## Finding Geometric Sequence explained with examples

A geometric sequence is a type of sequence. A sequence is generally the set of numbers having equal differences among the numbers and are separated by commas. The terms are used to create a common difference by multiplying the previous digit.

In this post, we will learn about the sequence, geometric sequence, and how to calculate it, with a lot of examples.

## What is a Geometric sequence?

A geometric sequence usually states that a series of numbers comes by taking a common difference or by multiplying each term by a constant. The sequence is usually represented by the series but a little bit different in that the sequence is separated by commas while in series sum notation is used instead of commas.

A sequence is usually of the form like 1, 4, 16, 64, 256, 1024,… in this sequence all the terms are multiplied by themselves by 4 for making a common difference.

### Formula of the geometric sequence

For geometric sequence, we use an equation to calculate the nth term of the sequence having a constant difference.

bn = b1 rn-1

In the above equation, bn is the nth term of the sequence that we wish to calculate, b1 is the first term of the sequence, r is the common difference or ratio between the terms, and n is the nth term of the sequence.

There are some other formulas of the geometric sequence used to calculate the sum of the sequence either for finite sequence or infinite sequence.

The formula used for the sum of the sequence for finite terms is given as.

Sum of the sequence for finite terms = bn = b (1 – rn) / 1 – r

Sum of the sequence for infinite terms = a / 1 – r

## How to calculate the geometric sequence?

The geometric sequence can be calculated to find the nth term of the sequence. To apply the formula of the geometric sequence you must be familiar with the exponent. Let’s take some examples to calculate the geometric sequence to determine the nth term.

Example 1

Calculate the first 9 terms of the sequence if the initial value is 2, the common difference is 6.

Solution

Step 1: Determine the given values.

Initial term = 2

Total terms = 9

Total difference = 6

Step 2: Now take the values of n.

n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Step 3: Take the general formula to calculate geometric sequence.

bn = b1 * rn-1

Step 4: Now put the values of n one by one to find the first nine terms of the sequence.

Put n = 1

bn = 2 * 6n-1

b1 = 2 * 61-1

b1 = 2 * 60

b1 = 2 * 1 = 2

Put n = 2

bn = 2 * 6n-1

b2 = 2 * 62-1

b2 = 2 * 61

b2 = 2 * 6

b2 = 12

Put n = 3

bn = 2 * 6n-1

b3 = 2 * 63-1

b3 = 2 * 62

b3 = 2 * 36

b3 = 72

Put n = 4

bn = 2 * 6n-1

b4 = 2 * 64-1

b4 = 2 * 63

b4 = 2 * 6 x 6 x 6

b4 = 12 * 36

b4 = 432

Put n = 5

bn = 2 * 6n-1

b5 = 2 * 65-1

b5 = 2 * 64

b5 = 2 * 6 x 6 x 6 x 6

b5 = 2 * 1296

b5 = 2592

Put n = 6

bn = 2 * 6n-1

b6 = 2 * 66-1

b6 = 2 * 65

b6 = 2 * 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 x 6

b6 = 2 * 7776

b6 = 15552

Put n = 7

bn = 2 * 6n-1

b7 = 2 * 67-1

b7 = 2 * 66

b7 = 2 * 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 x 6

b7 = 2 * 46656

b7 = 93312

Put n = 8

bn = 2 * 6n-1

b8 = 2 * 68-1

b8 = 2 * 67

b8 = 2 * 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 x 6

b8 = 2 * 279936

b8 = 559872

Put n = 9

bn = 2 * 6n-1

b9 = 2 * 69-1

b9 = 2 * 68

b9 = 2 * 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 x 6 x 6

b9 = 2 * 1679616

b9 = 3359232

Step 5: Now write the first nine terms of the sequence separate them by commas.

2, 12, 72, 432, 2592, 15552, 93312, 559872, 3359232

For finding the nth term of the sequence, you can use a geometric sequence calculator instead of solving the problem with such large calculations.

Example 2

Find the sum of the sequence of the given terms, 1, 4, 16, 64, 256, 1024.

Solution

Step 1: Identify the values form the given terms.

n = 6

r = 4

b1 = 1

Step 2: Take the general formula for the sum of the sequence.

Sum of the sequence for finite terms = bn = b (1 – rn) / 1 – r

Step 3: Put the identified values in the formula.

Sum of the sequence for finite terms = bn = b (1 – rn) / 1 – r

Sum of the sequence for finite terms = b6 = 1 (1 – 46) / 1 – 4

Sum of the sequence for finite terms = b6 = (1 – 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 x 4) / -3

Sum of the sequence for finite terms = b6 = (1 – 4096) / -3

Sum of the sequence for finite terms = b6 = –4095/-3 = 4095/3

Sum of the sequence for finite terms = b6 = 1365

# Summary

The geometric sequence is very useful for finding the nth term of the sequence or the sum of the sequence for finite or infinite. This sequence is very essential for the sequences of the terms. By using formulas of this sequence, you can easily solve any problem of this sequence.

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## Exceptional Student Series – Types of Students in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

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## Summary of Exceptional Student Series – types of students in Nigerian tertiary institutions

In brief, this guide in the exceptional student series; types of students in Nigerian tertiary institutions categorizes all students in Nigerian tertiary institutions into groups based on their performance, development and preparedness for the labour market through schooling.

It starts off from the lowest rank of studentship all through the highest rank of an exceptional student. The objective of the exceptional student series is to provide leading guidelines for students to ascend the ranks of studentship with clear foresight of the eventual labour market. This is to ensure that by the time such student as will follow the guide graduated, s/he will have carved for himself/herself a comfortable portion out of the increasingly rare spot in the labour market.

Accordingly, the aim of this post is to help students identify the current level that they are in so as to determine their next right move to profitable schooling.

## Let’s Begin with Introduction to the Exceptional Student Series – Types of Students in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

From Ivan Illich’s extraordinary groundwork – Deschooling Society in 1970; to John Taylor’s 2010 Weapons of Mass Instruction; from Salman Khan’s masterpiece – The One World Schoolhouse; to the expressive work of Ken Sir Robinson and Lou Aronica – Creative Schools; there have constantly been what one may call “anti-school” but pro-education campaigns. Top among these are Prince EA’s The People vs. The School System; and Sully Break’s Why I Hate School but Love Education.

Robert Kiyosaki’s Rich Dad, Poor Dad is perhaps the most influential work that challenges the regular school system. All of these revolutionary books converge at a place – the school and the labour market.

A strong take home from Jacqueline Grennon’s Schooling for Life: Reclaiming the Essence of Learning is that the essence of school stretches beyond test scores – it is not just to graduate with the best grade. Rather, Professor Jacqueline convincingly demonstrated that the ultimate end of schooling is the fruitful life that results from it.

### The Question

But how has schooling made the life of the average Nigerian graduate any more fruitful than their “uneducated” peers? We all know how the majority of Nigerian graduates will answer this question. I know a sociology graduate who wished he had invested his tuition fee in the business he was doing before enrolling in one of the top-ten most sort after university in Nigeria. Recently, a friend with Master’s in Microbiology told me had he known, he wouldn’t have gone for Master’s after his first degree and Postgraduate in Education – this is simply his expression of disappointment in the labour market. He is not alone. In fact, Nigerians have of recent hewed their disappointment in the labour market into the cant – “school na scam” – all thanks to Zlatan & Gururu for popularizing it.

But realistically if “school na scam”, what are our freshmen so excited about started university? Is there any use going to school, since it doesn’t guarantee fruitful and comfortable life as professor Jacqueline noted its essence to be? Invariably, there is every use going to school.

In truth, none of the works I have mentioned earlier is really “anti-school”. Instead, each and all are against the inadequacy of the current school system and advocating for one that places students on the trajectory of success – not only within the school system but as well in the labour market.

How then may students make the most of their schooling for success both in academics and in the labour market. Read on

## Exceptional Student Series – Types of Students in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

Working towards becoming an exceptional student is akin to a journey in boundless space. Exceptional student is the destination. But students need to know their current position in relation to the destination to be able to set their compass in the right direction.

At this point, one who does not already know should be asking what in the first place do I mean by exceptional student? As I mentioned earlier, exceptional student is the highest rank of studentship based on their performance, development and preparedness for the labour market through schooling.

### Nothing New But Better, Existing Categories of Students

If you will google types of student, you will see different categorization of studentship. Teachers categorize students based on their attitude in the class, approach to academic work, assimilation rate, learning styles, etc. This helps teachers in handling different kinds of students. There is the fun categorization of students based on their school character – The tough, the clown, the bully, slacker, noise maker, etc.

All of these categorizations are based on the student life within the school environment, involving academics. None is based on actual student performance or preparedness for the labour market. But it is true that the performance of a student or his/her preparedness for the labour market is independent of the category you place him/her based on school life or approach to academics. For example, a noise-maker may perform with high grades or low grades. And a clown may graduate better prepared for the labour market than the star.

Let us then look at the categories of students based on performance and preparedness for the labour market.

The types of students I in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions based on performance and preparedness for the labour market are:

1. Mis-placed students
2. Poor students
3. Good students
4. Excellent students
5. Exceptional students

### Mis-placed Students

Mis-placed students are students that are wrongly placed in a class, study group, or program. These are students that do not qualify to be among their current mate because they have not met the prerequisite for the class. Mis-placement of students may result from admission malpractice, making uninformed academic/career decision, or other educational malpractice at the earlier time.

This category of student rarely understands what the teacher/lecturer teaches. Unsuspecting individuals often label mis-placed students as dull or clueless. However, human as an intelligent being is hardly dull. Certain factors are responsible for underperformance. And one of such factors is mis-placement.

Fortunately, only little percentage of students fall under this category. In subsequent post in this exceptional student series; I shall discuss self-help for mis-placed students.

### Poor Students

Apart from mis-placed students; there is the poor student category. Poor students are students that although not mis-placed, usually perform below average in their academic work – they mostly attain and graduate with pass in semester and final examinations. The underperformance of poor students is seldom the result of inability to do better than it is due to attitudinal challenges. A student who possesses the prerequisite for a class but did not perform up to the minimum expectation simply indicates that something is amiss in the student’s attitude, to academics and possibly to life.

Although, in the spirit of “school na scam”; increasing number of people feel it doesn’t matter if one performs below average in academic, in reality it does. For one, that is a mediocre mindset which goes into every other endeavour in life thereby increasing the tendencies of underachievement. Secondly, accepting that underperformance is normal is also refusing to address the attitudinal issues that is responsible for it. This extends to lower such student’s chances in the post-graduation life (labour market).

People who believe that underperformance in academic is acceptable are often quick to give instances of individuals who perform badly at academic but went on to be successful in post-graduation life. Inasmuch as these instances are true; if you will take statistics, such individuals represent an insignificant fraction of the lot. In addition, a close study of the lives of such individuals will reveal a massive change in attitude and effort at the entrance to their success. This is not to mention that only few of poor students will have access to factors such as the right mentorship that is responsible for that attitudinal change. Also, not all will have the tenacity and perseverance to pull through the process.

P.S: Being a school dropout is not the same as being a poor student.

Can a poor student become a good student? Absolutely! A poor student cannot only become good but excellent and even exceptional.

How can a poor student become good, excellent and exceptional?

A poor student can become good, excellent and exceptional by following the exceptional student guide. Stick around for it.

### Good Students

We now come to the largest bracket – the category of good students. There are different definition of a good student using different criteria. However, this post – exceptional student series – types of students focuses on academic performance and level of preparedness for the labour market.

As such, let’s define good students from that light.

#### Who is a good student?

A good student is a student who plays well by the school rules/societal norms and attain the minimum expectation for their studies. Good students score between 180 to around 290 in JAMB/UTME; and also attains and graduates with between third class to second class upper (lower credit to upper credit) in semester and final year examinations.

Because good students play by school rules or societal norms; they study within the frame of the course outline that the lecturer gives. Good students have fair understanding of the personality of the lecturers and how to get their needed mark from them. Additionally, they hold sway to one or more hypothetical statements about school and the labour market such as:

• Once you graduate with 2.1 and above, you will not have any problem in the labour market
• Graduating from university is automatic ticket to comfortable life after
• Immediately you graduate and complete your NYSC, you will get a job
• Promises of job by their relatives – without ruling out the 1% of unscrupulous public servants that fulfil this illicit promise through nepotism.

Majority of graduates fall under this category. This is why the disappointment is much and commonplace in the Nigerian society.

But the current experiences of these many, should become the lesson of anyone that is still a student in Nigeria at this moment. Being a good student alone is not sufficient for a promising experience in the labour market. You must be more!

### Excellent Students

We now come the much-desired grade of studentship – the excellent students. Good number of parents wish their children to be excellent students. Excellent students are the grade masters and mistresses. They the highest grades possible and are their teacher’s delight.

#### But who is an excellent student?

An excellent student is a student who plays perfectly by the school rules/societal norms; have mastered the personality of the teacher/lecturer; may or may not have mastery of the course of study; but knows how to get the scores they need to attain beyond the minimum expectation for their study.

These are the first class and distinction students. The joy of being an excellent student is respect and special treatment you receive within the school environment – which sometimes make them arrogant. This class of student hardly goes out to check their result on the board because once it is released; more than enough will call to update them. An excellent student failing in a course is a breaking news in the campus publication. Concerned members of the community will greet such news with “what happened?” and if care is not taken, they will assume the lecturer has played foul.

Just like good students, excellent students also mostly believe in hypothetical statements about school and the labour market; although such statements are somewhat truer (less hypothetical) for excellent students than for good students.

Nonetheless, good as it sounds and feels to be an excellent student; recent experiences have proven that it is as much to be an excellent student as it is to be a good student. Being an excellent student nowadays does not guarantee that such student will automatically get his/her dream job after graduation. This is especially if they are excellent without the mastery of the subject.

To guarantee a spot in the labour market after graduation; students must be more – they have to be exceptional!

### Exceptional Students

We now come to the ultimate level of studentship with regards to performance and preparedness for the labour market. Under normal circumstances, excellent level of studentship is enough for any student to guarantee a comfortable spot in the labour market after graduation. But the Nigerian society is not under normal circumstances. There are excellent students without being excellent at their field of specialization just as we have masters without mastery of the subject. This is why the Nigerian student who wishes to guarantee a spot for himself/herself in the labour market after graduation must be exceptional.

#### Who is an exceptional student?

An exceptional student is a student who possesses a perfect understanding of the personality of the teacher/lecturer; knows how to get the scores they need to attain the grade they require; have mastery of their field of specialization beyond the framework of the course outline; understands the evolution of the labour market and positions himself/herself  for eventually the best and most suitable position for himself/herself in the labour market.

An exceptional student is different from all other levels of studentship in that they do not believe in hypothetical statements. This is because they are aware of the facts in the industry. This is the category of students that make things happen. These students understand that school is beyond the grade one obtains from examinations.

While graduates from the other grades of studentship move about with files, folders and hope; students who graduate as an exceptional student get offer calls or acts with certainty of their benefit from the labour market.

When others are excited about wearing khaki and boasting of being graduates, this class of students clears their portion on the labour farm. When after their passing out parade, the other class begin to ask the big questions, picking up files and placing reminder calls; the exceptional students retire to their ready-made portion.

Who wouldn’t want to become and exceptional student? None! But how to get there is the focus of the next posts in the series.

## How to Choose the Right Course & Higher Institution in Nigeria

How to Choose the Right Course & Higher Institution in Nigeria provides the leading guides on how to systematically make the right career and tertiary institution choices in Nigeria.

This post presents statistical data and admission pattern in Nigeria over a period of ten consecutive years. Thence, it provides logical approach to help aspirants arrive at choices that are the result of their own thinking; one that will ease the struggles for gaining admission into tertiary institutions. And decisions that result from exercises such as this ensure, to certain level, that the student get the most of their schooling; and safeguard success at the eventual labour market.

## Introduction to How to Choose the right Course & Higher Institution in Nigeria

Securing admission into tertiary institutions in Nigeria has become almost as difficult as securing a good job after graduation from the same institutions –universities, polytechnics and colleges.

### Delay due to fixed choices

If you have not been there or heard, you will find it exaggerating if I tell you that there are people that have sought admission for 3 years – without success! Indeed, there are some that spent five years at home due to this struggle – sigh.

Some people stay longer because they wanted to study a particular course by all means – it is the course or no other. Yet, there are the category that wanted to study at a particular institution at all cost – there or none.

Now, the baffling thing is that sometimes; the reason for this insistence is nothing logical but the result of a hunch “they developed” at some point earlier in primary or secondary school. Good enough, a sheer percentage of this adamant set of aspirants eventually get what they wanted. Still, fewer ended up realizing that what they got is worth the wait. Larger percentage usually end up discovering that the alternatives could as well have served the purpose.

### More issues in choosing the right course & higher institutions in Nigeria

This is not the only hurdle that aspiring higher education students in Nigeria face. Take statistics if you would, and see the many ‘wrong’ career decisions that Nigerian teens make at post-secondary level. You will see JAMB/UTME applicants who know too little career alternatives. It is certain, that you will also see many university students studying courses not out of choice but due to lack of alternatives. There is also the sect who is wishing they could choose another course all over again. The bold among the last sect usually drop out of a course at 300 – 400L just to start another course of interest all from the scratch.

### Effects of not tackling admission issues the right way

In all, year after year, many aspirant losses precious time – in an era where employers require workers to be as young as possible. This has indirectly made many parents to erroneously believe that the best way to meet the young-age demand of employers in the labour market is to cut short the process. Hence, you see supposedly secondary school students in tertiary institutions; primary education is informally reduced from 6 years to 4 or even 3!

Little wonder the increasing number of funny sad stories we hear from across our campuses nowadays. Even more unfortunate is the inefficiency/reduced productivity in the labour market. More and more young adults have graduated not to trust in systems and processes. Some honourable parents have come to live in secret shame of what their “well-trained, university educated” children have turned out to be – executive/educated drug addicts and polished-English kidnappers, scammers, armed robbers, etc.

### Lesson from Experience

All these are proofs that rushing the child or cutting corners is not the right way to tackle delay in admission due to wrong career decisions. In succeeding sections (posts), I will present the statistics of the prevalent wrong career decisions. Also, I will outline the systematic approach to arriving at informed choices for success.

## Facts from Data on How to Choose the Right Course & Higher Institution in Nigeria

In this section, I highlight empirical data representing the dilemma of JAMB/UTME applicants over the period of 10 years (from 2010 to 2020).

We made the following findings through survey and thorough analysis of JAMB/UTME statistics starting from 2014.

It should interest you to know that we have held training/career guidance and counselling sections on this matter for prospective applicants in different schools since 2016.

That being said,

### what facts do we have from data on how to choose the right course & higher institution in Nigeria? Below are five key facts about admission processes in Nigeria:

1. Analysis of JAMB/UTME applications since 2010 reveals that out of the 630 courses available in Nigeria’s tertiary institutions to choose from during JAMB/UTME application; only 15 courses accounts for about 80% of all applications every year – i.e. 80% of applicants choose one of the 15 courses.
2. On average, only about 15% of the total applicants for these courses are offered admission. The rest of the 85% of those that choose these 15 common courses are not offered admission into them. Instead, the remaining 85% are offered admission into other courses.
3. Similarly, out of about 230 degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria, 32 – 42% of all annual applicants choose one of top ten institutions.
4. As a result of 1 – 3 above, the competition to get admission into any of the top ten institutions for each of the 15 courses is twice or more than for others.
5. Finally, majority of the students who make choices number 1 to 3 above do not make these choices according to any “informed” guidance. Instead, we found out that the 5 commonest reasons for the choice of these 15 courses and top ten universities are:
1. Seeming course prestige – the society makes it as though these courses are better than others.
1. Job prospects – applicants believe that those who study these courses have higher chances of getting job after graduation.
1. Money factor – people make applicants believe that career in these courses lead to a more paying jobs than others.
1. Lack of knowledge of alternatives – most of applicants do not know any more than the 15 common courses even though there are 630 courses.
1. Outside influence – some students choose a course because their parents, peers and family want it for them.

## What does this data mean?

From the data above, we can deduce the following:

### 1.      Although this depends on other factors, if an applicant chooses courses other than the 15 most competed for; such an applicant will have increased his/her chances of securing admission.

However, I do not mean to say that an applicant should forgo the desire to study a particular course simply because it is competitive. In fact, that may be a reason to actually vie for it.

Nonetheless, before an applicant enter into the competition; s/he should weigh their chances based on the admission criteria. If s/he fails to win the race, s/he will be offered admission into other courses anyways. So, why not pick what you will be offered that is also your choice?

Regardless and most importantly, is the origin of the desire to study a particular course. In the strongest terms, applicants should make their choice of course of study should be based on proven conviction which in itself is anchored on extensive exploration of empirical variables – I cover this later in the article.

### 2.       In the same way, if an applicant chooses institutions other the top ten; s/he would have increased the chances of securing admission.

Again, I do not mean to say “run away from competition and give up your wish”. What I mean to ask is why do applicants insist it must be a particular institution? Is that choice the result of any logic or findings? Or is it due to the prestigious identity of the top ten institutions? What aim are they trying to achieve by getting one of the top ten at all cost?

If there is a nearest alternative from the remaining 220 institutions that will meet the targeted aims; then there is that option for applicants.

Once more, choice of tertiary institution should be based on verified logic; not only wish. It is sometimes silly to think that some chooses a tertiary institution because it has large expanse of land; or beautiful environs; or classic social life. Yes, these are good for consideration but at the secondary level. What are the primary variables? I discuss them later in the article.

### 3.      Some Courses are no more as prestigious, others are more prestigious than before

This is a fact that applicants may not have come to realize. But the labour market is changing at a pace not foreseen. Moreover, course prestige is a wrong factor to consider in choosing course of study. An applicant who picks a course due to its seeming prestige, values other people’s perspective more than his/hers. And one who chooses other people’s opinion over his or hers; ends up hurting his or her own feelings.

That a course is prestigious, does not mean everyone will automatically find pleasure and fulfilment doing it. What appeals to different people differs just as individual temperaments, gifts and talents.

### 4.      The Country (World) is Going Entrepreneurial; There is always Prospects Where There is Passion

It is true, graduates in courses like the medical field tend to get job more easily than their counterparts in other fields. But what is the point getting a job that one does not like? Nowadays, people tend to prioritize the need to secure a job so high as to overshadow what suits the applicants. It is not until some get into the course or the job that they will realize it does not align with them.

Sometime, not too long ago; people used to think that studying engineering is among the automatic tickets to job offers upon graduation. But now that we have many engineers as managers in hospitality and financial institutions; perspectives are changing.

Fact is that we can’t all be medical personnel, or engineers, computer experts, microbiologists, legal practitioners, accountants, economists, media workers, public and business administrators or political scientists. But that seems to be pretty much of what we are in Nigerian tertiary institutions.

A balanced society needs more than these. And in a society where entrepreneurship is taking over; the less threaded paths offer more opportunities.

### 5.      No Job Pays Enough

This is especially for those yet with the notion that studying some selected courses automatically lead to higher paying jobs. Anyone with a reasonable observatory skill knows that nowadays, no job pays enough. Thus, this is also a wrong factor to consider in choosing career path.

## Systematic Way on How to Choose the Right Course & Higher Institution in Nigeria

Alright,

In this last part of how to choose the right course & higher institution in Nigeria, let me outline the systematic approach.

The systematic way on how to choose the right course & higher institution in Nigeria includes:

1. Understand that every man is unique, in nature and in calling
2. Self-Awareness Research
3. Course and Career Research
4. Make empirical decision
5. Make institution research
6. Take empirical decision

## Conclusion of How to Choose the Right Course & Higher Institution in Nigeria

In this post, I discussed the hurdles that JAMB/UTME applicants face in choosing the right course & higher institution in Nigeria. Also, I presented the summary of statistical data on admission pattern in Nigeria over a period of ten consecutive years; together with its implication from the viewpoint of easing the difficulty of securing admission.

Finally, the post outlined the systematic approach to chose the right course & higher institution in Nigeria.

In subsequent article, I will discuss how to go about each of the six basic steps in choosing the right course and higher institution in Nigeria.

If you find this post helpful, kindly let me know in the comment box below. Please also let me know how eager you are to read the continuation of the post. Do you think I missed something? What would you like me to address in remaining part of this post? Please feel to let me know.

[qsm quiz=3]

Check back for the continuation

# November 2 CGC Seminar

## General Introduction to LeadinGuides CGC Seminar

CGC Seminar is one of the categories of seminar that the team at LeadinGuides Educational Technologies periodically organize. This seminar primarily targets teenage Nigerians – students in secondary schools. However, it does not exempts other individuals who find it worthwhile. In fact, we encourage as many people as possible to attend this event.

## The November 2 CGC Seminar

An edition of the CGC Seminar will hold on Saturday, November 2, 2019. The venue of this edition is the American Corner section of Murtala Mohammed  Library Complex. This is located at Ahmadu Bello Way, Nassarawa, Kano. The seminar kicks-off at 11:00 am prompt.

## What to Learn at the November 2 CGC Seminar

In each of this seminar category, we address topical issues bordering educational and career decisions among teenage Nigerians. We also provide practical guidelines to help them make informed decisions that best suites.

The Career Guidance and Counselling Seminar is birthed out of research findings in which the company conducted between 2014 and 2016.

In the research, the company unveiled many career and educational decision issues among teens at the post secondary level. Some of such issues are that:

• majority of JAMB applicants – secondary schools graduates and prospective higher education students –  know far too little career alternatives. For instance, we analyzed JAMB/UTME statistics since the last 10 years. And we found out that that out of the 630 courses offered across tertiary institutions in Nigeria from which applicants can choose from, only 15 courses accounts for about 80% of all applications for every year of the last ten years.
• most career decisions are not based on any  empirical method but will and wishes. For example we found out that two of the most common reasons choosing a course is Seeming course prestige and outside influence.

We also traced the effects of wrong educational and career decisions to poor academic performance, unemployment and low productivity at the labour market.

From these findings we have structured robust career guidance and counselling programme to help students avoid loopholes involved in making career and educational decisions, provide step-by-step formula to arriving at a well-informed choices and also to coach them on personal development for high academic and life successes.

The content of this particular edition of our  career guidance and counselling seminar include:

• Career decision trend;
• Analysis Report of JAMB/UTME statistics over the last 10 years;
• Career Decision Logic: the right and wrong formula; and
• The Success Ahead: Bulletproof against failure

## Registration

Registration for the November 2 CGC Seminar opened on Monday, October 21, 2019.

While many students register at their schools – that is, for schools that will be attending as group – then the school’s rep registers the students at arrival; independent individuals who wishes to attend register online via this link (click to go to registration page).

You may also register at arrival on the day of the seminar.

For further details, call/message us at +2348067689217 or our email [email protected]

# In one Line:

This article with keyword: How-choose-Final-Year-Project-Topic s comprehensively discusses the steps involved in choosing final year project topic in Computer Science and Information Technology.

# Introduction

This is the third article of the five-series comprehensive guide on how to write final year project topic proposal in Computer Science and Information Technology for final year undergraduate students.

Because I made references to the first and second introductory articles, I advise that you click here to first of all read the part 1 and then here for part 2 before you continue with this. However you can still read and understand this particular article alone.

The article is based on research from books along with self-experimentation and experience. The book I consulted in this particular article is:

Hassani, H. (2012). How to do the Final Year Projects A practical Guideline for Computer Science and IT students.

The first step in writing a final year project proposal is choosing of the project topic or topics as the case may be. There has to be at least a topic to propose before writing the proposal.

Choose of Project Topic is not only a step in writing final project proposal. It is also the first step in the overall project involvements. And just as the foundation of a building, the success and failure of the entire project to a great extent depends on the topic the student selects. Let’s therefore look at the steps involved in choosing project.

Quickly just before we discuss the steps in choosing project topic(s), let us see the various sources of project topics.

## Sources of Project Topics

There are generally about three sources of final year project topics. These include:

### 1.      School/Departmental Publications

This is when the school or department publishes a list of project topics at the beginning of every semester from which the final year students for that year chooses from. The method and manner in which schools or department publishes the topic differs from school to school. While some schools publish the list of project topic only, others publish the list of topics with little explanation of the problem area.

From the list, final year students choose the project topic that interests them. This source of project topic however has a couple of drawbacks. For instance, more than one student may be interested in the same project topic. Usually in such case, if group projects are allowed such students are made to carry out the project as group work – you can fathom the inconvenience if one of such students did not plan working with others. If on the other side the school or department does not allow group projects, one of the students (usually the later one) will be forced to pick another topic.

Another drawback of school or departmental project topic publication is the inadequacy of the list – or when the topics do not go round for every student. Yet another is that the students may not have enough insight into the topics and therefore may face several unforeseen irregularities that may mar the entire work.

These and other reasons made many students not to bank on project topics from the school or department. Many schools and department also no longer see publishing project topics a necessity.

### 2.      Project Supervisor Suggestions

This is when individual project supervisors publish the list of project topics which he or she wants the final year students under him or her to work on. Supervisors’ list of project topics usually comes with two conditions. First, the supervisor may mandate the students to pick one topic from his/her list. Alternatively, the supervisor may allow the students freedom to propose topic(s) of their choice – but subject to approval.

Note that some schools and departments publish supervisors list alongside the supervisors’ list of final year project topics.

This source of final year project topics also has similar drawbacks as the school and departmental publications. In addition, some academics (faculties), proponents of students’ choice of final year project topic, argue that given students final year project topics takes away the avenue for the students to demonstrate their critical thinking and problem-identification abilities. However, opponent (of students’ choice of final year project topics) academics or faculties counter that limiting students’ choice to a list of given problem builds their ability to adapt, concentrate and tackle any given problem.

### 3.      Students Proposal

Now this is the last source of final year project topics – that which comes from the students. Regardless of the other sources of final year project topics discussed earlier, almost all schools allow final year students to suggest or propose their own final year project topics. However, whether the supervisor, project coordinator or school/departmental panel depends on the criteria they consider in their proposal acceptance process.

Generally, these criteria are what I stated as objective of final year project proposal earlier in the second part of this series.

## Step By Step Guide To Choosing Final Year Project Topics

Alright, now that we have seen the various sources of final year project topics; let’s see the step by step guide to choosing final year project topics.

There are basically three steps to choosing final year project topic. These include:

1. Self-Awareness Study
2. Observation and Research
3. Selection

### Self-Awareness Study

Whether picking branded clothes from the shelves or sowing tailored ones, one must know his or her measurement to get the best fit. In much the same way, the first step in choosing a final year project topic is to better discover self.

Self-discovery, it is said, is best accomplished in solitude. Hence, the student need to look inwardly to identify the person s/he is, what skills s/he has and the career path s/he intends to take. These realizations will not only help the student to choose a topic that s/he will be interested to work on but will also be delighted doing so because it will also means advancement in an intended directions.

Use these questions to discover yourself, in terms of academics and not in the general sense of the term.

1. Who are you? Describe yourself in terms of your emotions or temperaments. What industry are you passionate about – is it education, health, sports, culture, religion, tourism, politics, entertainment, life style/fashion or what? This industry refers to what you love talking about when you are not on your work. Or the area from whose discussion or issues interests you. For example, some techies love talking about education. Although they may not be in education, they seem to be readily engrossed on education matters whenever it crosses their path.
2. Write your ambition. Who do you want to be? What career path do you desire taking after graduation – android app development, web programming, windows application or what? The career path should be more than a mere want. It should be a strong desire. And you should be convinced to already possess foundation skills for such career.
3. What is your current skill level? What technologies are you already proficient at or which technologies can you easily upscale to master level? This should be technologies you use to implement a given project to completion.

With these pieces of information down, the student should now be able to choose relevant project topic. The student uses these pieces of information to limit or streamline his or her choices only to topics that will interest him/her.

### With that up-sleeve, let us now move on to Observation and Research

The second step in choosing a final year project topic is observation and research. The student, after self-discovery, observes or looks around the industry of his or her passion (as discussed above) and the various activities that is carried out in the industry. Afterwards try answering the following questions:

1. What tasks tend to pose challenge to pupil in the industry, what problem? You can easily get the answer to the question using the key characteristics of computer – speed, accuracy and efficiency.

Look for activities that are seemingly slow – activities that cause delay on delivery.

Also, look for activities that are prone to error – activities that workers seem to make a lot of mistakes.

Finally, look for activities that workers/stakeholders are not doing right at all. That is, workers are not doing what they are supposed to do.

Try to get as many of this kind of activity as possible.

1. Find out, what are the processes involved in these activities? Write the processes clearly in steps and in orderly manner. Also find out the reason for the delay, error and inefficiency in the system. Finally, gather suggestions to solving the problems of the system from the key players.
2. Research and ascertain which of these activities can be automated? Which one do you think can be improved upon ‘using computer’? Write out the automatable activities from the in-automatable activities. Then strike out the later and use the former to proceed with the next steps.
3. Finally, research – usually by discussing with colleagues – i.e. fellow Computer/IT professionals – to list out the technical tools and skills required for each of the automatable activities.
4. Finally, creatively title each of the topics. Remember to give enticing, professional and descriptive titles. The title is the first thing people get to know about your project. And it determines whether they will be pick interest in the project to find out more about it or not.

With these, you should have enough topics to choose from. Then we move to the next step of deciding which final year project topic to select.

Note that the next (selection) section is also relevant to final year students who wish to pick from the other two sources of final year project topic that I discussed earlier.

### Selection of Final Year Project Topic

Now that the final year student has a couple of final year project topics from the previous activities, it is time to demonstrate the power of choice.

Prior to outlining the steps to choose project topic, it is pertinent to note that you should not select a topic based on the topic alone. Instead, your choice should be informed and logical.

Now, let us see the steps to choose final year project topic from a list of topics. This list may be that which the students generated through the steps that I discussed earlier. Or the list may be given by your final year project supervisor. Finally, the list may be from departmental publication.

Wherever the source of the list of final year project topics, there are the same steps to select suitable one(s). I outline the steps below. Note that there are three key criteria to base the choice of final year project topics. These are:

• The interestingness of the topic to the student,
• The student’s background knowledge of the topic, and
• The technical skills required for the accomplishment of the topic which the student possess.

If you follow my guide on choosing final year project topic from the beginning, all these three variables should be available to you for all the topics in your list. You should get the interestingness of the topic as well as the background knowledge from questions 1 and 2 under self-awareness while the technical skills required for the accomplishment of the topic which the student possess can be gotten from comparing question three under the same self-awareness and number 4 tips under Observation and Research. We will now assign numerical value to each of the variables and determine how you can select the most suitable topics for you. Follow these steps to arrive at this.

1. Make the list of available topics and the variables into a table in the format below.
 Variables  Project Topics Interestingnessof topic BackgroundKnowledge Technical skills requirement Total score 100% 100% 100% Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Topic 4 Topic 5

1. Assuming a scale of 1 to 100% for each variable, grade the topics under each column
2. Find the cumulative score of each topic and record under total score
3. Select the first three topics for your proposal

This should leave you with three good topics for your final year project. Remember that the final year project is crucial to your successful graduation. Hence, do not rush things. Do it diligently and do it right. More so, do not lie to yourself, after the final selection; ask yourself if truly the topics interest you and if you can accomplish it within the available timeframe.

More importantly, this is not the end. You cannot just select the topics and start working on it – no! You still have to defend the topic you have selected and convince your final year project supervisor, coordinator or panel that the topics meet the basic requirement and that you will be able to accomplish the task.

This can be accomplished in two steps, a convincing proposal and a killing presentation (if applicable in your case). A number of schools or supervisors require students to write and submit a formal proposal for their topics and also make presentation on it to the department’s academic judge – the lecturers of which your supervisor is probably a member of.

This leads us to our next guide – how to make a draft and organize the proposal.

# Conclusion

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## Meaning, Objectives and Importance of Final Year Project

In one Line:

This post with keywords: Meaning-objectives-importance-final-year-project-proposal clearly defines what final year project is, what it sets to achieve and the importance of learning final year project proposal.

# Introduction

This article is the second of a five-series article of providing practical guide on how to write final year project proposal for Computer Science and Information Technology students.

# So Let’s Begin, What is Final Year Project Proposal?

## Meaning of final year projects proposal

A final year project is a document that students write during the academic year and submit at the end of spring semester (Qin, 2017). Spring is between March to June and September to December. Since academic calendar of tertiary institutions in Nigeria is not stable and subject to change, it is safer to say final year project proposal is a document that final year students write and submit at the first or second semester of the final year of an undergraduate programme.

## Objectives of Final Year Project Proposal

Now what are the objectives of final year project proposals? What does it aims to achieve?

The project proposal typically contains outlines of the basic plan of how students expect to accomplish their final year project or its objectives thereof. It is a document that is meant to persuade the project supervisor, coordinator or panels of two things viz.:

• That the work is worthwhile or a real contribution to a (unit or sect of) society such as organization, industry or people. Real contribution here implies that the outcome of the project is a solution to real life problem.
• That the solution requires the application of technical or professional (computer) skills which the students had learned throughout the programme.

In other words, final year proposal tends to prove that the student intends and is capable to use what he or she has learned to solve societal problem.

## So why is it important to learn How to Write Final Year Project Proposal?

How to write a final year project proposal is essential for every undergraduate because final year project proposal in computer Science and Information Technology has particular formal structures. There are formats that the student must employ and there are things that s/he must include. If these things are missing, then the project supervisor, coordinator or panel may reject the project which the student intended to do. This will mean that such student will be forced to undertake a project for which he or she has not adequately prepared or premeditated. And this could reduce the student’s chances of getting the best grade possible in the course.

# Finalizing…

As stated earlier, this article finalizes the ground-setting for the practical guide on how to write a final year project proposal. The remaining three articles in the final year project proposal thread will thrash the subject comprehensively but concisely.

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# Works Cited

Qin, T. (2017, February 22). How to Write a Final Year Project Proposal. Retrieved March 2019, from Do MY ESSAY : https://www.domyessay.net/blog/how-to-write-a-final-year-project-proposal/

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## In one line

This article with keywords: How-Write-final-Year-Project-Proposal-computer-science-Information-Technology provides final year undergraduate students of Computer Science or Information Technology with an authoritative but concise way of writing project proposals.

## Introduction

In Nigeria, just as in other parts of the world, Final Year projects are considered as one of the core modules or courses for computer science and information technology students at the undergraduate levels (Hassani, 2012). The project itself is a practical software development or research work (as may be the case in university) in which final year students integrate and apply the learning outcomes from the programme in tackling real-life problem.

At the National Diploma (ND) level, Computer Science students offer the course as COM 229 and it has a total of 4 Credit units. Also at the Higher National Diploma (HND) level, it comes under the code of COM 429 with a total of 6 credit units. Similar heavy weight is assigned to final year projects even at the Bachelor’s Degree level in the universities. However, the course coding and credit unit allocation may differ across universities. For course coding, while some universities use the CSC initials and the numerical level description, some use CIT and others prefer COSC. As at the time of writing this article, the National Open University of Nigeria uses CIT 449 for the compulsory course of 6 credit units – Final Year Project.

However the differences in course-coding and credit allocation for Final Year projects across the tertiary institutions offering an undergraduate diploma in Computer Science or Information Technology, its appearance across the curricular resonate the belief in the importance Final Year Project as part and parcel of developing the necessary work and character skills for a career in the field. More so, the heavy credit unit consolidate that belief.

In addition to proving the work-readiness of the students in the field, aims to allow students to cumulatively demonstrate the knowledge and skills acquired from other modules or courses undertaken throughout the undergraduate program. Hence, it is an assessment tool for academics. This perhaps is the reason for paying so much attention for the course.

A course with so much credit unit such as this can either boost or greatly trim down the graduating point average of the students. And although the graduating point average is not usually the true test of proficiency, it is an indication that speaks in the absence of the owner. Many employers, especially government agencies, base their judgement on this. Low points could also hinder or slow one’s career in the field.

By and large, one of the best ways to a remarkable final year project is a very good proposal. Not many students are aware of this fact. And for some who does, drafting such proposal usually prove challenging. This is even more so for students who did think of it beforehand until the project supervisor or coordinator announces for submission.

However, in order to make the guide an easy read; the entire guide is divided into five series. Click here to continue with the second series.

Meanwhile, Here is a List of Works Cited

Hassani, H. (2012). How to do the Final Year Projects A practical Guideline for Computer Science and IT students.

You might want to check the book out on Konga.com