correction – perfectionist right? Hey, I am a gentle one, so no qualms!

Fast-forward to years later, I have become an administrator. And a general experience that every administrator will attest to is – new engagement without orientation equals friction! There was a time that I have to change an entire register due to errors.

If you studied education, I understand that you discussed school records in your level 2 – General Teaching Methods – and it is also in your level 3 – Teaching Practise Manual. But nobody understands the Nigerian school better than us – educators.  My inference is that majority only remember listing attendance register as a statutory record. They did not have any practical guide on how to mark daily attendance register. Perhaps you were lucky and you had a practical guide but you need to refresh your memory.

One thing is sure, administrators and supervisors do not like register mistakes. Making mistakes on how to mark daily attendance register is unimaginable to supervisors – I mean it is one of the first things you (will) do every morning. And some HODs are not very friendly when making corrections.

The goal of this post is help you learn how to mark daily attendance register without mistakes.

What is Attendance Register?

Attendance register, Class register or simply register is simply a book used to record whether a child is present at school. It is a statutory record. This means that education law demands every school to keep attendance register. And if school inspectors from the ministry visit, you will be asked to provide it. Each class usually has its separate register and the class teachers maintain it.

Description

The attendance register in Nigeria is usually large book within the range of 88.5 cm by 62.5 cm – It can be any dimension. The back cover is usually blue in colour and hard – see picture below.

School Daily Attendance Register Cover Design - LeadinGuides
Figure 1: Back cover of School Attendance Register

An attendance register contains about ten key pieces of information about the learners in the class for any given session, total number of (male and female) students in class and the class’ weekly/termly attendance summary for the whole session.

The learners’ information in a class register are:

  1. Full Name
  2. Date of Birth/Age
  3. Name of parent/guardian
  4. Address of parent/guardian
  5. Religion of parents/guardian
  6. Date of Admission into the class
  7. Admission number
  8. Number in Admission/Withdrawal register
  9. Fees paid
  10. Daily class attendance with weekly summary

Although there are a few technical things about filling the other information in the register, this post particularly addresses how to mark daily attendance with weekly summary.

Why Keep Attendance Register? Importance of Attendance Register

Generally, if one does not know the reason or importance of something they won’t give the required commitment to it. Hence, before we discuss how to mark daily attendance register, let’s see why we keep it.

  • It is mandatory

I have explained earlier that class register is a statutory record. I also explained that this means it is required by law. Therefore, the first reason for keeping and marking register is because the law requires it. Remember this whenever you want to mark your register

  • It is a source of data for supporting important societal decisions

If you have been a teacher and in a position well enough to know, you should have taken part in at least one school survey – or school grading self-assessment exercise. These surveys or self-assessment exercises are sponsored by governments – state, national and regional; inter-governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations – national, regional and international.

Hardly will any of such surveys and school grading self-assessment exercises not require data from the attendance register. The organizations in turn use the data collected to make important decisions – decisions that border on the life of real human beings!

In fact, class register became a statutory record in 1882. The enabling law – i.e. the 1882 education ordinance – made it that way so the government could decide which schools to give grants based on data from the attendance register. Governments and organizations still use register data to support such decisions.

I bet you do not want to be responsible in any way for any wrong decisions that negatively affects the lives of others – no, you don’t, we are teachers; we build lives instead. Now, that’s another reason we keep attendance register – and a reason you should ensure you keep yours accurately.

  • It is a source of data to support learner’s academics

This particular one is not far-fetched for the teacher. The immediate importance of attendance register is that it helps the teacher to identify students that are missing out from classes. You will also be able to tell if a student is punctual, a truant or not. As soon as you identify this, you can then immediately follow to support the learner in their academics.

Every school has the procedures for this follow up on absenteeism, lateness and truancy in their attendance policy.

  • To save yourself: It is an accountability tool

Hey, don’t freak out! When I say to save yourself, I do not mean to say that you will be indicted for any crime – at least not for no reason. But there are times that authorities may need class teachers to account for their students.

A common of such time is, say when a student’s result shows absent in a particular subject; but the parent are convinced the student didn’t miss school during the examinations – you have to save yourself, from being perceived negligent. We have heard and seen were the authority is the police.

In many schools, you are required to report irregular attendance curve to the school authority. Hence, if you do not do this and wake up at reporting session to say a student perform poorly due to any attendance default; then you are in for query.

How to Mark Daily Attendance Register

Although there are many electronic attendance systems now is use in schools across the country, majority still uses manual attendance record – which this post discusses.

In the manual or traditional attendance system, teachers record students’ attendance using the register booklet I describe earlier.

When and how many times to mark?

Every school has unique attendance policy. The policy may specify the time and number of times that teachers mark attendance. Hence, they may be differences from school to school. Notwithstanding, there is a general practice/style.  Generally, there are two kinds of school and styles of how to mark daily attendance register.

One time, at the start of each separate session a day

In a school that runs two separate sessions a day; teachers mark the attendance register for each session one time a day; at the start of the session. By running two separate sessions, I mean morning session and afternoon session. In this type of school, the students that attend morning session are different from those that attend afternoon session. This style is very common in over-populated government schools – as we commonly see in northern Nigeria.

Twice, at the start of each of the two continuous sessions a day

On the other hand, there are schools that run two continuous sessions a day. In this type of school, teachers ideally mark the register twice a day – one at the start of each session. Running two continuous sessions a day means that the same set of students attend both the morning and afternoon sessions. The school may or may not permit the students to go home in between the two sessions. But there are specified time for both sessions. Consequently, the teachers initially mark the attendance at the start of morning session. Later on, they complete the attendance just at the start of the afternoon session.

Attendance Register Malpractice

Nonetheless, it is a common observation in this type of school for teachers to cut corners. They put off the morning marking until afternoon then mark both once. Alternatively, they mark both in the morning then shun afternoon marking.  Considering the accountability issues I discussed earlier, this act ill-fated. I normally discourage teachers from this practice.

Procedure of how to mark daily attendance register

For each student, the daily class attendance portion in a school register is divided into two cells – one for morning and the other for afternoon sessions. This is repeated for everyday of the week. Therefore, for a given week (running from Monday through Friday), there are ten cells for each student – see picture below.

How to mark daily attendance register - marking cells - LeadinGuides
Figure 2: How to Mark Daily Attendance Register – daily marking cells

As you can see from the picture, there are two cells or boxes for Monday; two for Tuesday; …; & two for Friday. For each day, the first cell represent morning and the second cell is for afternoon. Therefore, in a week; there are a total of 10 – 5 mornings and 5 afternoons.

 

The procedure of how to mark daily attendance register manually include:

      1. Confirm the presence of the student for the session you want to mark.
      2. If absent, make a small clean circle in the cell for which you want to mark. Note that if your school runs two separate sessions and therefore you mark the register only once a day; the circle should cover the two cells for the day. In contrast, if your school runs two continuous sessions and therefore you mark the register twice a day, the circle for morning should be different from that of the afternoon – meaning if the student is absent for the whole day, there should be two circles. See the pictures below.
    How to mark daily attendance register
    Figure 3: Marking student absent on Mon & Tue in a school that runs two separate sessions a day

    How to mark daily attendance register - marking absent - LeadinGuides
    Figure 4: Marking a student absent on Mon & Tue in a school that runs two continuous sessions
    1. If present, make a diagonal line – from top-left to bottom-right (for morning) and top-right to bottom-left (for afternoon) – in the correct cell for the day and session. Note that if your school runs two separate sessions and therefore you mark the register only once a day; you should make both the morning and afternoon stokes at the same time. If on the other hand your school runs two continuous sessions, you should make the first stroke in the morning and then the second at the start of the afternoon session. See pictures below.
      How to mark attendance register - How to mark present  - LeadinGuides
      Figure 5: How to mark a student present on a day (Mon) in a school that runs two separate sessions per day

      How to Mark Daily Attendance Register 5 - LeadinGuides
      Figure 6: How to a student present in the morning of a day (Mon) in a school that runs two continuous sessions per day

      How to Mark Daily Attendance Register 6 - LeadinGuides
      How to mark a student who was present in the morning but absent in the afternoon – in a school that runs two continuous sessions per day (Figure 7)

      How to Mark Daily Attendance Register 7 - LeadinGuides
      How to mark a student who was absent in the morning but present in the afternoon – in a school that runs two continuous sessions per day (Figure 8)

      How to Mark Daily Attendance Register 8 - LeadinGuides
      Figure 9 How to mark a student present throughout a day (Mon) in a school that runs two continuous sessions per day

    As you can observe from figures 7/8 above, it is possible for a student to be present in the morning but absent in the afternoon – in a school that runs two continuous sessions per day. The reverse can also happen. As I demonstrate in figures 7/8, you should accurately capture these attendance events. Do not mark a student present in the afternoon because s/he was present in the morning and vice versa. You could be implicating yourself by so doing. Marking a student present means that students was your responsibility throughout the period.

    Last line on how to mark daily attendance register

    Since it is recommended that female students’ name be entered into the register in red ink, some new teachers assume that female students’ attendance should also be in red ink.

    This is absolutely not so. Do not mark female students’ attendance with red ink. Traditionally, teachers use red ink only to indicate lateness. But nowadays, there are different attendance/register code to indicate different attendance events – absent on permission, absent without permission, sick, late, and present/punctual. However, the code varies from school to school.

    Conclusion of how to mark daily attendance register

    If you read the whole of this post, then you should now be able to:

    • Give a concise definition of attendance register
    • Mention the importance of attendance register
    • Explain how to mark daily attendance register traditionally.

    Writing detailed guides like this takes time and effort. You can encourage us to write more and better by giving us feedback.

    If you like this post or not, please let us know below. And if you think it is worth it, share this post with your friends on social media and email – someone may find it helpful.

    Do not forget to subscribe to our newsletter so as to stay updated with our activities.

    • [qsm quiz=3]

Classroom Story: People we should consult before using drugs

A child who is feeling sick (slight headache), asked the wrong person for information on drug use. And the child got wrong information, took the wrong medication. Now we don’t know what will become of him.

This narration is to be used in the class along with the Civic Education lesson note on: People we should consult before using drugs. It is a week 5 topic for Grade 3 pupils in Nigeria.

 

Scene 1:

This is Ahmed (in the video or picture). He is playing with his friends at his home compound.

Scene 2:

Ahmed is feeling dizzy. He is got a headache! (See the video or picture). What is he going to do?

Scene 3:

He calls his best friend who is about the same age as Ahmed (watch in video or see poster). He complains to the friend. The friend suggested that Ahmed needs medication for headache.

Scene 4:

Ahmed remembers that they’ve got first aid box at home. He also remembers that there are drugs in the box. So, he excuses his friend and goes for the drug (shown in the video or poster).

Scene 5:

(Searching the box) There it is, Ahmed was right! There are indeed different drugs in the box! But which one is for headache? (He contemplates in the video or poster). He has found it! He remembered the color of the pack. But again, how many should he take? (Ahmed contemplates again). He couldn’t decide so he goes back to his friend. Perhaps his friend has an idea (Shown in the video or poster, Ahmed walks back).

Scene 6:

(Now with his friend, Ahmed asks him) “Best friend, I found the drug for headache but I’m not sure how many I should take. Last time, my mum gave my big brother 2 so I think 1 will be OK. Do you have an idea?” His friend has no idea but he wants to help Ahmed so he suggested 1 and a half. Ahmed thinks that is a perfect suggestion.

Although they are not sure and are afraid of what might happen, Ahmed took 1 and a half. Oh wait… It wasn’t written on the pack that the drug was for headache, could Ahmed have taken the wrong pack? Now Ahmed and his friend can’t play anymore. Do you know why? No! Not because of Ahmed’s headache, they are afraid. What if the drug isn’t for headache? Could the drug have expired? Ahmed and his friend know that expired drug is harmful. They should have asked an adult!

After the narration, the teacher asks the pupils whether they think the child’s health will get better or not and why they think so.

After receiving enough of the pupils’ opinion, the teacher explains that drugs are not and should not be taking based on conjectures (assumptions such as it might work). Making example of the video clip (narration), the teacher asks what if the drug is not for kids, what will happen to the kid – Bad things!

Teacher proceed, that to prevent bad things to happen to us from drug abuse, only drugs given to us by trusted people, people who are sure of the drugs must be taken. S/he then asks pupils to mention some of such trusted persons, tells them that they shall learn more of such persons in the lesson and writes/projects the topic on the board/digital screen before moving on to the next step.

LESSON NOTE INTRODUCTION – THE STORY OF DOUBLE ATTITUDE TO WORK

PROLOGUE

This is a narration of two childhood friends who grew up together, went to the same school, had the same aspiration and got the same job of their dreams in the same company. However, at the place of work, while one receives accolades, the other receives serial query. The names of the two friends are Igbeji and Omajaga. This narration is meant to be made by Grade 5 teacher as introduction to week 5 lessons on Civic Education: Attitude to Work

NARRATION

The teacher gives the narration as each major scene occurs on the video clip or as the teacher unfolds the poster/chart.

Scene 1:

This is Igbeji and his friend Omajaga (both yet kids). They are best friends.  They always play and move together too.

Scene 2:

Igbeji and Omajaga express their ambitions. They had agreed earlier to write the ambition on paper. Coincidentally, they both wrote the same thing! This made their friendship stronger. Henceforth, they do almost everything together.

Scene 3:

It’s their graduation! They have finished the secondary school. They also like to study in the same university – the Federal University of Health Sciences, Otukpo. Will there secure the admission?

Scene 4:

Here they are preparing (reading) for UTME examination.

Scene 5:

They have studied hard and are prepared for the examination.

Scene 6:

They are now writing the UTME. Will they make up to the university cut-off mark? They await their results curiously.

Scene 7:

And… yes! They made it! Next is their Post-UTME assessment/screening. They still hope to be successful as well.

Scene 8:

There are celebrating their admission. They were offered admission into their dream course!

Scene 9:

They have done well all through their studies and now they are graduating as the Best Graduating students of the university. So far (only few days after their graduation party), three companies have sent them job offers. They have to decide which to go.

Scene 10:

Once again, they coincidentally made the same choice – the same company, independently. They are going to be in the same company!

Scene 11:

It is their first day at work, and having heard that they were the best graduating student; old staff of the company is expecting a lot from them – everyone respects them. Will they be able to deliver as such?

Scene 12:

It’s their 4th month in the company. While Igbeji maintains the tempo as of the first day he began the work; Omajaga thinks there is no need to do so because attention, suspense but respect has dropped. As a result, the later (Omajaga) now resumes late to work. Similarly, Omajaga feels lazy to work most of the time and sometimes he absents from work only for his friend to cover him. Occasionally, he leaves the office before closing time and even sleeps on duty at times. The company board of directors has queried him a number of times but mostly, he only apologizes without changing.

Scene 13:

It’s the company’s award ceremony! Everyone is expectant. One of the friends has been awarded and promoted which they celebrated together, awaiting the award and promotion of the other. Unfortunately, instead of award and promotion, the other friend is publicly queried and demoted with a condition that if he improves over the next one month, he would be promoted, otherwise he would be fired.

Scene 14:

The demoted friend, who is now worried, asks his promoted friend to tell him how to improve so as to be promoted. He doesn’t want to be fired, that is an awful way to leave a place of work– in shame and disgrace. It will be hard to get employment elsewhere that way.

Teacher then pause the video or cuts the narration here and kindle a class discussion on the video/narration:

  • Which of the two friends was promoted, which was demoted?
  • What they think made the company to promote one of the friends but demote the other: Do they (the company or directors) hate the demoted friend? Or did the promoted bribe the directors to promote him?

After receiving differing answers from pupils, it is expected that the class will agree on a common reason: The one that receives promotion works better (because he has better attitude to work) while the one that was demoted contributes lesser to the organization (also because he has bad attitude to work). Afterwards, the teacher proceeds to step 2.

Differences between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note

In one line: This post with keywords: Differences-lesson-plan-lesson-note differentiates between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note in a very simple and easy to understand way.

Introduction to the Difference between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note

Since I published How to write standard Lesson Notes in Nigeria, I have received lots of emails. While the emails are a mix of commendations and appreciations, quite a number are questions and suggestions. And one of the most commonly asked questions is the difference Lesson Plan and Lesson Note. Foremost, I thank you, the readers and especially those that emailed or commented on the earlier posts.

Below is the answer to this particular question – the difference between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note. As usual, I took my time to make it as comprehensive as possible while still being kept concise. I hope it meets your need once again.

To start with, what is the meaning of both Lesson Plan and Lesson Note?

Lesson Plan and Lesson Note are of the closest relatives after the like of Muhammadu Buhari and Aisha Buhari (husband and wife) only that their surname comes first unlike the Buhari’s.

The major difference in the meaning of the two terms lays their second names – plan and note. Consequently, let’s begin with the meaning of both terms – what is a plan and what is a note as used in this context? – trying to put two kernels in mouth at once huh?

What is (Lesson) Plan?

(Wiktionary) in one definition states that a plan is a drawing showing technical details … with unwanted details omitted, and often using symbols rather than detailed  drawing. Similarly in the second part, (Wiktionary) defines a plan as a set of intended actions, usually mutually related, through which one expects to achieve a goal.

These two definitions of plan are not different from those of other dictionaries including Webster, Cambridge and Oxford. All of the definitions contain the meaning of a plan both as a drawing and as intended course of action to an end.

Hence, taken together, a plan (in the context of lesson) is a drawing of the steps/actions through which a teacher expects to deliver a lesson in order to attain the objectives of the lesson. Also being a technical document, a Lesson Plan does not contain unwanted details even though such may be important.

What is Lesson Note?

On the other hand, a note as used in the context of Lesson Note is a brief piece of writing intended to assist the memory (Oxford Dictionary). In this sense, a note is also an explanation or an extra piece of information that is given at the bottom, at the back of a book, e.t.c. (Cambridge Dictionary).

From the definition, it is obvious that Lesson Note is the explanation of one, some or all of the steps outlined in a Lesson Plan.

Drawing the Differences between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note

1.     Semantically

The difference in the meanings of Lesson Plan and Lesson Note is that while Lesson Plan contains the breakdown of the lesson in steps after a careful study of the topic, Lesson Note is mostly the explanation of the step (s) after critical thinking.

Take for instance, the first term and Week 1 Lesson Note on Basic Science for Primary 2. The third step in delivering the lesson is listing things in a classroom. Then the note is: “Having explained the meaning of classroom, the teacher asks the pupils to look around the class and mention the things they could see”. Afterwards, if there are not enough things in the class, the teacher displays the video/pictures of classrooms again and asks the pupils to identify the objects they could see in it. The teacher writes each object on the board as it is mentioned.

From this instance, you should note that ordinarily, how the teacher goes about listing the things in a classroom is not necessarily a content of the Lesson Plan, save perhaps for the actual list although it is important for the teacher.

Lesson Note may also refer to the explanatory note which is given to students to copy into their notes so as to help them remember what the teacher taught them – i.e. the board summary. In this sense, you often should find students saying, “I’ve copied the note” or something similar with reference to note.

Similarly, Lesson Note may mean the reminder by a teacher (the author of the Lesson Plan) to guide a substitute teacher on what s/he is to do or cover. Or it may mean an assessment information after delivery (evaluation) to remind a teacher (who delivered the lesson) the areas to revisit or improve upon subsequently. Isn’t this point clear enough? I hope it is.

But… is that all the difference between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note?

Of course not, there is still a little more to it. One of such is:

2.     Technicality

Generally, Lesson Plan is more technical than Lesson Note. A well-written Lesson Plan incorporates educational theories. More so, Lesson Plan follows principles in instructional design. This is to say that to an extent, only one who understands the technicality of a lesson is able to write a very good Lesson Plan – although any willing person can learn such technical details easily. Finally on the technicality of Lesson Plan apart from Lesson Note, Lesson Plan must contain some key components – click here to see the key components of standard Lesson Plan.

All these are quite unlike Lesson Note. Lesson Note does not necessarily incorporate any educational theory neither does it follow any instructional design principle. It is an ordinary note that can be understood by any person. More so, Lesson Note does not contain any standard component.

3.     Format of Writing

Being a technical document, Lesson Plan is formal – an office requirement. And as with most office documents, Lesson Plan follows a particular format. This format is relative to the school. In other words, the format of Lesson Plan varies from school to school and one location to another. In fact, the format of Lesson Plan may depend on the subject. While some schools do not recommend a particular format, others prefer Lesson Plan in a tabular form and a few, the conventional essay format.

In contrast, Lesson Note is usually in essay format except when written alongside, and as explanation of the presentation steps of Lesson Plan.

4.     Formality

Lesson Plan is always a formal document. It is a requirement for teachers to write Lesson Plans as preparation for classes.  Generally, schools also require their teachers to submit such plan periodically – some weekly while others Termly i.e. prior to the commencement of the term.

On the contrary, Lesson Note being only a reminder to the teacher; is usually not required to be submitted to the school authority. This is of course not when Lesson Note is used in reference to the explanatory note which is given to students  – to copy into their notes. In this sense, subject teachers normally call for students’ notes for marking.

In summary, the differences between lesson plan and lesson note are:

  • A Lesson plan is a drawing of the steps/actions through which a teacher expects to deliver a lesson in order to attain the objectives of the lesson without unwanted details while lesson note is the detailed explanation of the steps/actions or a reminder of what a teacher should do.
  • Lesson plans incorporates educational theories and follows instructional design principles but lesson note does follow instructional design principles though the explanation of the steps may incorporate one or more educational theories.
  • Lesson plan has standard components but lesson note does not except when written together with lesson plan.
  • Lesson plan have more than one format but lesson note is usually in essay format.
  • Lesson plan is an official school record so it is submitted for periodic markings but lesson note is normally not submitted except when written together with lesson plan.

So, there you have it – the differences between lesson plan and lesson note.

But, why is lesson plan usually confused for lesson note or vice versa?

Well, the simple answer to this question is stated as follow. Somehow, some teachers and schools prefer to combine both in a single book while writing. Hence, the book comes to be called either of the terms interchangeably.

Were you a class captain in your school days? Do you remember your teacher telling you to copy the note from here to here but not to copy what’s up and below? Yes, that’s because such teacher combined the plan with the note.

Nonetheless, nowadays most schools and teachers are going back to strictly writing lesson plan – without extra details. This necessitates differentiating between the terms.

Last line:

This post tried to differentiate between lesson plan and lesson note. I hope it meets your need. If you think it worthwhile, please do share the post with someone who may find it helpful.

Finally, our weekly lesson guides for teachers are more appropriately lesson note because it combines lesson plan with explanatory notes. We do not expect you to download and submit the same thing bu

Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class management,

Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class management,

PROLOGUE

This document/article titled, Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class Management is a paper presentation by Mrs. Charity Abuadiye from Yandutse College on the 5th November, 2016 at Sensitization/Teacherpreneurship Seminar for teachers at Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology organized by LeadinGuides Educational Technology (http://www.LeadinGuides.Com) in partnership with Learnfast Academy.

There are many overwhelming duties of teachers. This is why some people believe they cannot be teachers. One of such overwhelming duty is Attendance Register; some (new) teachers feel there is no need for the attendance register because there is often “no time for it” and it is not included in the timetable. It is often seen as a little work that can be done “some other time” after the major work has been done. In the end, they end up not entering the register for that day, and sometimes, for two or three days!

Well, the attendance register is important as we will learn from our speaker soon.  The lapses that exist in prompt keeping of the register accrue from the problem of classroom and time management. When we fall behind our schedules, some things will definitely be left undone. And if a teacher cannot manage and direct his/her class to attain the lesson objective at the shortest time possible, s/he will definitely fall behind time.  Mrs. Charity will in this following discussion share her wealth of experience – how she has jugged things all along her teaching profession.

 

 

 

The Author

Mrs. Charity is a veteran teacher. She has long years of teaching experience at small, medium and large schools. She was one time a staff of St. Thomas Royal School, Airport Road Kano and Rainbow schools, Nassarawa G.R.A Kano. Added to classroom teaching, she has also acted in different capacities. She is currently of staff of Yandutse College

 

The Seminar

The program is aimed at enhancing or improving the overall work performance of teachers by acquainting them with professional standards. That is, teaching them how to do the right things (effectiveness) in the right way (efficiency).

 

It is a known fact that there are four common reasons why people do not perform the way they should:

  • They do not know what they are supposed to do;
  • They do not know how to do it;
  • They do not know why they should; and
  • There are obstacles beyond their control

John Maxwell identified the first three reasons to be associated with starting a job correctly while the fourth is associated with problems at work, at home, and in life in general. Consequently, the seminar is directed at equipping the trainees with the What, How and Why of teaching and tips on how to handle emotional problems at the place of work (their schools).

TRAINING OUTLINE

The training has four training modules. Each module is meant to address a particular issue.

  • Standard practices in teaching – this module focuses on some primary tasks of a teacher in relation to general teaching methods and statutory records kept by teachers. The module include: Lesson Plan Preparation, Classroom Management, and the use of Scheme of Work, Report of Work (Diary) and Attendance Register.
  • Teachers and ICT – this module acquaints teachers with available technological teaching aids (educational technologies), the method and the skills required of a teacher to effectively utilize these technologies. Participants will be offered discount in Computer Training Institutes across the state.
  • Teacher Entrepreneurship – this module empowers teachers with entrepreneurial methods which may be adopted to enhance their work performance. Teachers’ entrepreneurship (teacherpreneurship) is of great benefit to the teacher, the school and the pupils/students.
  • Developing Self confidence and Teachers Emotional Composure – invariably, one of the hardly-to-get quality among beginning teachers is self confidence and necessary ‘teachers’ emotional composure. Nonetheless, teachers ought to possess and be capable  of  meeting the  emotional,  physical, intellectual and social needs of the student/pupils

 

 

 

Mrs. Charity was invited to speak on what and how of part one of module one which include Class management, Staff Time Book, School timetable and Attendance Register. Mr. Samuel Utuedeye of Sankoree International School presented the part two of the module one which comprises Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson Plan preparation. Click here to view the part two.

The seminar was primarily for (beginning) teachers who have not undergone a professional teachers’ training. They include secondary school leavers and graduates in fields other than education who has just been employed as a teacher in a school, seeking employment as a teacher or have interest in teaching. However, experienced teachers, school administrators and school proprietors were at the seminar. Consequently, the paper only served to spur and as reference for discussion. Similarly, the items of the title are not discussed in-depth in this paper. It is however adequate to serve its primary objective – to inform new teachers of their existence and encourage the use. The How-To was the center of discussion during the seminar.

 

 

TIMEBOOK

A time book is a mostly primeval accounting record that registers the hours worked by employees in a certain organization in a certain period. These records usually contain names of employees, type of work, hours worked and sometimes wage paid. This time book was used by the book keeper to determine the wages to be paid.

SCHOOL TIME TABLE

A school timetable is a table for coordinating these four elements. Pupils, teachers, rooms, time slot (period) is a frame work to run the school properly. A time table is a powerful administrative tool.

TYPES OF SCHOOL TIMETABLE

 

A good timetable must be complete and comprehensive in every way.

There are seven types of school timetable:

  • Master timetable
  • Class-wise timetable
  • Teacher-wise timetable
  • Vacant-period timetable
  • Game timetable
  • Co-curricular timetable
  • Homework timetable

CLASS ATTENDANCE REGISTER

A register is an official list of people who are present at an institution such as a school. It is mark morning and afternoon. Boys with blue ink while girls with red ink in the entering of names.

DESCRIPTION OF A REGISTER

Total attendance for term is the total for boys and girls present in term.

  • TOTAL TIMES SCHOOL WAS OPEN IN A TERM: A week is 10, so if school opens for 12 weeks that means 120 or there about.
  • AVERAGE ATTENDANCE OF BOYS AND GIRLS: Add total of boys and girls to get the total attendance for the term
  • WEEK ENDING: At the top of the register, you write the date week end e.g. 4/11/16
  • PERCENTAGE: The percentage of classes attended (calculated using present/total x 100)

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

Management connotes being in charge. It suggests the act of controlling, directing, supervising e.t.c. There is therefore no need to argue about the need for management for the classroom teacher. This is because, the classroom teacher does all theses and in his managerial role in the classroom. Besides, in line with the assertions of Coombs (1968) in Ejiogu (1990), “…any productive system, whatever its aims and technology, requires management. It must have leadership and direction, supervision and coordination, constant evaluation and adjustment”. Ejiogu goes on to suggest a cycle in which the functions of the management are exercised as: decision making, programming, communicating, controlling and reappraising. All these, a good teacher take in his stride as part of classroom management. We have five categories of classroom disturbing behaviour as shown in the list below:

  • Physical Aggression – Pushing others, pulling at them, trickling, scuffing, bullying, dominating others (by words), arguing, and interrupting.
  • Peer Affinity – Making exaggerated of affected gestures, moving without permission, wandering around.
  • Attention Seeking – Making unnecessary noise (for example hitting pencil on desk, dropping books e.t.c.)
  • Challenge of Authority – Talking aloud (contrary to class usage), creating a disturbance, disobeying authority (for example, refusing to move when told, chewing gum e.t.c.).
  • Critical Dissension – Making critic or complaints that are unjust or not constructive, laughing so as to disturb others.

HOW THEN DOES HE PURSUE THIS VIGOROUS TASK OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT FOR EFFECTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE LEARNING?

LEADERSHIP

Leadership could be seen as the ability to direct the actions of others for the achievement of a common goal. The common goal of the teacher and his students is effective teaching/learning outcome. It is the desire of every teacher that his students should learn well and excel. However, it is a different thing to succeed in leading these students to accomplish this. It is common knowledge that children obey most, one whom they admire and respect. In his leadership role therefore the teacher need to carve out for himself an admirable personality which will command the respect of his students. This requires that he should be at home with his subject-matter, have good command of the language of communication, be neat and smart always, be morally upright, be calm, organized and always living up to what he teaches. The teacher as a leader should show sufficient interest and concern in the affairs of the students under him, give them opportunities to participate in the governance of the class.

PLANNING

The quality of any programme is often reflected in the quality of its planning. The teacher, therefore, plans for what he would teach on a particular day and at what particular time. He determines in advance how he is going to teach it and what materials would be required. The teacher plans for the classroom activities to teach on a particular date and time using the objective and goal.

ORGANIZATION

Management involves the utilization of available resources in the achievement of formulated objectives. The teacher arranges the students in the class to suit the different needs of the children. The smaller and shorter children may need to sit in the front of the class to be able to see the teacher. The ones with sight and auditory defects may also need to be near the teacher. The general arrangements will such that would be neat, orderly without being intimidating. However, “…no classroom arrangement is perfectly satisfactory for all activities and all class”.

DIRECTING

It is the duty of the teacher to direct the class activities directly or indirectly.

SUPERVISION

Delegation of duty does not mean relegation. Supervision involves observation and guidance. The teacher supervises even his delegated duties. HE supervises all the activities of his students both inside and outside the classroom environment. He supervises their group discussion classes; experimental lessons, assignment s, (and depending on the class) even their note copying and break periods. He supervises their out-of-class activities like excursion trips, sports and games (again depending on the class) even their reading and eating habits and how they generally spend their time.

EVALUATION

Another managerial duty of teacher is to evaluate his students, and ensure that all the activities so performed have, yielded the desired result.

CONTROLLING

The word control most times conveys rulership, authority, restrain, e.t.c. In classroom management, it could be accepted as being used to restrain some of the excessive behaviour of the students, but not in the form of rulership strictly speaking. As earlier indicated, the best form of control is good relationship and a respectable personality. This is because children generally do not like to offend anyone they love/admire. The respectable and admirable personality, therefore, form the foundation for good class control. The pattern of direct equally differs from teacher, students and even familiarity with the students. As noted under leadership, the teacher while maintaining a friendly relationship with the students should not be too friendly as to be taken for granted. If he is new in the class, it is advisable to temper control with caution as he gradually comes to know the individual personality traits, and they too, get to know him better.

 

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies is a limited-liability company (LLC) located in Sabon Fegi, Badawa Layout Kano.

If you have any question or comment concerning any of our products and services or this paper or any other, kindly forward it to: [email protected] or any of these mobile numbers: 08067689217, 07018660605, 07056053189, and 09091781523

PROLOGUE

This document/article titled, Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class Management is a paper presentation by Mrs. Charity Abuadiye from Yandutse College on the 5th November, 2016 at Sensitization/Teacherpreneurship Seminar for teachers at Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology organized by LeadinGuides Educational Technology (http://www.LeadinGuides.Com) in partnership with Learnfast Academy.

There are many overwhelming duties of teachers. This is why some people believe they cannot be teachers. One of such overwhelming duty is Attendance Register; some (new) teachers feel there is no need for the attendance register because there is often “no time for it” and it is not included in the timetable. It is often seen as a little work that can be done “some other time” after the major work has been done. In the end, they end up not entering the register for that day, and sometimes, for two or three days!

Well, the attendance register is important as we will learn from our speaker soon.  The lapses that exist in prompt keeping of the register accrue from the problem of classroom and time management. When we fall behind our schedules, some things will definitely be left undone. And if a teacher cannot manage and direct his/her class to attain the lesson objective at the shortest time possible, s/he will definitely fall behind time.  Mrs. Charity will in this following discussion share her wealth of experience – how she has jugged things all along her teaching profession.

 

 

 

The Author

Mrs. Charity is a veteran teacher. She has long years of teaching experience at small, medium and large schools. She was one time a staff of St. Thomas Royal School, Airport Road Kano and Rainbow schools, Nassarawa G.R.A Kano. Added to classroom teaching, she has also acted in different capacities. She is currently of staff of Yandutse College

 

The Seminar

The program is aimed at enhancing or improving the overall work performance of teachers by acquainting them with professional standards. That is, teaching them how to do the right things (effectiveness) in the right way (efficiency).

 

It is a known fact that there are four common reasons why people do not perform the way they should:

  • They do not know what they are supposed to do;
  • They do not know how to do it;
  • They do not know why they should; and
  • There are obstacles beyond their control

John Maxwell identified the first three reasons to be associated with starting a job correctly while the fourth is associated with problems at work, at home, and in life in general. Consequently, the seminar is directed at equipping the trainees with the What, How and Why of teaching and tips on how to handle emotional problems at the place of work (their schools).

TRAINING OUTLINE

The training has four training modules. Each module is meant to address a particular issue.

  • Standard practices in teaching – this module focuses on some primary tasks of a teacher in relation to general teaching methods and statutory records kept by teachers. The module include: Lesson Plan Preparation, Classroom Management, and the use of Scheme of Work, Report of Work (Diary) and Attendance Register.
  • Teachers and ICT – this module acquaints teachers with available technological teaching aids (educational technologies), the method and the skills required of a teacher to effectively utilize these technologies. Participants will be offered discount in Computer Training Institutes across the state.
  • Teacher Entrepreneurship – this module empowers teachers with entrepreneurial methods which may be adopted to enhance their work performance. Teachers’ entrepreneurship (teacherpreneurship) is of great benefit to the teacher, the school and the pupils/students.
  • Developing Self confidence and Teachers Emotional Composure – invariably, one of the hardly-to-get quality among beginning teachers is self confidence and necessary ‘teachers’ emotional composure. Nonetheless, teachers ought to possess and be capable  of  meeting the  emotional,  physical, intellectual and social needs of the student/pupils

 

 

 

Mrs. Charity was invited to speak on what and how of part one of module one which include Class management, Staff Time Book, School timetable and Attendance Register. Mr. Samuel Utuedeye of Sankoree International School presented the part two of the module one which comprises Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson Plan preparation. Click here to view the part two.

The seminar was primarily for (beginning) teachers who have not undergone a professional teachers’ training. They include secondary school leavers and graduates in fields other than education who has just been employed as a teacher in a school, seeking employment as a teacher or have interest in teaching. However, experienced teachers, school administrators and school proprietors were at the seminar. Consequently, the paper only served to spur and as reference for discussion. Similarly, the items of the title are not discussed in-depth in this paper. It is however adequate to serve its primary objective – to inform new teachers of their existence and encourage the use. The How-To was the center of discussion during the seminar.

 

 

TIMEBOOK

A time book is a mostly primeval accounting record that registers the hours worked by employees in a certain organization in a certain period. These records usually contain names of employees, type of work, hours worked and sometimes wage paid. This time book was used by the book keeper to determine the wages to be paid.

SCHOOL TIME TABLE

A school timetable is a table for coordinating these four elements. Pupils, teachers, rooms, time slot (period) is a frame work to run the school properly. A time table is a powerful administrative tool.

TYPES OF SCHOOL TIMETABLE

 

A good timetable must be complete and comprehensive in every way.

There are seven types of school timetable:

  • Master timetable
  • Class-wise timetable
  • Teacher-wise timetable
  • Vacant-period timetable
  • Game timetable
  • Co-curricular timetable
  • Homework timetable

CLASS ATTENDANCE REGISTER

A register is an official list of people who are present at an institution such as a school. It is mark morning and afternoon. Boys with blue ink while girls with red ink in the entering of names.

DESCRIPTION OF A REGISTER

Total attendance for term is the total for boys and girls present in term.

  • TOTAL TIMES SCHOOL WAS OPEN IN A TERM: A week is 10, so if school opens for 12 weeks that means 120 or there about.
  • AVERAGE ATTENDANCE OF BOYS AND GIRLS: Add total of boys and girls to get the total attendance for the term
  • WEEK ENDING: At the top of the register, you write the date week end e.g. 4/11/16
  • PERCENTAGE: The percentage of classes attended (calculated using present/total x 100)

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

Management connotes being in charge. It suggests the act of controlling, directing, supervising e.t.c. There is therefore no need to argue about the need for management for the classroom teacher. This is because, the classroom teacher does all theses and in his managerial role in the classroom. Besides, in line with the assertions of Coombs (1968) in Ejiogu (1990), “…any productive system, whatever its aims and technology, requires management. It must have leadership and direction, supervision and coordination, constant evaluation and adjustment”. Ejiogu goes on to suggest a cycle in which the functions of the management are exercised as: decision making, programming, communicating, controlling and reappraising. All these, a good teacher take in his stride as part of classroom management. We have five categories of classroom disturbing behaviour as shown in the list below:

  • Physical Aggression – Pushing others, pulling at them, trickling, scuffing, bullying, dominating others (by words), arguing, and interrupting.
  • Peer Affinity – Making exaggerated of affected gestures, moving without permission, wandering around.
  • Attention Seeking – Making unnecessary noise (for example hitting pencil on desk, dropping books e.t.c.)
  • Challenge of Authority – Talking aloud (contrary to class usage), creating a disturbance, disobeying authority (for example, refusing to move when told, chewing gum e.t.c.).
  • Critical Dissension – Making critic or complaints that are unjust or not constructive, laughing so as to disturb others.

HOW THEN DOES HE PURSUE THIS VIGOROUS TASK OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT FOR EFFECTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE LEARNING?

LEADERSHIP

Leadership could be seen as the ability to direct the actions of others for the achievement of a common goal. The common goal of the teacher and his students is effective teaching/learning outcome. It is the desire of every teacher that his students should learn well and excel. However, it is a different thing to succeed in leading these students to accomplish this. It is common knowledge that children obey most, one whom they admire and respect. In his leadership role therefore the teacher need to carve out for himself an admirable personality which will command the respect of his students. This requires that he should be at home with his subject-matter, have good command of the language of communication, be neat and smart always, be morally upright, be calm, organized and always living up to what he teaches. The teacher as a leader should show sufficient interest and concern in the affairs of the students under him, give them opportunities to participate in the governance of the class.

PLANNING

The quality of any programme is often reflected in the quality of its planning. The teacher, therefore, plans for what he would teach on a particular day and at what particular time. He determines in advance how he is going to teach it and what materials would be required. The teacher plans for the classroom activities to teach on a particular date and time using the objective and goal.

ORGANIZATION

Management involves the utilization of available resources in the achievement of formulated objectives. The teacher arranges the students in the class to suit the different needs of the children. The smaller and shorter children may need to sit in the front of the class to be able to see the teacher. The ones with sight and auditory defects may also need to be near the teacher. The general arrangements will such that would be neat, orderly without being intimidating. However, “…no classroom arrangement is perfectly satisfactory for all activities and all class”.

DIRECTING

It is the duty of the teacher to direct the class activities directly or indirectly.

SUPERVISION

Delegation of duty does not mean relegation. Supervision involves observation and guidance. The teacher supervises even his delegated duties. HE supervises all the activities of his students both inside and outside the classroom environment. He supervises their group discussion classes; experimental lessons, assignment s, (and depending on the class) even their note copying and break periods. He supervises their out-of-class activities like excursion trips, sports and games (again depending on the class) even their reading and eating habits and how they generally spend their time.

EVALUATION

Another managerial duty of teacher is to evaluate his students, and ensure that all the activities so performed have, yielded the desired result.

CONTROLLING

The word control most times conveys rulership, authority, restrain, e.t.c. In classroom management, it could be accepted as being used to restrain some of the excessive behaviour of the students, but not in the form of rulership strictly speaking. As earlier indicated, the best form of control is good relationship and a respectable personality. This is because children generally do not like to offend anyone they love/admire. The respectable and admirable personality, therefore, form the foundation for good class control. The pattern of direct equally differs from teacher, students and even familiarity with the students. As noted under leadership, the teacher while maintaining a friendly relationship with the students should not be too friendly as to be taken for granted. If he is new in the class, it is advisable to temper control with caution as he gradually comes to know the individual personality traits, and they too, get to know him better.

 

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies is a limited-liability company (LLC) located in Sabon Fegi, Badawa Layout Kano.

If you have any question or comment concerning any of our products and services or this paper or any other, kindly forward it to: [email protected] or any of these mobile numbers: 08067689217, 07018660605, 07056053189, and 09091781523

PROLOGUE

This document/article titled, Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class Management is a paper presentation by Mrs. Charity Abuadiye from Yandutse College on the 5th November, 2016 at Sensitization/Teacherpreneurship Seminar for teachers at Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology organized by LeadinGuides Educational Technology (http://www.LeadinGuides.Com) in partnership with Learnfast Academy.

There are many overwhelming duties of teachers. This is why some people believe they cannot be teachers. One of such overwhelming duty is Attendance Register; some (new) teachers feel there is no need for the attendance register because there is often “no time for it” and it is not included in the timetable. It is often seen as a little work that can be done “some other time” after the major work has been done. In the end, they end up not entering the register for that day, and sometimes, for two or three days!

Well, the attendance register is important as we will learn from our speaker soon.  The lapses that exist in prompt keeping of the register accrue from the problem of classroom and time management. When we fall behind our schedules, some things will definitely be left undone. And if a teacher cannot manage and direct his/her class to attain the lesson objective at the shortest time possible, s/he will definitely fall behind time.  Mrs. Charity will in this following discussion share her wealth of experience – how she has jugged things all along her teaching profession.

The Author

Mrs. Charity is a veteran teacher. She has long years of teaching experience at small, medium and large schools. She was one time a staff of St. Thomas Royal School, Airport Road Kano and Rainbow schools, Nassarawa G.R.A Kano. Added to classroom teaching, she has also acted in different capacities. She is currently of staff of Yandutse College

 

The Seminar

The program is aimed at enhancing or improving the overall work performance of teachers by acquainting them with professional standards. That is, teaching them how to do the right things (effectiveness) in the right way (efficiency).

 

It is a known fact that there are four common reasons why people do not perform the way they should:

  • They do not know what they are supposed to do;
  • They do not know how to do it;
  • They do not know why they should; and
  • There are obstacles beyond their control

John Maxwell identified the first three reasons to be associated with starting a job correctly while the fourth is associated with problems at work, at home, and in life in general. Consequently, the seminar is directed at equipping the trainees with the What, How and Why of teaching and tips on how to handle emotional problems at the place of work (their schools).

TRAINING OUTLINE

The training has four training modules. Each module is meant to address a particular issue.

  • Standard practices in teaching – this module focuses on some primary tasks of a teacher in relation to general teaching methods and statutory records kept by teachers. The module include: Lesson Plan Preparation, Classroom Management, and the use of Scheme of Work, Report of Work (Diary) and Attendance Register.
  • Teachers and ICT – this module acquaints teachers with available technological teaching aids (educational technologies), the method and the skills required of a teacher to effectively utilize these technologies. Participants will be offered discount in Computer Training Institutes across the state.
  • Teacher Entrepreneurship – this module empowers teachers with entrepreneurial methods which may be adopted to enhance their work performance. Teachers’ entrepreneurship (teacherpreneurship) is of great benefit to the teacher, the school and the pupils/students.
  • Developing Self confidence and Teachers Emotional Composure – invariably, one of the hardly-to-get quality among beginning teachers is self confidence and necessary ‘teachers’ emotional composure. Nonetheless, teachers ought to possess and be capable  of  meeting the  emotional,  physical, intellectual and social needs of the student/pupils

 

 

 

Mrs. Charity was invited to speak on what and how of part one of module one which include Class management, Staff Time Book, School timetable and Attendance Register. Mr. Samuel Utuedeye of Sankoree International School presented the part two of the module one which comprises Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson Plan preparation. Click here to view the part two.

The seminar was primarily for (beginning) teachers who have not undergone a professional teachers’ training. They include secondary school leavers and graduates in fields other than education who has just been employed as a teacher in a school, seeking employment as a teacher or have interest in teaching. However, experienced teachers, school administrators and school proprietors were at the seminar. Consequently, the paper only served to spur and as reference for discussion. Similarly, the items of the title are not discussed in-depth in this paper. It is however adequate to serve its primary objective – to inform new teachers of their existence and encourage the use. The How-To was the center of discussion during the seminar.

 

 

TIMEBOOK

A time book is a mostly primeval accounting record that registers the hours worked by employees in a certain organization in a certain period. These records usually contain names of employees, type of work, hours worked and sometimes wage paid. This time book was used by the book keeper to determine the wages to be paid.

SCHOOL TIME TABLE

A school timetable is a table for coordinating these four elements. Pupils, teachers, rooms, time slot (period) is a frame work to run the school properly. A time table is a powerful administrative tool.

TYPES OF SCHOOL TIMETABLE

 

A good timetable must be complete and comprehensive in every way.

There are seven types of school timetable:

  • Master timetable
  • Class-wise timetable
  • Teacher-wise timetable
  • Vacant-period timetable
  • Game timetable
  • Co-curricular timetable
  • Homework timetable

CLASS ATTENDANCE REGISTER

A register is an official list of people who are present at an institution such as a school. It is mark morning and afternoon. Boys with blue ink while girls with red ink in the entering of names.

DESCRIPTION OF A REGISTER

Total attendance for term is the total for boys and girls present in term.

  • TOTAL TIMES SCHOOL WAS OPEN IN A TERM: A week is 10, so if school opens for 12 weeks that means 120 or there about.
  • AVERAGE ATTENDANCE OF BOYS AND GIRLS: Add total of boys and girls to get the total attendance for the term
  • WEEK ENDING: At the top of the register, you write the date week end e.g. 4/11/16
  • PERCENTAGE: The percentage of classes attended (calculated using present/total x 100)

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

Management connotes being in charge. It suggests the act of controlling, directing, supervising e.t.c. There is therefore no need to argue about the need for management for the classroom teacher. This is because, the classroom teacher does all theses and in his managerial role in the classroom. Besides, in line with the assertions of Coombs (1968) in Ejiogu (1990), “…any productive system, whatever its aims and technology, requires management. It must have leadership and direction, supervision and coordination, constant evaluation and adjustment”. Ejiogu goes on to suggest a cycle in which the functions of the management are exercised as: decision making, programming, communicating, controlling and reappraising. All these, a good teacher take in his stride as part of classroom management. We have five categories of classroom disturbing behaviour as shown in the list below:

  • Physical Aggression – Pushing others, pulling at them, trickling, scuffing, bullying, dominating others (by words), arguing, and interrupting.
  • Peer Affinity – Making exaggerated of affected gestures, moving without permission, wandering around.
  • Attention Seeking – Making unnecessary noise (for example hitting pencil on desk, dropping books e.t.c.)
  • Challenge of Authority – Talking aloud (contrary to class usage), creating a disturbance, disobeying authority (for example, refusing to move when told, chewing gum e.t.c.).
  • Critical Dissension – Making critic or complaints that are unjust or not constructive, laughing so as to disturb others.

HOW THEN DOES HE PURSUE THIS VIGOROUS TASK OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT FOR EFFECTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE LEARNING?

LEADERSHIP

Leadership could be seen as the ability to direct the actions of others for the achievement of a common goal. The common goal of the teacher and his students is effective teaching/learning outcome. It is the desire of every teacher that his students should learn well and excel. However, it is a different thing to succeed in leading these students to accomplish this. It is common knowledge that children obey most, one whom they admire and respect. In his leadership role therefore the teacher need to carve out for himself an admirable personality which will command the respect of his students. This requires that he should be at home with his subject-matter, have good command of the language of communication, be neat and smart always, be morally upright, be calm, organized and always living up to what he teaches. The teacher as a leader should show sufficient interest and concern in the affairs of the students under him, give them opportunities to participate in the governance of the class.

PLANNING

The quality of any programme is often reflected in the quality of its planning. The teacher, therefore, plans for what he would teach on a particular day and at what particular time. He determines in advance how he is going to teach it and what materials would be required. The teacher plans for the classroom activities to teach on a particular date and time using the objective and goal.

ORGANIZATION

Management involves the utilization of available resources in the achievement of formulated objectives. The teacher arranges the students in the class to suit the different needs of the children. The smaller and shorter children may need to sit in the front of the class to be able to see the teacher. The ones with sight and auditory defects may also need to be near the teacher. The general arrangements will such that would be neat, orderly without being intimidating. However, “…no classroom arrangement is perfectly satisfactory for all activities and all class”.

DIRECTING

It is the duty of the teacher to direct the class activities directly or indirectly.

SUPERVISION

Delegation of duty does not mean relegation. Supervision involves observation and guidance. The teacher supervises even his delegated duties. HE supervises all the activities of his students both inside and outside the classroom environment. He supervises their group discussion classes; experimental lessons, assignment s, (and depending on the class) even their note copying and break periods. He supervises their out-of-class activities like excursion trips, sports and games (again depending on the class) even their reading and eating habits and how they generally spend their time.

EVALUATION

Another managerial duty of teacher is to evaluate his students, and ensure that all the activities so performed have, yielded the desired result.

CONTROLLING

The word control most times conveys rulership, authority, restrain, e.t.c. In classroom management, it could be accepted as being used to restrain some of the excessive behaviour of the students, but not in the form of rulership strictly speaking. As earlier indicated, the best form of control is good relationship and a respectable personality. This is because children generally do not like to offend anyone they love/admire. The respectable and admirable personality, therefore, form the foundation for good class control. The pattern of direct equally differs from teacher, students and even familiarity with the students. As noted under leadership, the teacher while maintaining a friendly relationship with the students should not be too friendly as to be taken for granted. If he is new in the class, it is advisable to temper control with caution as he gradually comes to know the individual personality traits, and they too, get to know him better.

 

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies is a limited-liability company (LLC) located in Sabon Fegi, Badawa Layout Kano.

If you have any question or comment concerning any of our products and services or this paper or any other, kindly forward it to: [email protected] or any of these mobile numbers: 08067689217, 07018660605, 07056053189, and 09091781523

SCHEME OF WORK, DIARY & LESSON PLAN/NOTES

SCHEME OF WORK, DIARY & LESSON PLAN/NOTES

PROLOGUE

This document/article titled, Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class Management is a paper presentation by Mrs. Charity Abuadiye from Yandutse College on the 5th November, 2016 at Sensitization/Teacherpreneurship Seminar for teachers at Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology organized by LeadinGuides Educational Technology (http://www.LeadinGuides.Com) in partnership with Learnfast Academy.

Scheme of Work, Diary, lesson plan/note preparation

It is a general conception that teachers are meant to teach and to teach alone. As students, we are quick to pass judgment on a particular lesson, class or lecture –“that class was interesting, boring e.t.c.”, “I like or hate that topic” we will say. We didn’t actually border whether the teacher does anything behind the hood or whether s/he is guided by set policies. Consequently, for those of us that didn’t go to teachers college or received any teachers training, the subject of Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson plan preparation is a new study for us.

For those of us that are as thus said, some have learnt the act of Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson Plan Preparation by observation and practice while some still struggle to master it.

For the two set however, the intrigues of using these records is still unveiled to us. Hence, the need for our first topic of discussion: Scheme of Work, Diary, and lesson plan/note preparation. Experience, it is said to be the best teacher. The facilitator of this discussion will be sharing what experience has taught him with respect to the topic of discussion.

 

 

The Author

Mr. Samuel is a veteran teacher. He has long years of teaching and administrative experience. He has authored many books. At the time of seminar, Mr. Sam is an administrator at Sankoree International School, Kano.

The Seminar

The program is aimed at enhancing or improving the overall work performance of teachers by acquainting them with professional standards. That is, teaching them how to do the right things (effectiveness) in the right way (efficiency).

 

It is a known fact that there are four common reasons why people do not perform the way they should:

  • They do not know what they are supposed to do;
  • They do not know how to do it;
  • They do not know why they should; and
  • There are obstacles beyond their control

John Maxwell identified the first three reasons to be associated with starting a job correctly while the fourth is associated with problems at work, at home, and in life in general. Consequently, the seminar is directed at equipping the trainees with the What, How and Why of teaching and tips on how to handle emotional problems at the place of work (their schools).

TRAINING OUTLINE

The training has four training modules. Each module is meant to address a particular issue.

  • Standard practices in teaching – this module focuses on some primary tasks of a teacher in relation to general teaching methods and statutory records kept by teachers. The module include: Lesson Plan Preparation, Classroom Management, and the use of Scheme of Work, Report of Work (Diary) and Attendance Register.
  • Teachers and ICT – this module acquaints teachers with available technological teaching aids (educational technologies), the method and the skills required of a teacher to effectively utilize these technologies. Participants will be offered discount in Computer Training Institutes across the state.
  • Teacher Entrepreneurship – this module empowers teachers with entrepreneurial methods which may be adopted to enhance their work performance. Teachers’ entrepreneurship (teacherpreneurship) is of great benefit to the teacher, the school and the pupils/students.
  • Developing Self confidence and Teachers Emotional Composure – invariably, one of the hardly-to-get quality among beginning teachers is self confidence and necessary ‘teachers’ emotional composure. Nonetheless, teachers ought to possess and be capable  of  meeting the  emotional,  physical, intellectual and social needs of the student/pupils

 

 

 

Mr. Samuel was invited to speak on what and how of part one of module one which include Class management, Scheme of Work, Diary, lesson plan/note preparation. Mrs. Charity Abuadiye of Yandutse College presented the part one of the module one which comprises Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson Plan preparation. Click here to view the part one.

The seminar was primarily for (beginning) teachers who have not undergone a professional teachers’ training. They include secondary school leavers and graduates in fields other than education who has just been employed as a teacher in a school, seeking employment as a teacher or have interest in teaching. However, experienced teachers, school administrators and school proprietors were at the seminar. Consequently, the paper only served to spur and as reference for discussion. Similarly, the items of the title are not discussed in-depth in this paper. It is however adequate to serve its primary objective – to inform new teachers of their existence and encourage the use. The How-To was the center of discussion during the seminar.

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

The process/training to become a teacher is a great task and essential. No education system is complete until and unless the teachers in the system are adequate in numbers, qualification and moral standard. An educationist far rant once said, “A teacher cannot enlighten his pupils if he himself is ignorant”. He can lift them no higher than himself. It is important therefore that good deal of emphasis be given during training to make the pupils,  well-informed teachers after colleges and throughout his/her career. He/she should always be learning and improving him/herself.

Now teaching according to one of the many definitions is “imparting knowledge” or “training in a skill” or “giving instruction”. It is also an intentional or planned activity designed to induce learning. The question then is who a teacher? The primary function of a teacher is the transfer o knowledge to learner. However, how he/she does it is a matter of importance to educationist.

 

The topic of today’s seminar is basically on 3 major themes:

  1. Scheme of work
  2. Diary
  3. Lesson plan/notes

SCHEME OF WORK

Well we cannot talk about scheme of work without mentioning the syllabus because the scheme of work is drawn from the syllabus. They are preparation for effective classroom teaching which involves effective and sound preparation or proper planning of whatever the teacher plans to teach. Syllabus is an outline for summary of a course of study i.e. topics to be taught in s specific class in a particular subject.

The scheme of work is drawn from the syllabus. It contains the arrangement of all the topics to be taught in sequence i.e. the breaking down of syllabus. They are usually broken or planned on termly bases which are further broken down to weekly coverage. It is arranged in such sequence that the topics are pre-requisite knowledge for the next one to it. However, some schools do not follow it. Therefore scheme of work is simply drawn up in subject to be taught, topic/sun-topics for each term.

LESSON PLAN/NOTE PREPARATION

Unit Plan/Lesson Plan/Notes – the difference between lesson plan and lesson note is: lesson plan is a sketch while lesson note is more detailed. The unit plan involves each broad topic in the scheme of work. The unit plan is further broken down in smaller (teachable) unit.

Components of lesson plan

  • Basic or General Information – g. Subject, Number of pupils/students, age, and topic.
  • Aims and Objectives – which could be either :
    • Instructional – this are not measurable but attainable
    • Behavioral – objectives that are measurable, attainable and specific.
  • Entry Behavior – knowledge that is based on something taught in previous lesson or an experience the pupils had heard either in other subject or at home.
  • Instructional Aid/Teaching Aids – to enhance learning, notebook and textbook could be and other teaching aids that will be used should be listed. These could be:
    • Visual aids – materials that can be seen e.g. chart, pictures, e.t.c.
    • Oral aids – they only hear e.g. audio
    • Audio visual – video, TV
    • Real – excursion or model of object e.g. aeroplane
  • Procedure/Presentation – the way we introduce the lesson e.g.
    • Introduction – asking questions

Note – samples of these questions must be part of the lesson plan/note

  • Questions must be based on the present or previous lesson
  • By a story i.e. an incidence that had occur to draw their attention
  • Presentation – always done step-by-step. This is to share/give the minute (time) allocation. And also to differentiate between teacher activity and pupil activity
  • Evaluation – To ascertain whether the lesson had been successful or not. Reference must be made to your objective or must tally with the objectives; it could be oral or written questions.
  • Conclusion/Summary – going over the lesson again in order to summarize what the teacher has taught his pupils which are usually the key points of the lesson. This ensures that pupils do not forget what they had been taught.

Note:

  • Some examples of verbs in stating the objectives include: identify, read, write, describe, draw, list, label, shade, differentiate, to point and colour, to arrange, explain, join, fill, count/calculate, compare, build, fix, e.t.c.
  • Verbs that cannot be used are to know, observe, appreciate, admire, appease, acknowledge, understand, like, imagine, predict, assimilate, encourage, decide, reason, fell, to believe, to adopt, to infer, e.t.c.

DIARY

Dairy is a part of record keeping in schools by subject teacher or class teacher. It is a record book which must always be kept up-to-date for each arm of the class. The diary contain such items as shown below

 

The scheme of work is drawn up subjects to be taught, topics/sub-topics for each term. Weekly records of work come up at the end of each week. This helps any new teacher to know how much of the scheme of work had been covered. More so, it helps the new teacher to determine where to start even sets tests/examinations.

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies

 

If you have any question or comment concerning any of our products and services or this paper or any other, kindly forward it to: [email protected] or any of these mobile numbers: 08067689217, 07018660605, 07056053189, and 09091781523

 

Explanation of Standard Lesson Plan / Note Writing in Nigeria

Explanation standard lesson plan / note writing

This post is a continuation of the introduction to standard lesson plan / note writing in Nigeria. If you are yet to, click here to read the first part.

Part 2: The Actual Writing

Now that you are familiar with the meaning, types and components of a standard lesson note or plan, let’s get down to the actual writing. Get your note and writing materials let’s start:

  • Name of Teacher – In the blank new page you want to write the note, the first item you should write is the name of the teacher (your own name). It is possible that you may be transferred from the class for which you want to write the note now. In such case, it is important that the note bear your name. This makes it easy for whoever will be taking your place to contact you for question should s/he need to ask one.
  • Name of School – next is the name of the school. This is for identification. Note however that sometimes, all the lesson notes written by a particular teacher may be written in single exercise book. Since the exercise book already bears the name of the teacher, this item may be omitted when writing the note.
  • Date – This is the date the lesson is scheduled to be delivered. You can get the date from the time-table. Look up which day of the week your subject is allocated and then what date that is on the calendar.
  • Period – this refers to the period of the day the lesson is to be delivered. On the date of your subject above (and every other day), there definitely are other subjects. Each subject is allotted a fixed length of time (usually between 35 – 45 minutes) called a period. The periods are in turn given a position like first, second, third and so on. So, the period refers to the position of your subject for that day. A subject may be assigned two periods.
  • Duration – at this stage, specify the length of time the lesson will last. For example, if a period in your school is 40 minutes and your subject is assigned two periods, then the duration is 1 hour 20minutes.
  • Age – here, specify the age of the pupils/students. It may be 10 – 12 years.
  • Class – specify the class the note is for. Is it Nursery 1 Gold, JSS 2a or SSS 3e?
  • Class composition – This include the size of the class, the ability of the class and other class information. Some teachers do not include this in their note. But I believe it is necessary. Another teacher using your note will instantly know what to adjust if there’s been any major change in the class. Besides, it is key information any teacher needs before beginning a lesson.

Here, specify the size – the number of students in the class; ability – whether the class has been grouped according to their abilities (fast, average and slow learners) or mixed; and characteristics – whether it is a noisy or quiet class.

  • Subject – Write the subject to be taught.
  • Topic – Which topic under the subject is the note about? For a broad topic, you may include subtopic under the main topic.
  • Reference materials – A good lesson plan is a product of one form of research or the other. Under this item, write the textbooks, websites or any other material from which you draw the content of the lesson plan.
  • Instructional materials – this include the resources that both teachers and students need for maximum impartation to be made. These resources may include one or more of textbook (s), handout, art works, and scientific instruments e.t.c.
  • Objectives – This is what the students are expected to learn after completing the lesson.  As a teacher, after a close inspection of the syllabus should be able to deduce the goal of each week’s lesson. The objectives you set should be directed towards teaching a particular learning skill, simple and aligned to whatever syllabus your school uses. The objective should not be unrealistic – too broad as not to be able to be achieved within the time allocated. The objectives should be in such a way as to be reflected in other parts of the note. I discussed how to set lesson objectives in this article.
  • Previous knowledge – Teaching has been defined as a systematic process of transmitting knowledge, attitudes and skills in accordance with professional principles. By extension, learning is also done in a systematic way. This fact, supported by Piaget’s principle, must be remembered by teachers. Some new knowledge requires a kind of prerequisites knowledge or another. For example, a person who does not understand methods of differentiation will not understand application of differentiation also.

Under this item, state any previous knowledge the students possessed in relation to the topic under discussion.  For children to learn, you must make an effort to link the new body of knowledge to their previous experience.

  • Method of Teaching – A teaching method is specific instructional process which differs from any other by the diversities of specialized activities. (Afolabi, S.S, & Adesope, 2010)

There are many teaching methods. Some of these are Lecture or the chalk and talk method, Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI), Discussion method and Field trips method (Excursion).

Under this item, state the teaching method(s) is applicable to the topic under discussion. This is conventionally the chalk and talk method. It may be a combination of any two or more methods as well.

  • Teacher’s Activities – This section details what the teacher must do before, during and after the lesson for maximal output. It may be as simple as teaching a prerequisite topic. It may be activities that stimulate students’ background knowledge of the topic, revision of previous lesson and explaining key terms to arouse students’ interest. It may be a particular class management activity.

Whatever special activity (ies) that is required, specify it here.

  • Learners’ Activities – In this section, you should specify whether any special activity is required of the students to enhance impartation. This may be students’ answer to questions, experiment and report, discussion and assignment.
  • Presentation – this stage details, in order of progression, the steps or procedure you will follow to deliver the lesson adequate enough to achieve the objectives. It is the actual teaching itself. This stage begins with introduction as step 1 and then other steps the teacher adopts to teach. It is usually done as:
  • Evaluation – at this stage, you should write the techniques you will employ to tests students’ understanding of the lesson. Conventionally, evaluation is done by asking questions from the students based on the topic treated, conducting quizzes and giving class and home works (assignment).
  • Summary – Here the lesson has been taught. You simply give a short review of the entire lesson. Noting all important points that form the new knowledge acquired.
  • Assignment – This step gives details of assignments given to the students during the lesson and evaluation. If you are giving the assignments  from a textbook, reference the book, chapter and page (s). Provide spaces for recording the date the assignment was given and date submitted.
  • Conclusion – Here, write how you will end the topic. The conclusion of a lesson is usually by marking, recording and returning the students’ notes. Make necessary corrections and link the conclusion with the next topic. Before these activities, you may further give a brief revision of the entire lesson.

Finally, if you have followed the post up until now, congratulation! That’s all about writing a good lesson plan. It is an in-depth and comprehensive guide. Nevertheless, if there’s any item you think I left out or did not cover; feel free to drop as a comment below

STANDARD LESSON PLAN OR NOTE WRITING IN NIGERIA – Introduction and Components

In this post, I discussed the best approach you need to take to write a perfect lesson plan as a teacher. If you read this post to the end, you will learn what a lesson plan means, the procedure and elements of a good lesson plan.  I give a step-by-step approach you need to follow to achieve a good lesson note. You need to know that the content of this post is not a mere one-man suggestions or thoughts. The method I present here has been proven to be most effective approach used by veteran teachers. To make sure the approach is as accurate as it should be; I asked some of the best teachers I’ve known, consulted dozens of books and articles; and fused it with my experience over the years. If you are experienced teacher and thinks I left something out, please drop it by commenting below. This could be valuable to new teachers.

What is Lesson Plan or Lesson Note?

Lesson plan or Lesson note is what the name suggests: a set of related steps that a teacher intends to adopt in delivering a lesson to achieve the goal (s) of that lesson for a given week (s).

“Do you know how to write lesson note?” was one of the questions I was asked during my first interview. At the time I just graduated from secondary (high) school. So, I had neither teaching experience nor do I know anything about teaching. I know nothing else a teacher does in the school but teaching! And after a long time, I discovered that even today circumstantial teachers (people that become teachers to keep life going) still find themselves in same problem. However, mine didn’t stop at the term. When I eventually learned what lesson note meant, I wasn’t sure how to write one. If you are like I was, or plan to take a teaching job; then read on. This post will also be valuable to in-practice teachers; if not in addition of knowledge then in remembrance.

NOTE: In an attempt not to make this Standard Lesson Plan / Note Writing guide a heavy ready for you, I broke the entire guide into two parts. This part (1) covers the introduction and components of a standard lesson note while the second part, covers details of the steps. Click here to check out the second part after reading this and also see some of our lesson notes here.

Types of Lesson Notes

  • New Lesson Notes – this is a type that is developed from the scratch by the teacher. All ideas are original and exclusively his. This is the type that is required of young teachers in the majority of schools. Consequently, this post is based on how to write a new lesson note from ground up. All other lesson notes are done in almost same way. So, this covers all.
  • Review Lesson Note – this is written when an existing note needs to be updated with new method or ideas. The initial note may be written by you or another teacher. It is usually necessary if the teacher discover new (and more effective) teaching methods. This may be a simple addition or removal of presentation step. It is also required when there is a new discovery in the field, a change in the school syllabus or textbooks.
  • Skill practicing Lesson Notes – this is a lesson note that details the step taken to teach the learner a particular skill
  • Continued Lesson Note – this is when a teacher is required to continue note from where s/he or another teacher stopped. It may be a continuation of a week’s topic which needs to be broadened. Or a new week’s topic in the same subject. It may also be to continue note on a subject for the same class in a new term.

But I Really Need to Write Lesson Note?

Yes, you badly do need to write lesson note! One of the veteran teachers I discussed with while preparing this post put the need in the next sentence. “Note of lesson to a teacher is like a hoe or cutlass to a farmer. It is absolutely compulsory”. It is one of the duties of any teacher. Although you may have observed that some teachers in your school no longer make use of their lesson note. This may be due to other engagements which take up the time to write one. It could also be that they have taken that subject for years and have become familiar with the steps that work out well for them. However, both are only excuses which do not make the practice acceptable. Lesson note helps you to ‘guide you to become a better teacher’ and nothing is too good to be improved. Even if you have that type of teachers in your school, you still need to write a lesson note. Your head teacher will ask you for it anyway and besides, excellence is doing what others can’t do. Lesson note makes you effective and efficient. Some reasons why you need to write lesson note are:

  • To avoid uncertainty and errors – it enables you to prepare before the class. You see, when teaching topics you didn’t prepare for, there will be some things you are not sure of. Lesson notes reduce this uncertainty and chances of teaching the students the wrong things. It helps you to at any point in time; know which step you are now, and the next step to take.
  • To set boundaries – it limits you to the subject matter and prevent the temptation of drifting from it
  • To avoid omission and repetition – see a teacher who is repeating a sentence over and over again, then you have seen a teacher who isn’t prepare for the class.
  • To choose instructional materials – while preparing the note for a particular you will readily discover the materials you need to deliver the topic maximally.
  • To give direction – it helps you to follow the syllabus as you should
  • For proxy – lesson note makes easy for another teacher to cover (stand-in) for you when you are necessarily absent.
  • As a proof – your lesson notes is a proof that you are actually teaching. It shows that you have made effort to give the learners the best you can. That’s a plus for you!

What is the Steps Involved in Writing Lesson Plan?

In summary, I prefer to say the only two steps taken in writing a good lesson plan is “Think and Write”. Yes, that is the summary. But what do you have to think and write? I’ll explain.

You see, lesson notes are written in order of standard steps. These steps form the components of any lesson note. Nevertheless, not all lesson notes are the same. In fact, the way you write lesson plan may differ from subject to subject. Below are the components that form a standard lesson note. These components are also the steps involved in writing lesson notes. Follow the components/steps carefully to write yours. Feel free to drop a question at the comment box below should you have any question or observation.

Components of a good lesson plan

Although lesson notes are not all the same, the standard elements of a good lesson notes are:

  • Name of Teacher
  • Name of School
  • Date
  • Period
  • Duration
  • Age
  • Class
  • Class Composition (size, ability and characteristics)
  • Subject
  • Topic
  • Reference Materials
  • Instructional Materials
  • Entry Behaviour
  • Objectives
  • Previous Knowledge
  • Method of Teaching
  • Teacher’s Activities
  • Learners’ Activities
  • Presentation(in steps)
  • Evaluation
  • Summary;
  • Assignment; and
  • Conclusion

The elements also represent the progressive steps taken in writing a good lesson note.

How to Teach a Shy Child: 10 Magic Guides

sHow Teach Shy Child

 What is Shyness?

Shyness is a trait, in which a child (or an adult) feels apprehension, awkward and tense during social encounters, especially with unfamiliar people.

How to Recognize a Shy Child: Symptoms

In the classroom, shy child tends to exhibit the following:

  • Dodging your gaze – though this alone does not make a child shy, it is a pointer. Generally and as in African culture, a child that directly gazes at an adult in the eyes is considered to be disrespectful. Consequently, tendencies are that majority of the children have learned avoid gaze. Look out for one or more of the other signs below.
  • Avoiding being noticed – a child that is shy would not want you to notice his/her presence so as not to be asked. As a result, s/he will always be quiet throughout.
  • Trembling or shaking (including shaky voice) – a shy child would usually not want to participate in class activities like answering questions. And should they eventually do, their voice and body would be shaky. They may speak softly and indistinctively.
  • Sweating or hot flashes – When speaking becomes inevitable, they will begin to sweat
  • Feeling dizzy or faint – a child that is shy will assume a sleepy look when encountered with social situation s/he doesn’t like.
  • Follow directions but don’t respond verbally to them – they are very attentive. Hence, though they may not speak; they follow orders diligently and carry out assigned task almost perfectly.
  • Watch but don’t join other children in fun activities – when in outdoor activity, say sport; shy children often watch the other children in admiration but will not join
  • Volunteers and Acts Last – shy children are usually the last to volunteer or to do something. They watch other children go first before they join if they choose to.

Causes of Shyness

Trying to teach a child that is shy is like providing solution to a mathematics question. During mathematics classes, I usually taught that the first step in solving any question is to understand the question.

Similarly, to effectively handle a shy pupil, you must understand the causes of shyness.

The different causes of shyness can be classified as either inborn or social.

  • Inborn cause of shyness (child’s temperament) – when the child may have the inborn shy character
  • Social causes of shyness – when the child became shy as a result of bad past social experience and social issues such as
    • dysfunctional family – inconsistent parenting, family conflict, harsh criticism, or a dominating sibling ,
    • inferiority complex – arising from the feeling that they are not as good, as intelligent, as attractive, etc. as other children

 

Is Shyness in Child a Good or Bad Thing?

Contrary to general conception that being shy is a negative trait, Dr Sears argued that shyness is a blessing.  Some experts however attribute possible negative social behaviours to shyness.

Good Side of Shyness

Some of the good things about a child that is shy include:

  • Solid self-concept – shy children, though do not speak, tends believe in themselves. They are always making comparison and judgment within. The resultant thought is usually, “even though I may not talk, I think I’m able to do that”.
  • Inner peace – quiet children have such peace within as the noisy ones don’t have.
  • Innovative – some shy children are deep-thinkers. They don’t act anyhow but cautiously. They  are creative as well and will usually out-do their extroverted counterpart in an individual assessment.
  • Self-protection – The cautious act of shy children is a way of protecting them against strangers.

 

Negative Side of Shyness

More often than not, children whose shyness is caused by bad social experiences such as family dysfunction and inferiority complex suffer from the following aftermath of shyness.

  • Total withdrawal – while some shy child children withdraw only at the initial stage of making contact with a stranger, others will withdraw perpetually. Even after being with the teacher for a long time, some will continue to be shy.
  • Quick to anger – because they are withdrawn from the teacher, any attempt the teacher makes to involve them in the class will be attended with anger (and eventual cry).
  • Lack of Association – as a result of their total withdrawal and aggressiveness, other pupils as see them as unfriendly or disinterested. They will therefore not associate with them.
  • General impediment to social and academic development – the resultant effect of lack of association is a poor academic and social development.

 

What to do as a Teacher: the Magic Guidelines

Whatever reason made a child to be shy, a teacher must ‘fix’ it. That’s the expectation of the parents. Funny enough, parents consider the teacher of their kids to be a mini-god. They believe the teacher is able to change the worst-behaved child into a person of charming character.

With this overwhelming expectation in mind, the following guidelines should work the magic. As with the rest of my posts; the guidelines below represent the views of several experts in the field of behavioral psychology, early child education, child development and veteran teachers.

  1. Know more about the child – this is the very first thing you should do. Knowing more about the child entails more than the general information you receive of every child. It involves knowing the source of the shyness, what the child likes and his/her usual habit in the class. These pieces of information can be collected by speaking with the parents, observing the child and asking him or her. It is important to note that between two and four years of age, children go through a second phase of stranger anxiety, as they become afraid of people they don’t know. This opinion is held by the Dr Sears (a group of four medical doctors).
  2. Establish a positive relationship with the parent – The development of social skills depends on trust and safety (Romano, Papa, & Saulle, 2013). This means that a shy child will open up only when they trust and feel safe with you. But how can you build trust with a kid who is afraid of you? One of such ways is building a positive relationship with the parent. Engage the parent in a short discussion daily as they come to drop or pick the child. The discussion should be done in the presence of the child. As the child sees how free the parent is with you, s/he will begin to trust and feel safe with you. You should be friendly to the children as well.
  3. Rapport with the child – with the information you gather from observation and discussion with the parent, engage the child in conversation. Ask him/her about his/her likes and the things s/he usually does or play with in the class. If the child likes chocolate, discuss chocolate – ask whether the mummy makes chocolate, who buys it for him/her e.t.c. If the child usually brings kwose (bean cake) to school, ask him/her whether the mummy bakes kwose, what is used to bake it or where they usually buy it from.
  4. Parallel-play with the child – this is a valuable tip to go by when the child do not like to talk. Instead of outright discussion of what s/he plays with in the class, get the same things and do the same thing s/he does just beside him/her. You then initiate simple conversation with the child.
  5. Pair the shy child with a friendly, more outgoing child for specific types of play or work – In a class; while some kids are shy and timid, others are very confident, bold and caring. I’ve seen one or two of such type of kids. During launch time, they don’t eat as much – they just love sharing! And when outside for break, you see them organizing other children for a play. They are always happy.

When a child that is shy is paired with an outgoing one, the later seems to know how to make the former join in the play.

  1. Give the child a specific job – here, you should be careful least you assign the shy child a task that attract attention. If you ask the child in class, take it as just a test. Don’t wait and expect the child to answer so as not to be disappointed. Be systematic about it. The task should be an ordinary one. It should be a job that could be done without been noticed. It could be holding or bringing something for you. Or let’s say in a game which requires the score to be recorded; you could give him/her the task of writing the scores. A bad idea would be asking the child to read for the class as all attention will be fixed on him/her. As the child continues with the ordinary assignments, s/he will gradually learn to overcome sitting by him/herself.
  2. Commend the child for EVERY effort – This works like magic! For every effort the child made either to overcome shyness or in doing the assigned task, commend. If the shyness is as a result of the feeling of being inferior too others, s/he will begin to develop self-confidence.
  3. Partner with the parents– like is has always been said, child’s development is a cooperation between the parents and teacher. Never has it been one alone. Talk to the parents as often as possible. Find out if the child is adjusting or has been attempting to adjust at home. Be open-minded. Seek the parent’s opinion and implement good suggestions.
  4. Advise the parent on how they could help. I gathered some pieces of advice that you should give under the Role of Parents
  5. Don’t do what you should not do – below, I have gathered some tips (mostly from suggestions based on a BAM Radio program, Teaching and Caring for Shy, Socially Sensitive Children by Dr. Jacquelyn Mize –  Professor, Human Development and Family Studies at Auburn University and Dean Marjorie Kostelnik – College of Education and Human Sciences, University of Nebraska.; then from Deborah J. Stewart, M.Ed in her 2012 article, How to get shy or withdrawn children involved in the classroom experience; and finally, an article by Raising Children Network, Shyness and children).

The Role of Parents to Teach Shy Child

  1. Bring the child to school early – “It’s much easier for a shy child to meet other guests one at a time, rather than when everything’s in full swing,” Ken Rubin, Ph.D., professor of human development and director of the Center for Children, Relationships, and Culture at the University of Maryland, in College Park. By bringing the child early to school, you afford his/her the chance to watch other children come in one after another. By the time the class is full, s/he would have decided who to play with.
  2. Parents Should Encourage the child to ask questions – there’s no better assurance of security than that given by the parent. Consequently, the more often the parent encourages the child to ask the teacher; the safer the child will assume the teacher to be.
  3. Give the child the chance to speak – Some parents are over-comforting of their shy child. They wouldn’t want the child to face challenges. They will abruptly answer for him/her and say “s/he is shy”. While this may be a natural expression of love, advise the parents to let the child speak for him/herself. For example, when someone asks him/her for his/her name; the parent shouldn’t answer for the child even though s/he may be struggling to answer. He will eventually answer. When that happens for a couple of times, the child will learn how to answer seamlessly. This is a major step in overcoming the shy behaviour as the child will believe that the parent is confident about his/her ability to handle social situation of that sort.
  4. Commend the child for EVERY effort – Just as the teacher, the parent should also appreciate the child when an effort is made. For example, if a child replied to someone’s question; let him/her know that you are so pleased with that. That, with the parent’s encouragement; will make the child to make further effort.
  5. Don’t call them ‘shy’ – The over-comforting kind of parents usually tends to add the clause – “S/he is shy” after speaking/answering for their children. All the experts’ papers and articles I went through while putting this post together strongly urge that parents shouldn’t call or say a shy child is shy. This is majorly because, if a parent keep saying a child is shy; s/he will consider shyness as an ailment. Such child will therefore come to believe that an expert is required to cure the ailment thereby stalling personal effort to overcome the situation. Instead, experts suggested that parents should picture shyness in a positive light to the child. For example, instead of saying “s/he doesn’t want to speak because s/he is shy” whenever the child refused to answer a question; the parent could say “S/he is thinking about her answer right now”. This suggestion was particularly made by Deborah J. Stewart, M.Ed.

 

What a teacher should not do

As discussed in number 10 to teach a shy child, there are things the teacher shouldn’t do. These include:

  • Labeling the child as shy
  • Assigning the child a major task that attracts the attention of many people
  • Asking the child to ask to join other children in a play/game
  • Forcing the child to speak
  • Waiting on or expecting the child to answer question in the class.

 

Conclusion

As stated in LeadinGuides legal terms, this post is based on my personal research from books and web resources together with what I learned through experimentation and experience. Were external works is included, I provide link to the source. Should you notice any information which is not cited, please indicate it in the comment box below.

Also, remember to comment below. It shows you grabbed something from it. However, if after a read you could not take anything out of it; comment anyway. Tell the author to improve the write up.

And finally, if you think this post is worthwhile, remember that friends who need it might not have seen it. So, share!

How to Support Your Child before School Age for High Academic Performance: #2 Emotional Support

School child’s emotional support

A….nd you are here! The second post in the series of How to support a child before school age for high academic and life performance. Just in case you haven’t read the first, click here to read it so as to have freer flow with this post – although this alone is still understandable.

Introduction

Consistent research on brain science has indicated that developing brain is not neatly divided into separate areas governing learning, thinking and emotions. Instead, it is found that the developing brain- such as pre-schoolers’ – is a highly interconnected organ with different regions influencing, and being affected by the others. In other words, the part of a child’s brain that is responsible for learning influences and is influenced by other parts of the brain such as the parts responsible for the child’s emotions.

Hence, any child who must succeed with excellence in any academic pursuits and life in general; must also have a good emotional foundation. And this is as a responsibility for parents as the provision of nutritious food, shelter and clothing.

Definition of terms

Emotions as here used, refers to the strong feelings that result from reactions to one’s circumstances, mood or relationship with others.

Stress, or circumstances that influences our emotions, is a part of the natural design of life – every day experiences. This is true for all forms of life – humans or lesser beings such as animals and plants. And we learn to manage stress from the first moment of our being until the final whistle is blown.

Children are not left out in the battle with stress. Children are able to manage some stress like the fear of syringe during immunization or sibling’s teasing. However, other form of stress is rather traumatic and difficult for them to handle. Some of such over whelming stress includes physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, parents who have substance abuse problem and chronic poverty. Such experiences are called “toxic stress” problems. Those experiences exceed children’s capacity for coping.

Children usually rely on the assistance of trusted adults; not only to help them cope with everyday stresses but also to develop emotional qualities that enable them to be competent learners. Such qualities include self – awareness, and self confidence; self regulation (of attention, felling, impulses, and thinking); social and emotional understanding, empathy and caring for others: and initiative as enthusiastic, active learners.

Interviews with preschool and kindergarten teachers indicate that “children who have the greatest difficulties in learning are hindered by lack of these qualities more than by the inability to identify letters and numbers” (Source: California Department of Education. (2010). California Preschool Curriculum Framework, Volume 1,. California: California Department of Education).

And although these qualities are among the cardinal point of any preschool or family care programs, the foundation of each are laid at home- by providing emotional support.

Ways of providing Emotional Support

There are basically six things parents can do to provide necessary emotional support for their children. These include:

  • Avoiding or Reducing toxic stress
  • Providing unconditional love
  • Building the child’s self confidence and self esteemed
  • Engaging the child in play
  • Providing security and safety
  • Giving appropriate guidance and discipline

                i.      How to avoid or reduce toxic stress for children

As explained earlier, toxic stress are traumatic experiences which are difficult for children to handle but which, if left unmanaged, can lead to physical and mental problems – impede child’s overall positive development. Examples of toxic stress are physical abuse (such as physical assault and sexual abuse), witnessing domestic violence, parents who have substance abuse, chronic poverty, etc.

The first part of a child to be affected by toxic stress is his or her emotion. Hence the first emotional support parents can give to their children is to avoid such toxic stress, or eliminate it completely.

Avoiding physical stresses on children

Physical abuse manifests in various forms including:

  • Provocation – through insults and use of mean words or verbal threats.
  • Intimidation – making children fear by making a fist, pushing, stalking
  • Brutality – pinching, knocking, flogging, striking, slapping hitting, pulling, etc

Too often than not, physical abuse occurs not with the intent to hurt a child but as a form of discipline. Hence, the abuser may lack knowledge of the effects of such act on the child. This however, does not make the effect any less.

Physically abused children finds it difficult relating to their peers and adults in future. It makes them perpetually vigilant and mistrustful. And they may be overly domineering and aggressive in their attempts to predict over people’s behaviour. They may also have problems with academic achievement, physical development and coordination, developing friendship and relationship aggression and anger management, anxiety and low self esteem.

To avoid physical abuse, parents should ensure that they guard themselves against the acts. More so, if a child is enrolled for a family child care other than a professional preschool program such as hiring a nanny, ensure that such person is enlightened about these acts and if possible, the effects.

Avoiding provocation or verbal aggression

It is but natural for parents to be angry when their children misbehave, frequently and repeatedly. Parents are moved (by the natural inclination of man to protect what he loves from attack) to correct such misbehaviour. For rightly considered, any act of misbehaviour that is left to tarry is an attack on the child and his/her future.

Nonetheless, this desire to ward-off such attack from children; or perhaps the unconscious and free-flowing thought/feeling of losing the child to the danger of misbehaviour induces parents to act un-meditatively – mostly with “counter-attacks” expressed in form of insult or physical hitting or spanking. Although, parents most times do not mean to hurt the child, the very act of “counter-attacking” children’s misbehaviour with insults and physical beating generally tend to backfire and is therefore WRONG! Let’s now discuss each separately – what it really is, the effect and how to avoid both.

Insult and physical abuse as a disciplinary tool

Meaning and forms of insult

Insult as used here denotes any form of utterance (of a parent) that offends a child’s emotion or which causes provocation. Insult can take many forms. These include:

  • Name calling: “Are you stupid, mad or foolish?” “You are very stupid!” “You are too lazy”
  • Shame: “You embarrass me…you are such a disappointment“ “I’m disappointed in you”
  • Comparisons: “I wish you were more like Child-B, he is so much smarter than you are“, “Can’t you see other children?”, “Your mates are this or that but you are the opposite”
  • Teasing in public: “Oh he is at the bottom of his class“, “He don’t like going to school”
  • Rejection: “Keep quiet and run away from here! “ “Shut up!”, “I don’t want to hear a word from you”
  • Extreme or negative criticisms: “You are good for nothing. Why can’t you make me proud in even one thing“
Effects of insult on children
  • Lowered self-esteem: Every time a parent insults his child – on a one-on-one basis or worse in public – such parent reduces the child’s self-worth little by little. This is true even if it’s only one of the parents (either only mother or father) that insult the child.  Always tell a child that s/he is lazy, soon the child will come to believe that it is the truth and the next time the child is told to do something elsewhere such as at school, s/he will say “I can’t, I am lazy”. Always tell a child that s/he is stupid (which means senseless or not intelligent), and let it sink into the child’s unconsciousness, then if a smart child is asked to do something in the child’s class, the child will be ringing intrinsically what you always say, “you can’t do that, you are stupid; remember?”; Always tell a child s/he embarrasses or disappoints you and the child will try as much as s/he can never to do that outside the walls of your home, which means the child will not do anything new; Always tells a child s/he is not like Musa, the smartest boy in his class, or tell everyone that the child knows nothing – he’s always at the bottom of the class and that child will give up trying.
  • Disobedience: Most parents do not want to cause intentional harm to their kids. The insult, in most cases, is a momentary outburst rooted in parental stress and anger. You think that yelling or insulting them would discipline them. But this is often not the case. The design of human mind is oriented towards defence. Each and every time we are faced with confrontation of any kind, we are swayed by some kind of internal force to act in the opposite. This is the instance of disciplining a child through insults and physical use of force. For the insults, blows and strokes, pulling and pushing are but confrontation of some sorts; which the child is moved to act in opposition to. This opposition may be in form of physical protest such as if you slap a child and s/he hits you back; or the child may protest by repeating the act for which s/he is being punished for.
  • More aggressive or depressive behaviour: Insulting can have long term repercussions. It can either make your child very aggressive as he/she grows up – as they grow up thinking it is OK to verbally abuse and insult someone – or they can go into a depression or become suicidal due to lack of self-worth. In some cases, insult becomes part of the child’s regular vocabulary. Hence, though they may not mean to insult their peers; they end up doing so – to which if such friend complains, they protest because they see no reason why their friend should be angry at their “seeming joke” of insults.
  • Troubled Relationship with Parents: Respect is a two-way street. The parent that insults his/her child should be prepared of the child’s distrust as the child grows. Though the parent’s reason(s) for use of insult may not be outright evil, the child most times does not see it from that perspective – no one ever thinks love from another who insults him/her at every mistake. The gall of parent-child relationship, if initiated, may extend up to adulthood. Too often than not, have we had a parent or two complain that one of his/her children loves the partner more. Although many factors may be responsible for this difference in affection to both parents, it cannot be completely ruled out that the parent relationship with the child, from the child’s earliest years, is contributor. Finally, a parent that constantly insults his/her child predisposes the child to abuse by strangers. This is so because child abusers usually come to children as friends. These enemies in disguise would normally offer temporary comfort only to take advantage of the child’s trust later on.

Irrespective of the form an insult takes, it has devastating effects on the child. Despite this fact, it is a common experience of an average Nigerian child. In fact, there is hardly a Nigerian adult that did not experience any of the above listed forms of insult as a child. This however does not make this act right.

Having looked at the negative effects of insult on children, any parent that really wants to provide the needed support for the child must abstain or avoid the use of insult as a disciplinary tool.

If this act is already in existence, parents must make deliberate effort towards total elimination. You must understand that although physical abuse, as a disciplinary tool may remedy the error at the present time it causes more damage in later years. Suggestions on alternative discipline approach to insult and use of physical force are provided in later sections.

Sexual Abuse

A physical abuse, worthy of special mention is sexual abuse. This is necessary due to how prevalent it has become in our present time and the wide range of long – lasting (if not permanent) negative effects it has on children.

So, let’s pause and have a little talk on Child Sexual Abuse. Click here to go to the discussion.
[mailchimp_subscriber_popup baseUrl=’mc.us18.list-manage.com’ uuid=’44e438a5d2e99281623a26d5f’ lid=’fe8a653351′ usePlainJson=’true’ isDebug=’false’]

HOW TO SUPPORT YOUR CHILD BEFORE SCHOOL AGE FOR HIGH ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: #1 DIETARY SUPPORT

supporting-school-child-high-academic-performance

supporting-school-child-high-academic-performance

Introduction

The education of a child starts from the first day s/he is born and hears the first sound. Every time someone, especially the parents and family members/friends speaks to the child, sing to him/her and responds to the sound the child makes, such person strengthens the child’s understanding.

With the continuous guide from the home, the child can be set on an excellent foundation for a delightful educational experience in later years. Unfortunately, not many Nigerian parents know this.

Consequently, most parents wait until the child is of school age. It is until then that they start paying attention to the child’s education. They demonstrate this by getting them into school. Regrettably, not many children is usually able to recuperate from the deficiency in their before school age foundation.

Objective of this post in one sentence

This post provides guides on how to support children by laying good foundation for them before they attain school age.

Who is the post for?

The post would be invaluable to parents, especially young parents that desire to place their child on a trajectory to successful educational and life experience. From the information contained herein, educators, especially those that work with children at the early years, would be able to give orientation to the parents of their child on how to support or compliment their effort at school. After reading the post, older children can also engage their parents on discussing this aspect of child and education.

So, what are the ways of supporting a child before school age?

There is more than one thing a parent needs to do to support a child before school age. However, the many things can be grouped into four broad categories:

  • Basic Needs support
  • Emotional Support
  • Social Support
  • Academic support

In the following sections (or in this and subsequent posts), I explain each of these things. As you read, get a pen and paper by your side and keep your mind open to ideas that would flow to you from outside the post.

1.  Basic Needs Support (here limited to) Dietary support

Just so I could maintain some level of moderation, I limit the discussion on Basic Needs Support to only one of the basic needs – Nutrition or dietary.

It is perhaps a natural responsibility of parents or the home to provide simple and healthy food for their children. Although many Nigerian parents meet the nutritional needs of their babies under the age of one, some rather starts to care less as the baby develops capabilities to eat the “general food” that adults take. At the early age, even after the age of one; the food children eat is important. Also, children in their before school age “are critical for brain development, and what they eat affects focus and cognitive skills” (Krueger, 2015). Consequently, it is advisable that parents continue to feed their under school age children with food that enhances brain development. The food may not be prepared specially for the child but added to the family meals. Some list of such food includes:

  • Eggs,
  • Green vegetables,
  • Fish,
  • Nuts and seeds,
  • Fruits,
  • Cereals, etc.

Source: Krueger, A. (2015, May 12). 7 Brain Foods for Kids. Retrieved April 19, 2018, from WebMD.

Another word or two on dietary support

Still on dietary support, the parent may support the child develop social traits through family meals.  In this context it is good to ask “when was the last time the family ate together?” Although strange to the African family set up, the “civilized” practice of each family member eating alone is becoming quite prevalent among the Nigerian homes. In such “civilized” families, everyone at home has their plates and cutlery. So once it is meal time, everyone individually go and get his/her food. Even in such families, it is advisable that once in a while or as often as possible, they eat together. Such occasion (of eating together) gives the child the opportunity to learn table manners from the adults at the table because children like to imitate adults. Eating together also fosters language development and conversational skills. Finally, eating together encourages the child to try out food varieties. Children can be very selective when it comes to food. But when they see adults eating something different, they will (out of the natural tendency to imitate) want to try out new varieties which build their nutritional composition.

Finally, be aware that children are always children. So, when you want to teach or help them some develop all this social habits through family meals or when eating together; do it gently. That means you must find a way of teaching them without offending them. This does not need much emphasis because most parents (remembering my mom) do not discipline children while on table.


If you have read this far it means that you are really interested in providing every needed support for your child or children. I am sure you got a few things from the post. Note however, that this is not all that one needs to provide EVERY necessary support to a child for high life performance. But for convenience and comfort of the readers, the entire discussion is divided into series of post of which this is the first part. Click here to see the second part or here for the entire thread

Summary

Just to summarize what was discussed in this part:

  • The food that children eat when they are still very young (before they starts school) matters a lot because at that age, their brain is developing.
  • Young children need food that help their brain to develop very well.
  • Some of such foods are egg, green vegetables, fish, nuts and seeds, fruits, cereals, and others.
  • The young children need these kinds of food not only when they are below one year but for as long as they are still children.
  • Apart from providing these kinds of food, another way a parent can provide dietary support is by teaching the child rudiments of eating etiquette.
  • When teaching children, we have to be gentle so as not to offend them.

The next part is more exciting as it discusses one of the most crucial part of human life – the emotions. Almost every other aspects depend on the emotional state of a child. Click here to continue the discussion on how to support a child before school age for high academic and life performance.

Last line: do not forget to drop your opinions in the comment box below and if you think this post is worth it, share with your friends. You might want to join our mailing list (if you haven’t) so we could get you updated on new posts – please enter your email in the below and click on subscribe.