Closing Attendance Register Termly

This post, Closing Attendance Register Termly, in one sentence

This post, Closing Attendance register termly; provides step-by-step guides on how to correctly close students’ attendance registers for every term.

This guide is for schools and teachers that use the traditional (manual) attendance register. However, schools and teachers that use modern attendance system can also benefit from this post. Since modern attendance systems are merely an automated version of the traditional, learning – or remembering – how the traditional system works can help you identify missing features in your existing automated attendance system.

Introduction to Closing Attendance Register Termly

Closing attendance register termly is similar to stocktaking in mainstream businesses. According to accounting tools, stocktaking means counting and calculating the amount of goods you still have at the end of a trading period. No business can sustainably grow without minding their stock.

Similarly, sustainable school growth also requires that schools are intentional about their “stocks”. This means counting and calculating the number of students you still have at the end of each term. And using this to prepare reports to support administrative decisions.

Why is it Important to Close Attendance Register at the end of each term?

The importance of closing attendance register termly cannot be overemphasized. Three of such importance are:

1.      To Project Work Coverage

One of the key data that we obtain from closing attendance register is the length of the term. This takes into consideration all the holidays and observances during the term. Knowing this will enable supervisors to project the extent of work that a teacher could possibly have done during the term.

A shorter term means lesser coverage. And a longer term means teachers could have possibly cover more corresponding to the curriculum.

2.      To explain individual learner’s academics

Generally, data from attendance registers are key indicators of a learner’s approach to studies/schooling. Closing attendance register helps teachers to summarize these indicators for the term. Was a student more regular in school this term than the previous? Is the reverse the case? How does this correlate to the learner’s academic performance?

Closing register for the term helps you to get the answer to these questions. And as I explained in a previous post, a falling regularity is an indication that something is wrong somewhere. And a dutiful teacher or an intentional administrative will be able to quickly arrest the situation – if necessary.

3.      To determine growth or loss

The single most important piece of data from closing attendance register termly is the average attendance for the term. This is the piece of data that enables teachers and administrators to spread attendance trends over the entire term.

The average attendance for the term shows the attendance per day throughout the term. Any class that has an average of less than 50% per day is already heading for problems. More than that, it also says more about the teacher in that class.

In addition, many school managers take the cumulative average attendance of the whole school for the term. The result of this is a reflection of the internal happenings in the school – whether good or bad; growth or loss.

Education supervisors may ask questions about the average attendance for the term. And based on the explanation, it is may be an indicator of the quality of education in the school.

How to Close Attendance Register for the term

There are basically five steps in closing attendance register for the term.

  1. Calculate individual student’s total attendance for the term
  2. Bring forward individual student’s total attendance for the previous term
  3. Calculate individual student’s cumulative attendance
  4. Calculate the total class attendance for the term; also, for boys and girls
  5. Calculate the average attendance for the term

Let’s discuss each of these with examples.

Individual Student’s Total Attendance for the Term

This is the first step in closing attendance register each term. In earlier post, I discussed how to mark attendance register. What I didn’t include however, was the weekly total at the farthest right of the attendance sheet.

Each student’s row has 10 columns each per week from week 1 to week 15. This is where teachers mark the daily attendance as I discussed earlier.

After the 15th week for marking daily attendance, there are additional 15 single columns. The columns have number 1 to 15 corresponding to the number of weeks. And the columns have common title – Weekly Total (see picture below).

Closing Attendance Register Termly - Weekly Total Bank
Columns for Weekly Total

Weekly total

The weekly total is the total number of times a child is present for each week. Teachers calculate the weekly total attendance every week alongside the weekly class percentage attendance. To get the weekly total for each student, simply count have times the child was present for that week. Remember that you are to record each day present twice – morning and afternoon. Therefore, if a student is present throughout the week – i.e., from Monday to Friday; then the weekly total of such student will 10.

Look at the example below (click to see full image).

Register Design with Sample Data
Register Design with Sample Data

From the graph sheet, the first student – Adim Andrew – was present for four days in week 1. He was absent on Tuesday. Since school opens twice (morning and afternoon) per day, it means Andrew’s total attendance for the week is 8.

How to Count Weekly Attendance Total
How to Count Weekly Attendance Total

The teacher writes this at the far right, under number 1 of the weekly totals.

Week 1 Weekly Total for first student
Week 1 Weekly Total for first student

The same goes for the second and third students – Allan Francis and Anayor Akpan respectively. They were present for the five days of week 1. Hence, their weekly total both 10.

But look at the fourth student’s attendance – i.e., Emeka Okafor’s. His weekly total is 9.

Week 1 Weekly Total for first three students
Week 1 Weekly Total for first three students

Do you know why? That’s right. He was absent for just the afternoon session on Thursday. So, that means 10 minus 1 session; which is 9.

Now that we can work the weekly total, let’s go ahead and fill in the week 1 and 2 totals for all the students. You can try this independently. The final result should be as below:

Sample Attendance Sheet with Weekly Total for two weeks
Sample Attendance Sheet with Weekly Total for two weeks

How to Calculate Individual Student’s Total Attendance for the Term

Individual student’s total attendance for the term is the sum all of his/her weekly totals.

For example, in the sheet above; we marked the register and recorded the weekly totals for just two weeks. Assuming the school opened for only those two weeks that term, then the individual student’s total attendance for the term is the sum of the two weekly totals.

Therefore, for the first student – Adim Andrew; his total attendance for the week is 8+6 which is 14. Similarly, the total attendance of the second student – Allan Francis – is 10+8 which is 18. The teacher records this at the “Total

Can you work out the rest of the students’ total attendance for the term now? Great! At the end, you’re your sheet should look like this:

Closing Attendance Register Termly - Individual Student's Total Attendance for the term
Individual Student’s Total Attendance for the term

Importance Notice in Calculating the Total Attendance for the term

Firstly, the attendance sheet above is only a sample. Schools actually hardly open for just two weeks in a term. Instead, schools typically open for 11 to 15 weeks each term. This means that you will have to calculate individual student’s weekly total for at least 11 weeks each term. After this, you obtain individual student’s total attendance for the term by adding all the weekly totals from week 1 down to week 11, 12, 13, 14 or 15 as the case may be.

Secondly, teachers normally calculate the weekly totals at the end of each week. In fact, register managers verify the accuracies of your computations using the weekly totals. Immediately after calculating individual pupil’s weekly total each week, teachers also calculate the class’s total attendance for the week.

Total Weekly Attendance

Below the 15 columns for weekly totals of each student, you will find two other columns. The two columns are for “Times School Open” and “Total Attendance for each week” respectively. In my sample register above, the 15 columns run into these two columns (see areas with red borders below).

Attendance Register Showing Times School Open and Total Attendance per Week
Attendance Register Showing Times School Open and Total Attendance per Week

Times School Open

Times School Open refers to how many sessions the school had for each week. Teachers have to specify this at the end of every week. Good enough, this does not require much calculations.

Typically, schools have two sessions per day. This is why we mark each day twice. So, if school opens from Monday to Friday; then the total sessions will be 10.

Why? Monday to Friday is 5 days. Each day has two sessions. So, 2 times 5 is 10.

For instance, in the register above; school opened throughout the week during the first week. So, going down from weekly total column for week 1; under Times School Open, I have to write 10.

Attendance Register Showing Times School Open for Week 1
Attendance Register Showing Times School Open for Week 1

However, if for some reason; school opens for 4 days such as when there is public holiday for a day. Then times school open for that week will be 2 times 4 which is 8.

Going back to the sample register sheet again, you will notice that school opened for just 4 days during the second week. There was id-kabir holiday for one day. Hence, Times School Opened for week 2 is 8. Correspondingly, I wrote 8 in the week 2 column as below:

Times School Open for the Week 2 - if there is public holiday
Times School Open for the Week 2 – if there is public holiday

Total Attendance for each week

Total attendance for a particular week is the summation of all the students’ weekly totals for that week.

For example, the weekly totals for week 1 in the example above are 8, 10, 10, 9 10, 10, 8, 10, 10, 10, 10, 8, 8, 10 and 10. Therefore, to get the total attendance for week 1, we simply add these weekly totals which gives 141. This is what I will write as the total attendance for each week under week 1.

Closing Attendance Register Termly - Total Attendance for each week - 1
Total Attendance for each week – 1

Can you work out the total for week 2? That is going to be the sum of all the weekly totals for week 2. And this is equal to 6+8+8+8+8+8+8+8+8+8+8+6+6+8+8 = 114. This, I write under total attendance for week 2.

Total Attendance for each week - 2
Total Attendance for each week – 2

Note the tally

Observe that the total attendance for each week tallies with the total morning + total afternoon in working the percentage attendance for the week.

For instance, total attendance for week 1 – i.e., 141; is equal to total morning + total afternoon (71+70) for week 1. Similarly, total attendance for week 2 – i.e., 114; is equal to total morning and total afternoon (57+57) for week 2.

Corresponding Weekly Totals
Corresponding Weekly Totals

This must always be the case. Otherwise, your entry has an error somewhere.

Bring forward individual student’s total attendance for the previous term

This is the next step in closing attendance register termly. It is to bring forward, individual student’s total attendance for the previous term.

I explained at the beginning of this post, that one of the essences of closing attendance register termly; is to enable us compare each student’s attendance trends over a period of time.

This is why we have to bring the total attendance for previous term forward. This helps us to compare the previous term’s attendance with the current – so as to determine any changes that may require special attention.

Since you already know what the total attendance for the term is. And how to calculate it too. Bringing forward the total attendance for the previous term is easy. Simply flip back the register to the previous term’s page. Check the total attendance for the previous term. And write it down under the bring forward column for the current term.

In my example, I am just going to write some arbitrary figures as brought forward. So, below is the current look of the sample attendance register that I am trying to close for the term.

Closing Attendance Register Termly - Brought Forward
Arbitrary Brought Forward of previous term’s total attendance

Please note that there is no bring forward for first term. This is obviously because there was no previous term in the new academic session – since first term begins the session.

Calculate individual student’s cumulative total attendance for the term

This is the third step in closing attendance register. The individual student’s cumulative attendance is the sum of total attendances for the current and previous term. It is as simple as that.

Taking the sample register above for an example, the cumulative attendance for the first student 14 + 96 which is 110. Cumulative attendance for the second student is 18+120 which is 138 and so on.

The teacher writes this at the last column which has the title “Cumulative Total Attendance”. Having worked this for all the students in the sample sheets, the result is as follow:

Individual Student's Cumulative Total Attendance
Individual Student’s Cumulative (Total) Attendance for the term

Total Class Attendance for the term

Second to the last step in closing attendance register termly is to calculate the total class attendance for the term. The total class attendance for the term is the summation of all the students’ total attendance FOR THAT TERM.

Note that the total attendance for the term is different from the brought forward and the cumulative total attendance. It is the first of the three, at the far right of the sheet.

Total Attendance Column - You add all the numbers in this column to get the total class attendance for the term
Total Attendance Column – You add all the numbers in this column to get the total class attendance for the term

From the sheet above, the total class attendance for the term is 14 + 18 + 18 + 17 + 18 + 18 + 16 + 18 + 18 + 18 + 18 + 14 + 14 + 18 + 18 = 255.

Alternatively, you can also get the total attendance by adding all the total attendance for each week. From the sheet above, this will be 141 + 114 which is the same 255.

You should write the total attendance in its box. This is just below the last three columns:

Where to Write Total Attendance for the term  after calculation
Where to Write Total Attendance for the term after calculation

Total Attendance for Boys and Girls

This is self-explanatory. In entering names of students into the register, teachers usually differentiate those of male from those of female students. They do this traditionally by entering names of female students in red ink. However, some teachers simply give a couple of rows between those of boys and those of girls as I have done in the sample sheets above.

Thus, it is easy to calculate the total attendance for boys and girls. To get that of boys, look under total attendance for the term; and add the total attendance of male students only.

From the sheet above, this gives us 14 + 18 + 18 + 17 + 18 + 18 + 16 + 18 + 18 = 155.

Similarly, to get the total attendance for girls, look under total attendance for the term; then add the total attendance of female students only.

From our sample sheets, this gives us 18 + 18 + 14 + 14 + 18 + 18 = 100.

Write the total attendance for boys and girls in the corresponding fields.

Total Attendance for Boys and Girls
Total Attendance for Boys and Girls

Average Attendance for the term

The last step in closing attendance register for the term is to find the average attendance for the term. And this is pretty straightforward.

The average attendance for the term is the total attendance for the term divide by the total number of times school opened for the term.

That is, (Total Attendance for the term)/(Number of times school opened).

From our sample attendance sheet, school opened for only two weeks – a total of 10 + 8 = 18 times. And the total attendance for the term is 255.

Therefore, the average attendance for the term is  255/18 which is equals to 14.17. We write this in its column as shown below:

Closing Attendance Termly - Average Attendance for the term
Closing Attendance Termly – Average Attendance for the term

From the average attendance for the term, we can deduce that out of 15 pupils in the class, at least 14 comes to school every day. And this is an excellent attendance for the class.

And with that, we have concluded the process of closing attendance register termly. Please let me know if you find this helpful.

How to Calculate Weekly Class Percentage Attendance

Introduction to how to calculate weekly class percentage attendance

This post describes in simple terms how to calculate weekly class percentage attendance. Weekly percentage attendance is the percentage ratio of the actual turnout of the learners in a particular class to the expected turnout for a given period of time that school opens.

In an earlier post (click to read), I discussed the importance of daily attendance register. The daily marking of the register itself provides data which serves as input. However, working out the percentage makes generalization of data possible which in turn enhances some of the importance I discussed earlier.

A particular need for working out the weekly class percentage attendance is that it serves as a tool for identifying general study behavior/attendance curve. This in turn aid supervising body/bodies to quickly arrest and dealt with any ugly trend. Teachers, administrators and education supervisors also use the weekly class percentage attendance to forecast and/or explain academic performances.

Wrong Way: How to Calculate Weekly Class Percentage Attendance

Before I discuss the correct way to calculate weekly class percentage attendance, let me quickly set aside the wrong way that most (new) teachers do it.

Consider the two (sample) weekly attendance register sheets below. I will use both for this illustration and also to explain the correct way to calculate weekly class percentage attendance.

NOTE: I discussed how to mark attendance register in an earlier post. Click here to quickly read the post.

First Wrong Method: Total attendance divide by total number of students

In my over 10 years as a school administrator, one of the wrong ways that new teachers calculate weekly class percentage attendance is this: to divide the total weekly attendance by the total number of students on roll.

Take for instance, in figure one above, the total attendance for the week is 71 + 70 = 141. And the total number on roll is number of boys (9) + number of girls (6) = 15. Hence, new and unsuspecting teachers will simply but erroneously calculate the class percentage attendance for week as . Thus getting 9.4 as the class percentage attendance for the week.

Now, notice the closeness of that answer (9.4) to the correct answer (94%) as I have shown in the diagram. Despite this nearness, please understand that both the method and the final method are wrong.

Obviously, 9.4 is too insignificant to be a correct value for class percentage attendance for the week. In fact, I should stress that any weekly class percentage attendance below 50% is an indication of a great anomaly. The administrator or supervisor of such a class/school must take drastic action to turn things around. For one, it could mean that the class teacher is doing some serious wrong. Then that may also mean abysmally poor academic activities (rock bottom standard). For the worst part, such insignificant weekly class percentage attendance could mean permanent loss of students to the school.

Sighting Error at a glance

Therefore, now that I have brought your attention to the forgoing, you should know that both the method and final value are wrong ways for calculating weekly class percentage attendance. And additional tip here is that once can tell wrong weekly class percentage attendance by simply glancing at the percentage value. At no time should the percentage should be as low as a single digit nor as high as over 100.

Second Wrong Method: Total attendance times 10 divide by total number on roll

If you carefully inspect the first wrong method above, you will realize that “smart” but unwary teachers can attain the correct answer by simply multiplying the total attendance by 10 then dividing by total number on roll.

Take for example, in figure one above; the total attendance for the week is 141. And the total number on roll is 15. Therefore, teacher that adopts this wrong method will calculate their weekly class attendance as . Although this method gives the correct answer of 94%; it is not absolutely correct. It is only correct if school opens for the complete 10 times in a week.

However, if there is any public holiday within the week; then this second will not give the correct value.

Consider figure 2 above for example. There was IDL KABIR BREAK on Thursday of that week. Hence, school opened for 8 instead of the 10 times in a week.

If we go by this method, then we could have calculated our class percentage attendance for the week as  As you know, this will give the percentage value as 76%.

This is different from the correct answer that I have indicated in the sample sheet. Hence, though this method may yield correct answer every week of no holiday; it is not correct.

Notwithstanding, it is safe to say that if the teacher intends and is sure to remember to use this method only for weeks that school will open for the complete 10 times per week; then such teacher may use this method.

Regardless, the safer and better thing to do is to use the correct method – the method that will yield correct answer at all times. This is the correct way to calculate weekly class percentage attendance.

Correct Way: How to Calculate Weekly Class Percentage Attendance

Now that we have discussed the ways that (new) teachers wrongly calculate weekly class percentage attendance; let us look at the correct way to do it.

Please refer to the two (sample) weekly attendance register sheets above when necessary.

There are six simple ways to calculate weekly class percentage attendance. These include:

  1. Calculate total attendance for the week
  2. Calculate the total number of students on roll
  3. Note the number of times school opened for the week
  4. Multiply the total number of students on roll by the number of times school opened for the week
  5. Divide the total attendance for the week in step 1 by the answer you obtained in step 4
  6. Multiply the final answer in step 5 by 100

This method works and yield correct answer at all times.

Examples of How to Calculate Weekly Class Percentage Attendance

Consider the first sample weekly attendance register sheet above.

1.       Calculate the total attendance for the week

Total attendance for week = Mornings Total + Afternoons Total.

The total attendance of the class for the week is the sum of all Mornings total and Afternoons Total. Mornings total means the total count of present on Monday through Friday mornings of the week. Similarly, Afternoons total means the total count of present on Monday through Friday afternoons of the week.

Example (Sheet) 1
Mornings Total

Looking at the sample register sheet 1, you will observe that 15 were present on Monday morning; 14 were present on Tuesday morning; 14 on Wednesday morning; 14 on Thursday morning; and 14 on Friday morning. Adding all of these gives us 71 as Mornings total.

Afternoons Total

In the same vein, looking at the same sample register sheet 1, you will also observe that 15 were present on Monday afternoon; 14 were present on Tuesday afternoon; 14 were present on Wednesday afternoon; 13 were present on Thursday afternoon; and 14 were present on Friday afternoon. Adding these will gives us 70 as Afternoons total.

Total Attendance for week is Mornings Total (71) + Afternoons Total (70) = 141.

Write this answer down and proceed to step 2.

Example (Sheet) 2
Mornings Total

As for example sheet 2, you will observe that 15 were present on Monday morning; 14 were present on Tuesday morning; 14 on Wednesday morning; Thursday was public holiday so no data; and 14 on Friday morning. Adding all of these gives us 57 as Mornings total.

Afternoons Total

The afternoons total for sample sheet 2 is the same as the mornings total. Therefore, Afternoon Totals for sheet 2 is also 57.

Correspondingly, Total Attendance for week is Mornings Total (57) + Afternoons Total (57) = 114.

Write this answer down and proceed to step 2.

NOTE: I explained the concept of morning and afternoon in an earlier post. Click here to read the post.

2.       Calculate the total number of students on roll

The next step after getting the total attendance for the week is to determine the total number of students on roll. This is simple. Simply add the number of boys and the number of girls.

Looking at the sample register sheet 1, you will observe that there are 9 boys and 6 girls on the register. Therefore, the total number of students on roll is  Similarly, the total number of students on roll for sample sheet 2 is 15.

Worthy of note under number of students on roll is that if a student has already been transferred from the class; s/he must be excluded from the number on roll though his or her name may remain on the register until the end of the term.

3.       Note the number of times school opened for the week

Next, note the number of times school opened for the week. This is pretty simple. For standard two continuous sessions a day; the school opens twice per day. But for schools that run two separate sessions a day, school opens once per day.

Therefore, in a week (i.e. Monday through Friday); school opens 10 times for standard two continuous sessions per day. Equally, school opens 5 times for schools that run two separate sessions per day. Majority of schools (public and private) in southern and north central Nigeria runs standard two continuous sessions. Conversely, majority of schools (public) in north-eastern and north-western Nigeria run two separate sessions per day.

One-day public holiday or break in schools that run standard two continuous sessions a day means the number of times school opened for the week will be reduced by 2 – because school opens twice a day (Morning and afternoon).

Take for instance, in the second sample sheet above; there was IDL KABIR break on Thursday of the week. That means school opened for 8 times – 10 -2.

So, now going back to our examples;

Number of times school opened for sheet 1 = 10; and

Number of times school opened for sheet 2 = 8.

4.       Multiply the total number of students on roll by the number of times school opened for the week

The next step is to multiply number of students on roll in step 2 by the number of times school opened for the week in step 3:

For sample sheet 1: Total number of students on roll = 15; and number of times school opened for the week is 10. Therefore, the product is

Likewise, for sample sheet 2: Total students on roll = 15; and number of times school opened for the week is 8. Thus, the product is

With these values, we are ready to proceed to step 5.

5.       Divide the total attendance for the week in step 1 by the answer you obtained in step 4

We are almost there!

The second to the last step to calculate weekly class percentage attendance is to divide the total attendance for the week in step 1 by the answer we obtained in step 4 earlier. Easy!

For sample sheet 1: the total attendance for the week which we obtained in step 1 is 141; while the answer we obtained in step 4 for the same sample 1 is 150. Thus, the answer is .

Correspondingly for sample sheet 2: the total attendance for the week which we obtained in step 1 is 114; while the answer we obtained in step 4 for the same sample 2 is 120. So, the answer is .

And that is it! All that is left is for us to take the final answer to percentage as I have shown in step 6 below.

6.       Multiply the final answer in step 5 by 100

The last step to calculate weekly class percentage attendance is to multiply by ratio by 100%.

As for example 1, this gives us  Therefore, the class percentage attendance for the week is 94%.

Equally, example 2 gives us  Therefore, the class percentage for the week is 95%.

Conclusion on how to calculate weekly class percentage attendance

This post is one of the guides in our Teachers’ Induction Training. The Teachers’ Induction Training (TIT) part and parcel of our Instructor-Led Training (ILT). All our Instructor-Led Training is both a mind reorientation and skills impartation session for teachers. It aligns their minds to the vision and mission of their school, draw out their untapped potentials and motivates them towards helping schools attain her goals and unlock unexploited growth channels. The training also incorporates educational marketing expos. This further helps the school to continuously take advantage of the strongest marketing agents – her teachers.

The Teachers’ Induction Training (TIT) is particularly for new teachers. Apart from the overall objectives of our ILT, the TIT particularly provides guidelines for teachers to perform at their best and to get the best they can from the profession.

If you are teacher and would like to enroll for our Teachers’ Induction Training (TIT) to position yourself for getting the best out of the teaching profession, please click here to message me on WhatsApp, or click here to send me a direct mail.

Also, if you are a school owner or administrator and will like to us to train your staff, please click here to send a message to me on WhatsApp or Click here to send me a direct email.

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How to Mark Daily Attendance Register

This post with keywords, how to mark daily attendance register in brief

This post, how to mark daily attendance register is a guide for new teachers. It gives a concise definition of attendance register. The post also discusses the importance of attendance register. Finally, this post guides (new) teachers on how to mark the daily attendance correctly.

No more mistakes and cancellation in the register. Save yourself the burden of having to listen to a pissed off head explain this to you vaguely. Approach the task and argument with confidence.

To school owners and administrators, this may be just the best way for you to explain – how to mark daily attendance register – to your teachers.

 

Introduction to how to mark daily attendance register

When I first got a teaching job, I was paranoid about everything before I did it – whether I was going to do it right. Under normal circumstances, I am an introvert – you won’t believe that if we met in the classroom. So, although I asked new colleagues at work; I didn’t always like it. That is probably because I thought asking about everything would show that I was not capable for the job – is that true?

Well, one of those tasks that I battled with was how to mark daily attendance register. Somehow, my employer felt like I was 100% able to the tasks. So, at due time; the head handed me the daily attendance register for my class – without reasonable orientation. I am a bit of a perfectionist as well. Hence, I spare no effort in my paranoia to read up anything I could find on how to mark daily attendance register. When I was done, lo and behold; I did not only mark my register well but I also discovered mistakes in others and suggested correction – perfectionist right? Hey, I am a gentle one, so no qualms!

Fast-forward to years later, I have become an administrator. And a general experience that every administrator will attest to is – new engagement without orientation equals friction! There was a time that I have to change an entire register due to errors.

If you studied education, I understand that you discussed school records in your level 2 – General Teaching Methods – and it is also in your level 3 – Teaching Practise Manual. But nobody understands the Nigerian school better than us – educators.  My inference is that majority only remember listing attendance register as a statutory record. They did not have any practical guide on how to mark daily attendance register. Perhaps you were lucky and you had a practical guide but you need to refresh your memory.

One thing is sure, administrators and supervisors do not like register mistakes. Making mistakes on how to mark daily attendance register is unimaginable to supervisors – I mean it is one of the first things you (will) do every morning. And some HODs are not very friendly when making corrections.

The goal of this post is help you learn how to mark daily attendance register without mistakes.

What is Attendance Register?

Attendance register, Class register or simply register is simply a book used to record whether a child is present at school. It is a statutory record. This means that education law demands every school to keep attendance register. And if school inspectors from the ministry visit, you will be asked to provide it. Each class usually has its separate register and the class teachers maintain it.

Description

The attendance register in Nigeria is usually large book within the range of 88.5 cm by 62.5 cm – It can be any dimension. The back cover is usually blue in colour and hard – see picture below.

School Daily Attendance Register Cover Design - LeadinGuides
Figure 1: Back cover of School Attendance Register

An attendance register contains about ten key pieces of information about the learners in the class for any given session, total number of (male and female) students in class and the class’ weekly/termly attendance summary for the whole session.

The learners’ information in a class register are:

  1. Full Name
  2. Date of Birth/Age
  3. Name of parent/guardian
  4. Address of parent/guardian
  5. Religion of parents/guardian
  6. Date of Admission into the class
  7. Admission number
  8. Number in Admission/Withdrawal register
  9. Fees paid
  10. Daily class attendance with weekly summary

Although there are a few technical things about filling the other information in the register, this post particularly addresses how to mark daily attendance with weekly summary.

Why Keep Attendance Register? Importance of Attendance Register

Generally, if one does not know the reason or importance of something they won’t give the required commitment to it. Hence, before we discuss how to mark daily attendance register, let’s see why we keep it.

  • It is mandatory

I have explained earlier that class register is a statutory record. I also explained that this means it is required by law. Therefore, the first reason for keeping and marking register is because the law requires it. Remember this whenever you want to mark your register

  • It is a source of data for supporting important societal decisions

If you have been a teacher and in a position well enough to know, you should have taken part in at least one school survey – or school grading self-assessment exercise. These surveys or self-assessment exercises are sponsored by governments – state, national and regional; inter-governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations – national, regional and international.

Hardly will any of such surveys and school grading self-assessment exercises not require data from the attendance register. The organizations in turn use the data collected to make important decisions – decisions that border on the life of real human beings!

In fact, class register became a statutory record in 1882. The enabling law – i.e. the 1882 education ordinance – made it that way so the government could decide which schools to give grants based on data from the attendance register. Governments and organizations still use register data to support such decisions.

I bet you do not want to be responsible in any way for any wrong decisions that negatively affects the lives of others – no, you don’t, we are teachers; we build lives instead. Now, that’s another reason we keep attendance register – and a reason you should ensure you keep yours accurately.

  • It is a source of data to support learner’s academics

This particular one is not far-fetched for the teacher. The immediate importance of attendance register is that it helps the teacher to identify students that are missing out from classes. You will also be able to tell if a student is punctual, a truant or not. As soon as you identify this, you can then immediately follow to support the learner in their academics.

Every school has the procedures for this follow up on absenteeism, lateness and truancy in their attendance policy.

  • To save yourself: It is an accountability tool

Hey, don’t freak out! When I say to save yourself, I do not mean to say that you will be indicted for any crime – at least not for no reason. But there are times that authorities may need class teachers to account for their students.

A common of such time is, say when a student’s result shows absent in a particular subject; but the parent are convinced the student didn’t miss school during the examinations – you have to save yourself, from being perceived negligent. We have heard and seen were the authority is the police.

In many schools, you are required to report irregular attendance curve to the school authority. Hence, if you do not do this and wake up at reporting session to say a student perform poorly due to any attendance default; then you are in for query.

How to Mark Daily Attendance Register

Although there are many electronic attendance systems now is use in schools across the country, majority still uses manual attendance record – which this post discusses.

In the manual or traditional attendance system, teachers record students’ attendance using the register booklet I describe earlier.

When and how many times to mark?

Every school has unique attendance policy. The policy may specify the time and number of times that teachers mark attendance. Hence, they may be differences from school to school. Notwithstanding, there is a general practice/style.  Generally, there are two kinds of school and styles of how to mark daily attendance register.

One time, at the start of each separate session a day

In a school that runs two separate sessions a day; teachers mark the attendance register for each session one time a day; at the start of the session. By running two separate sessions, I mean morning session and afternoon session. In this type of school, the students that attend morning session are different from those that attend afternoon session. This style is very common in over-populated government schools – as we commonly see in northern Nigeria.

Twice, at the start of each of the two continuous sessions a day

On the other hand, there are schools that run two continuous sessions a day. In this type of school, teachers ideally mark the register twice a day – one at the start of each session. Running two continuous sessions a day means that the same set of students attend both the morning and afternoon sessions. The school may or may not permit the students to go home in between the two sessions. But there are specified time for both sessions. Consequently, the teachers initially mark the attendance at the start of morning session. Later on, they complete the attendance just at the start of the afternoon session.

Attendance Register Malpractice

Nonetheless, it is a common observation in this type of school for teachers to cut corners. They put off the morning marking until afternoon then mark both once. Alternatively, they mark both in the morning then shun afternoon marking.  Considering the accountability issues I discussed earlier, this act ill-fated. I normally discourage teachers from this practice.

Procedure of how to mark daily attendance register

For each student, the daily class attendance portion in a school register is divided into two cells – one for morning and the other for afternoon sessions. This is repeated for everyday of the week. Therefore, for a given week (running from Monday through Friday), there are ten cells for each student – see picture below.

How to mark daily attendance register - marking cells - LeadinGuides
Figure 2: How to Mark Daily Attendance Register – daily marking cells

As you can see from the picture, there are two cells or boxes for Monday; two for Tuesday; …; & two for Friday. For each day, the first cell represent morning and the second cell is for afternoon. Therefore, in a week; there are a total of 10 – 5 mornings and 5 afternoons.

 

The procedure of how to mark daily attendance register manually include:

      1. Confirm the presence of the student for the session you want to mark.
      2. If absent, make a small clean circle in the cell for which you want to mark. Note that if your school runs two separate sessions and therefore you mark the register only once a day; the circle should cover the two cells for the day. In contrast, if your school runs two continuous sessions and therefore you mark the register twice a day, the circle for morning should be different from that of the afternoon – meaning if the student is absent for the whole day, there should be two circles. See the pictures below.
    How to mark daily attendance register
    Figure 3: Marking student absent on Mon & Tue in a school that runs two separate sessions a day

    How to mark daily attendance register - marking absent - LeadinGuides
    Figure 4: Marking a student absent on Mon & Tue in a school that runs two continuous sessions
    1. If present, make a diagonal line – from top-left to bottom-right (for morning) and top-right to bottom-left (for afternoon) – in the correct cell for the day and session. Note that if your school runs two separate sessions and therefore you mark the register only once a day; you should make both the morning and afternoon stokes at the same time. If on the other hand your school runs two continuous sessions, you should make the first stroke in the morning and then the second at the start of the afternoon session. See pictures below.
      How to mark attendance register - How to mark present  - LeadinGuides
      Figure 5: How to mark a student present on a day (Mon) in a school that runs two separate sessions per day

      How to Mark Daily Attendance Register 5 - LeadinGuides
      Figure 6: How to a student present in the morning of a day (Mon) in a school that runs two continuous sessions per day

      How to Mark Daily Attendance Register 6 - LeadinGuides
      How to mark a student who was present in the morning but absent in the afternoon – in a school that runs two continuous sessions per day (Figure 7)

      How to Mark Daily Attendance Register 7 - LeadinGuides
      How to mark a student who was absent in the morning but present in the afternoon – in a school that runs two continuous sessions per day (Figure 8)

      How to Mark Daily Attendance Register 8 - LeadinGuides
      Figure 9 How to mark a student present throughout a day (Mon) in a school that runs two continuous sessions per day

    As you can observe from figures 7/8 above, it is possible for a student to be present in the morning but absent in the afternoon – in a school that runs two continuous sessions per day. The reverse can also happen. As I demonstrate in figures 7/8, you should accurately capture these attendance events. Do not mark a student present in the afternoon because s/he was present in the morning and vice versa. You could be implicating yourself by so doing. Marking a student present means that students was your responsibility throughout the period.

    Last line on how to mark daily attendance register

    Since it is recommended that female students’ name be entered into the register in red ink, some new teachers assume that female students’ attendance should also be in red ink.

    This is absolutely not so. Do not mark female students’ attendance with red ink. Traditionally, teachers use red ink only to indicate lateness. But nowadays, there are different attendance/register code to indicate different attendance events – absent on permission, absent without permission, sick, late, and present/punctual. However, the code varies from school to school.

    Conclusion of how to mark daily attendance register

    If you read the whole of this post, then you should now be able to:

    • Give a concise definition of attendance register
    • Mention the importance of attendance register
    • Explain how to mark daily attendance register traditionally.

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Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students Part Two

Introduction to Factors Affecting the Performance of Students Part Two

this post titled, Factors Affecting the Performance of Students Part Two, further outline some factors that affects student performance. Here, we examined these factors from the parent and school effects.

Academic performance refers to the level of performance in school, accomplishment or success in school. This is the core of educational growth. academic performance as the process of developing the capacities and potentials of the individual student so as to prepare that individual to be successful in a specific society or culture. It is important to keep in mind that academic performance may largely be a function of the context in which it takes place, and therefore the necessary abilities may also vary according to the context. In this regard, we can conclude that the concept, meaning and criteria of academic success may also vary according to the context.

In the initial part of this write-up, we had examined factors such as student attitude, skill and abilities of the teachers, classroom environment, development of study skill, time management, teaching-learning methods and so forth.

If you have not read the part one of this write up, simply click Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students. to go through it.

More of these factors that affect the academic performance of student are:

  1. Large Number of Students in a Class

Class congestion is  disadvantageous to the academic performance of students. Class teachers are the once who normally face this problem. It reduces their class manageability; their deliverable – they are unable to implement the appropriate teaching-learning processes and instructional strategies, which in turn affect the performance of the student academically.

The teachers are unable to make provision of personal attention and as a result of which, academic performance of the students may undergo detrimental effects. In some cases, when the number of students are large within classrooms, the teachers provide explanation of the academic concepts on black-board or through the use of technology and give class and home-work assignments. They correct the assignments, submitted to them by the students. Some students perform well, whereas others depict errors. In case of errors, the teachers usually ask them to learn from the students, who have performed well. Hence, teachers tend to move on to the next lesson in the next class, as they need to complete the syllabus within limited time.

(Maganga, 2016), also explained that, in science subjects, when teachers are providing training to students on the implementation of experiments by making use of school laboratory equipment like test tubes, other equipment and procedures, it becomes very difficult or impossible for the teacher to monitor the performance, understanding and right implementation of such practical. There are high tendencies that some of the students may not understand the procedures explained by the teacher, hence are unable to perform the experiment independently.

  1. Self-efficacy and Motivation

Self-efficacy is how people feel about themselves and how much they like themselves, especially socially and academically. Through the many pressures and daunting responsibilities of being a student, one learns and understands the importance of having a high self-efficacy in college. Having one’s academic achievement meet one’s academic expectations and desires is a major key to most college students’ self-efficacy. Having a high self-efficacy has many positive effects and benefits, especially among college students. Students who feel positive about themselves succumb less easily to pressures of conformity by peers, are more persistent at difficult tasks, are happier and more sociable, and most pertinent to this study is that they tend to perform better academically.

On the other hand, students with a low self-efficacy tend to be unhappy, less sociable and are more vulnerable to depression, which are all correlated with lower academic achievement. High academic performance influences perceived competence and motivation.

  1. Parental and Home Factor

Parental and home or environment factors greatly have effects on the academic performance of the students. Quite true that some of these parental and home/environment factors have positive effects on student’s performance; a lot of these factors tend to have negative impact on the academic performance of the students. These parental and home/environment factors are:

  • Level of Parents Education

Parents’ educational qualifications are  important aspects that  enhance the academic learning of their children. Well educated parents who are professionals such as doctors, lawyers, engineers, administrators, educationists, teachers, researchers, academicians, etc. can provide good education to their children. They can send their children to reputed schools and also provide them with all the needed materials and resources needed to promote learning. On the contrary, when parents are illiterate or have low level of literacy and how financial ability, there are unable to provide qualitative education to their children. It is also common to find with low level of education or who are out-rightly illiterate to low interest in the education of their children. This is because such parents may not have low or no understanding of the importance of education in.

  • Poverty

The problem of poverty is one of the major barriers within the course of academic achievements. The individuals residing in the conditions of poverty and backwardness experience this major problem in terms of finances. When their per capita income is low, then they experience problems in not only meeting the educational and school requirements. Also, there will be problems in meeting their living requirements, such as diet and nutrition, health, medical and so forth. Therefore, the problem of poverty is critical factor that hinder the academic performance of the students. When they do not possess the essential sources to enhance their learning, they will be unable to improve their grades.

  • Large Family Size

Extended family system and  polygamous homes often leads to large family. When there are more than two children within the family, then it is considered as a large family size. With three or more children within the family, then, usually it becomes difficult for the parents to meet all their needs and requirements, especially, when the family belongs to economically weaker sections of the society. When parents are working or are engage in full time jobs, they will experience problems in finding time for interaction with their children or in meeting their needs and requirements. More children imply increased costs. The fact remains that the upbringing of children involves large number of costs. The academic performance of the students undergoes detrimental effects as a result of large family size.

This can only be offset when there is a corresponding or higher increase to income with. If it is not so, then, more children and limited income, means reduction in the ability to provide quality education to children. It usually becomes difficult to meet the requirements of every child, in the face of large family with limited income.

  • Resources

The lack of resources, civic amenities and infrastructure are barriers towards the acquisition of qualitative education. It is vital to make provision of adequate diet and nutrition for the students, so that they are able to wholeheartedly concentrate on their studies. Civic amenities, such as, clean drinking water, electricity, technology, textbooks, stationary and other are essential to enhancing.

Lack of resources and civic amenities may impede the concentration, interest of the students upon their studies, as a result desired results may not achieve. however, with a strong determination, students may still be able to understand concepts of studies with limited civic amenities. But then, it remains a general growth what when ‘equipment’ is not available, even the most courageous will find it difficult to achieve set or desired goals. Same vein has it is economically true that input affects output. All things being equal, a student who is provided with needed resource will outperform the other student who is has poor or little resources.

  • Viewpoints and Perspectives

In the present existence, especially in rural areas, individuals who possess the viewpoints that education is meant for boys while girls are meant to learn the household chores exist. They are of the perspectives that when boys get educated, they would be able to obtain employment and enhance the well-being of their On the other hand, girls have to eventually get married; hence, it is vital for them to acquire training regarding the performance of household chores. These mainly include, preparation of meals, cleaning, washing, fetching water, and taking care of siblings and other elderly members of the household. These factors discourage girls from acquisition of education and their academic performance suffers a setback, even when they are in schools.

  1. School factors

Students’ performance has a significant relationship with the availability of enabling academic environment with facilities. Such facilities are library, experimental lab, computer laboratory, etc. in the institution. Study effort from student and the proper use of the facilities; a good match between students’ learning style enhance the student’s performance. Student performances are linked with use of library and level of their parental education. The use of the library enhances the student performance. The academic environment is the effective-variable for students and has positive relationship with fathers’ education and grade level. Provision of adequate learning facilities enhances student performance.

The contribution of school factors in influencing the academic performance of the students have been stated as follows:

  • Professionalism of Teachers

Professionalism of teachers is important, especially in their dealings with students. In this aspect, the continuous enhancement of teachers’ teaching skills, knowledge matters towards improving learning and development of the students. Professionalism of the teachers is shown primarily in the teaching-learning processes, instructional strategies, communication and their approachable attitude. Teachers who shows professionalism in these areas are acknowledged and appreciated by other staff and teachers; they are also appreciated by the students and they take pleasure in learning from them. When teachers are unhappy because students fail to complete their homework assignment and at the right time. In such cases, professionalism is shown when teachers are decent in their communication. They should explain the consequences to the students in a calm manner and any kind of harsh behavior should be avoided

  • Extra-Curricular Activities

Students usually take pleasure in the learning and acquisition of education, especially, when there is adequate provision of extra-curricular activities. Activities in school such as artworks, handicrafts, music, singing, dancing, role playing, sports, games and so forth, are extra-curricular. Students normally take pleasure in them. They are not only pivotal to the development of creativity among the students, but also in getting their, interest and willingness via the engagement in extra-curricular activities. They are able to develop their concentration towards learning through these activities. When students  involve in extracurricular activities, they perform well in their assignments and tests.

  • Rewards

Rewards, as important factors,  help in motivating the students to be more committed toward academic pursuits. They are incentives to arouse students’ interest, performance. In secondary schools, students enjoy playing and engaging in recreational and leisure activities. They in some cases neglect their studies. Especially, when they are unable to understand the concepts or have to watch a television show and so forth. Parents at home create means of motivating their children. This can be by  giving them their favorite ice-cream, take them out for dinner or give them gift etc.

People consider as stimulating factors that contribute positively in the improvement of the academic performance of the students. As teachers communicate about rewards within the classroom, then students develop the keenness to work hard for good grades. They believe that through their good performance, their parents and teachers, both would get pleased.

  • School facilities

The facilities of a school is also a factor that affect the academic performance of students. Examples of such facilities are library facilities, laboratory facilities etc. The library is the place, where students obtain the materials that used of to enhance one’s learning. Library is a building or a room that houses the collection of books, tapes, newspapers, articles and journals. Individuals read and borrow them. Library is important in the teaching-learning processes. It is regarded as one of the most important educational services. The main purpose of the school libraries is to make provision of books and the necessary materials.

Laboratory is  a room or a building, specially built for teaching by demonstration of a theoretical phenomenon into practical terms. Teachers use laboratory in  teaching-learning processes and experiments primarily related to science subjects. Within the laboratory, the teachers provide practical demonstration of the concept. The students tend to recall more what they observe rather than what they hear. Practical work in the learning of academic concepts involves students in activities. These activities are observing, counting, measuring, experimenting, recording, investigating, testing, analyzing and field-work.

Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students.

Introduction to this post with keywords – Factors Affecting Students’ Academic Performance

It is a well-known maxim in the education world that “no child is dull”. More so, majority of the educators agree that you should not write any child off. However, it is undebatable that certain learners just wouldn’t perform well in their academics – even as others continue to fly academically. This tends to create some philosophical inconsistency – for if no child is dull, then all should perform well. Why then do some students perform well while others do not?

I strongly believe that a number of factors are responsible for this disparity. Consequently, in this post; I discuss a few factors that affect the academic performance of students.

Why this article about factors affecting Students’ Academic Performance?

For the development of individuals, community, nation and the world at large; education is pivotal. To bring about needed improvements in all aspect of the human life and to be able to utilize innovative methods and techniques, enhanced educational skills are needed. However, educational stakeholders must pay attention to the factors that have the potential to affect the performance of students negatively or positively.

Education is one of the cardinal aspects that not only inculcates the essential skills,
abilities and knowledge among students, but also leads to overall growth and progress
of the students, community, nation and the world as a whole. An educated person is not only able to accomplish his desired goals and objectives, but is also able to render an efficient contribution towards the well-being of the community. The development of academic knowledge, skills, abilities and proficiency among the individuals is enhanced through learning and academic performance.

The academic performance of students in secondary schools determines the future goals, interest of student; what course they will student at tertiary level and what career path to choose and build. The extent to which a student can learn and develop is to a large degree affected by many factors.

            The Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students

The factors that affect the academic performance of students are as follows:

1.      Student’s Attitude:

Every student from secondary schools to tertiary institutions posse the ability to differentiate what is ideal and what is not ideal. Every student that succeeds possess a positive feeling towards his or her education and is conscious of his or her performance also. Such student possesses the character of diligence, discipline and resourcefulness; they are passionate readers. They give much off their time to studies, and less time for leisure activities. It is also important that such student possess a positive thought in terms of their schools, teachers and all academic subject. The lack of this traits in most students will explain low or under performance of the student. Positive attitude of student involves being goal-oriented. That is, studying for self-development and not only to pass examination. Having a clear picture of a desired future is the bed rock for a positive attitude of student.  A positive attitude of student will help the student to devote their time to tireless and passionate study.

2.      Resources of the school:

Within schools, it is vital to make provision of resources that can be utilized to enhance the academic performance of students. The textbooks, notes, learning materials, technology, library facilities and laboratory facilities, especially in science subjects should include the essential materials. When students are provided with the necessary tools and equipment, they will be able to acquire a better understanding of what is been taught in schools. In some cases, especially the students who are deprived, marginalized and socio-economically backward and are unable to afford the books and materials required for learning; they tend to depend only upon the library and other facility of the school.

3.      Skills and Abilities of the Teacher:

Teachers have an imperative role in influencing
the academic performance of the students. They are bestowed with the authority to direct all the classroom activities and administer learning. It is therefore vital for the teachers to possess the traits of professionalism and conscientiousness. They need to possess an approachable nature, listen and provide solutions to the problems experienced by the students. They should possess adequate knowledge and information regarding the subjects that they are teaching, usage of technology, modern and innovative methods in the teaching and learning processes, managing discipline and directing all of the classroom as well as school activities and functions in a well-organized manner. The teachers in some cases are strict, but strictness should be maintained within limits. The main objective of the teachers should only be to enhance the academic performance of the students and lead to their effective development

4.      Classroom Environment:

The academic concepts are made known to the students by
the teachers within classroom. Teachers have the main job duty of completing the subject
syllabus. Therefore, it is vital that classroom environment should be disciplined, and well-ordered. Within the classroom, it is vital for the teachers and the students to
implement or show the traits of morality and ethics. It is vital to promote mutual understanding and co-operation among the teachers and students as well as among the fellow students. The efficiency in the management of the classroom, consequently, introduces a well-organized and efficient management of the lesson plans, instructional strategies, teaching-learning processes and so forth. When there is discipline and effective communication among the individuals, then it would help the students learn better and improve their academic performance.

5.      Role of Parents:

Home is referred to as the place from where the foundation of
learning and education takes place. In order to produce good academic outcomes, it is vital
for the parents, children and other family members to encourage a learning atmosphere within homes. For instance, when students experience problems in certain subjects, then parents are responsible for providing help. This help may be in the form of private tuitions or they themselves may teach their children. They make provision of technology and other learning materials at home to enhance the academic performance of their children. Parents play an important role in leading to operative growth and development of their children. In schools, whatever problems that children go through regarding academics and other
areas, they normally communicate to their parents. Parents are sources of security,
encouragement and help their children in providing solutions to their problems.

6.      Social Circle:

Children get enrolled in schools not only to learn academic concepts,
but they also learn, how to interact and socialize with others. Students usually form friendly
terms and relationships with the fellow students. Forming a social circle and friendships have a positive effect upon the academic outcomes of the students. As when one has to work on a project or prepare for a test, then group study is in most cases beneficial. It also causes social satisfaction and happiness in one’s student life (Kudari, 2016). Forming a social circle proves to be beneficial to the individuals in number of ways, such as, solving academic problems, getting involved in leisure activities, sharing one’s joys and sorrows, and so forth.

7.      Motivating and Encouraging Students: –

In academic learning, some of the concepts
are difficult to learn and understand. When problems and difficulties are experienced by the students, then they need to obtain assistance from others. When students are unable to
achieve the desired grades, then instead of getting angry on them, the teachers and parents
need to make provision of help and assistance. They should motivate the students and
encourage them to do well in future. They need to understand their weaknesses and help
them. When students find certain areas difficult to learn, then teachers should repeat the
concepts, provide them class and homework assignments, so that they are able to acquire
complete understanding of the concepts

8.      Development of Study Skills: –

In order to enhance one’s academic performance, it is
vital for the individuals to develop study skills within themselves. The students themselves
need to generate awareness regarding study skills, so that they are able to produce desired
academic outcomes. Some of the study skills include, memorizing from the textbooks or
other materials, making notes, practicing writing essays and articles, especially in languages, practicing calculations in mathematics and so forth. One of the important areas is, when one is studying, it is vital to completely concentrate towards one’s studies. Inability to completely concentrate is one of the factors that leads to undesired academic outcomes. Memorizing is regarded as one of the rare techniques, hence, the teachers encourage students to acquire understanding of the concepts instead of memorizing.

9.      Time Management:

Students in secondary schools have a busy schedule, hence it is
vital for them to generate awareness in terms of effective time management. Research has
indicated that the normal schedule of the secondary school students comprise of school hours, then they need to spend some time in completion of home-work assignments. They also get involved in some kinds of extra-curricular activities and sports. Playing and getting engaged in creative activities, not only help them concentrate better, but they are able to stimulate their mind-sets. For the secondary school students, it is important to get engaged in extracurricular activities and for this purpose, they need to implement proper time management skills. It is essential for the students to create a balance between all the tasks and activities. The activities that are more important should be given more time and lesser amount of time can be spent on the activities that are less important.

10.  Teaching-Learning Methods:

The teaching-learning methods and strategies should
be appropriate and encouraging to the students. The teachers in school are the ones that
contribute an imperative part in promoting learning among the students. It is essential for
them to ensure that the teaching methods used should prove to be beneficial to the students.
For instance, if the students are able to learn better through dictation of notes, then teachers
should provide notes. If the students are able to learn better through verbal explanation, then they should promote verbal explanation and so forth. Within home, if students are taking
private tuitions of certain academic subjects such as, mathematics or science, or their parents teach them, then too, it is vital for the parents and tutors to make sure that effectual teaching-learning methods are implemented, which may encourage learning among the students and help them understand better.

11.  Approachability and Professionalism:

The teachers in school are required to be
approachable and professional in their conduct. They are the ones, whom students approach, in case they have any problems and difficulties. When the teachers are friendly and generous, then the students feel comfortable in not only approaching them, but also in clarifying their doubts. The professionalism and approachable attitude on the part of the teachers is of utmost significance in influencing the academic performance of the students in a positive manner. On the other hand, at home, parents or tutors are the ones, who supervise their studies, hence, it is vital for them to be professional in their conduct. Teaching should be implemented in a calm and pleasant manner. Any kind of harsh attitude should be avoided, as it may demotivate the students

Check out our lesson notes, school management tips and Nigerian Education reformation issues

    Works Cited

The works that I consulted include:

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