Lagos Amends 2022/2023 Harmonized Calendar

Press Release:

The Office of Education Quality Assurance (OEQA) has announced a change in the dates earlier slated for the mid-term break of the Second Term in the 2022/2023 Academic year from Friday, 24th February to Friday, 3rd March, 2023, as approved by the Honourable Commissioner for Education, Mrs Folasade Adefisayo.

The Director General, Office of Education Quality Assurance (OEQA) Mrs. Abiola Seriki-Ayeni disclosed at a Stakeholders’ meeting held recently on the review of the 2022/2023 harmonised academic calendar due to the forthcoming general elections.

She explained that the essence of the engagement is to ensure that everybody is on the same page as regards the second-term school activities and the need to accommodate the forthcoming general elections in its entirety.

The DG, who was represented by the Director, Planning, Research and Statistics (OEQA), Mr. Remi Abdul noted that the earlier dates for the mid-term break falls within the election period hence the need for a shift in the date for a week to allow parents pick up their wards from school without hindrance due to the restriction of movement associated with the election days.

It was also noted that another important reason for the change of dates bothers on safeguarding and child protection and convenience as a result of the presidential and National Assembly elections slated for Saturday, February 25, 2023, coinciding with the date boarding school students are expected to resume in the earlier in the schedule for the Second term harmonized 2022/2023 academic calendar.

In furtherance to the change, the first half of the second term is to hold from the 9th of January to Thursday, February 23, 2023, whilst Open Day for Primary schools will be on Wednesday, February 22nd, 2023, and Thursday, February 23rd, 2023 for Secondary Schools.

The mid-term break would hold from Friday, 24th of February to Friday, 3rd of March, 2023. While the second half of the second term is expected to hold from Monday, 6th of March to Thursday, 6th of April, 2023.

Lagos Amends 2022/2023 Harmonized Calendar

Platform That Pays Teachers Real Money

Make no mistake about it, this is a new era. Technology have changed our world and the way we do things. It has changed us and will continue to do so. Education, being the originator of technology is not exempted from its twirl. In fact, it is at the forefront of its impact.

We have seen technology change how teachers teach and how students learn. Unlike in the past, one teacher can now teach unlimited number of students at once. Technology offers students wide range of choices for different kinds of learners. It is one of the major factors that affects students’ academic performance today – both negatively and positively.

Perhaps, the greatest impact of technology, especially the internet, on education is that it offers both teachers and students access to limitless number of resources as well as the opportunity for collaboration.

This way, the internet is solving the biggest limitation of education in the earlier centuries – i.e., lack of resources. Unfortunately, not enough number of teachers are taking advantage of this opportunity.

Many continue to constrain themselves to their textbooks and old strategies. To improve education, we must teach and encourage every teacher to take advantage of technology. It could be as simple as making them to research new resources.

As leaders in educational technology, LeadinGuides has launched the very first platform that pays teachers real money in 2023 and beyond.

What is the Platform That Pays Teachers Real Money?

The platform that pays teachers real money is a system that rewards teachers for website activities as encouragements to go technological. For each website activity, a teacher gains between 1 to 500 points which he or she can exchange for equal amount in local currency.

LeadinGuides designed the platform

What is the Limit of the Platform that Pays teachers Real Money?

Hypothetically, there is no limit to how much a teacher can earn from the platform. However, in reality, a teacher can currently earn up to ₦437 per day. This means you can earn up to ₦13, 110 per month.

How does a teacher earn from the platform?

There are many ways to earn from the platform. You earn for just visiting the website daily. You earn for using their lesson notes and even for connecting with other teachers.

We have listed out all the standard ways and how much you earn per activity on the Ways to Earn page.

Steps to join the platform

You can join the platform that pays teachers real money in Nigeria starting from January 2023 in 3 simple and free steps:

  1. Register on the website
  2. Confirm your registration
  3. Subscribe to a membership plan

How to register on LeadinGuides

  1. Visit the website – www.LeadinGuides.com
  2. On the website, check under membership at the top menu and click on register.
  3. This will take you to the subscription plans page. Under free member, click on the join now button.
  4. This will take you to the registration page. Fill in your details. Only your username and name will be displayed on public directory if you choose to allow it. See our privacy policy and terms and conditions of service.
  5. Submit

That is it!

However, to complete your registration, you have to confirm your email address. Hence, after the registration, check your email box immediately and confirm your registration by clicking the link that we will send to you.

That is all, you will start earning immediately after you register.

LeadinGuides Partners Northford

LeadinGuides Partners Northford

We are glad to announce the news our first partnership of the year 2023 with Northford Center for Advanced Studies, Abuja.

Northford Center for Advanced Studies is one of the most elite training and business development institutions in Nigeria.

It is an autonomous training, research and entrepreneurial development center in the country’s capital. In partnership with renowned universities and institutions from across the world, it offers both an in-campus and online training and certify graduates and industry professionals in different areas of specialization.

Its Executive Training programs serve leaders of top multinational companies as well as public office holders in Nigeria.

This partnership see to the standardization of our teachers’ training. As a result, we shall henceforth be offering these our short courses at the institution:

  • Teacherpreneurship Training
  • Teacher’s Induction Training
  • Instructional Design Training
  • Strategies for Sustainable School Growth – for School Executives & Administrators

We shall be announcing the schedule of these short courses in an ongoing basis.

Inside Northford Center
Northford Conference Room
Northford’s Conference Room
LeadinGuides Partners Northford
Northford Office – 4th Floor, Katsina House, Central Business District, Abuja – Nigeria

Question Papers – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2

Introduction to Question Papers – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2

This is primary 1 History question paper for first term. It contains standard multiple-choice questions. You can use this for either Assessment for Learning (AFL) or examination.

However, we only recommend that you use these questions along with our History lesson plan. Otherwise, check the questions and be sure to pick only the questions on contents you have treated with your pupils. This is to avoid discrepancies.

To The History Teacher

Depending on your school, you may do the following exercises with your pupils orally. We recommend that you explain these questions and the options in local dialect before you ask the pupils to choose options.

—- Lesson 1 (First Period Assessment) Questions —-


  1. Napoleon Bonaparte was the emperor of ________________.
    1. France
    2. England
    3. America
    4. Nigeria
  2. Napoleon Bonaparte was a great ____________.
    1. Lawyer
    2. Doctor
    3. Soldier
    4. Teacher
  3. Which one of the following is not correct? If we know the history
    1. If we know the history behind important things, we will not respect them.
    2. If we know the history of good things, we will learn how to make them better.
    3. If we know the history of a problem, it will help us to solve it more easily.
    4. If we know the history behind our important culture, we will value it more.
  4. Which one is not a reason why we study history?
    1. To be able to solve present problem
    2. To value the time we have now
    3. To be able to make the future better
    4. So that we can revenge the past
  5. We become responsible members of the society by _____________________.
    1. solving the problems of the society to earn a living
    2. not following the rules of the society
    3. refusing to do our work
    4. creating problems for the society
  6. What is the first step to solve a problem?
    1. Understanding the problem
    2. Recreating the problem
    3. Avoiding the problem
    4. All the options are correct
  7. We understand a problem by ______________________.
    1. learning about its past
    2. forgetting about its past
    3. crying over it
    4. not thinking about it
  8. What is the meaning of past in history?
    1. The time since the beginning of the world.
    2. Everything that has happened since the beginning of the world.
    3. Places, people, animals and plants that existed since the beginning of the world.
    4. All of the above.
  9. Which one of the following does not belong to the meaning of history as the past?
    1. Your first day in Primary 1.
    2. The day you will finish University.
    3. Your best teacher in Kindergarten
    4. The time you were a baby that could not walk.
  10. An object or event in the present time which shows stories that happened in the past are called ___________.
    1. provable
    2. evidence
    3. story
    4. history
  11. Any story that does not have a proof is said to be a ______________.
    1. report
    2. rumor
    3. discussion
    4. preaching
  12. Learning about the provable stories of the past describes history as __________________.
    1. the past.
    2. study of the past.
    3. the present.
    4. study of the present
  13. What is the first thing to do if you hear a rumor of security threat?
    1. Ask for proof
    2. First avoid the threat
    3. Circulate the provable story
    4. Don’t believe the rumor

—- Lesson 2 (Second Period) Assessment Questions —-


  1. Those who study and write about history are called ______________.
    1. Archeologist
    2. Historians
    3. Old people
    4. Scientists
  2. Sources of history” mean ________________.
    1. Where historians work.
    2. Where historians live.
    3. Where historians get history from.
    4. Where historians teach history.
  3. How many major sources of history are they?
    1. 2
    2. 3
    3. 4
    4. 5
  4. What are the two major sources of history?
    1. Primary and secondary
    2. Nursery and primary
    3. Secondary and university
    4. Primary and university
  5. The time before human beings began recording history in writing is called ___________.
    1. historic time
    2. past time
    3. present time
    4. prehistoric time
  6. The study of human history by studying the things that ancient people made, used and left behind is called _____________.
    1. history
    2. archaeology
    3. proof
    4. evidence
  7. Which one is not among the primary sources of history?
    1. Artifacts
    2. Old letters
    3. Biographies
    4. Old drawings
  8. Which one is not among the secondary sources of history?
    1. Historical criticism
    2. Biography
    3. Documentary film
    4. Artifacts

Summative Assessment

We recommend that you ask the entire questions. First of all, do this serially – in the order of the lesson; then randomly.

Lesson Plan – Date: What is the correct date to write in lesson plan?

Introduction to Lesson Plan – Date

Lesson Plan – Date clarifies the correct date to write on a lesson plan for the week. Date is one of the most straightforward components of any good lesson plan. Yet, some teachers still find it confusing. This is especially so for new teachers – particularly those that did not study education.

The confusion is somewhat justifiable. This is in spite of the fact that there are more than one dates that one could write in a lesson plan.

For instance, one could write the date on which s/he is developing the lesson plan. Or, a teacher could also write the date s/he will deliver the lesson. There is a third possibility. That is the date s/he submits the lesson plan.

So, which is the correct option? I always get this question. Therefore, I provide the answer in as simple term as possible in this post.

Reason for Date in Lesson Plans and Lesson Notes

Knowing the reason for writing date in lesson answers the most part of the question. So, let us start from there. Why do we write date in lesson plans? What is the rationale for date in lesson notes? This is obvious too. But congruity, I will itemize some reasons below.

The reasons for date in lesson plans and lesson notes include:

1.      Time Management

The first reason for writing date on lesson plan is that it helps teachers to manage time. Dating lesson plan is more or less like booking an appointment. Once you have booked to do certain thing on a fixed date, it helps you plan for it. Whatever else you do, you ensure that other activities do not encroach into the time of the appointment. In other words, you learn to manage your time.

Similarly, dating lesson plan helps teachers in the same way. There are many duties a teacher performs. This is why teachers specify date to deliver a particular lesson plan. Doing so enables teachers to plan ahead of the lesson. This may include gathering and setting up necessary instructional materials for the lesson.

2.      For Proxy

In early post, I discussed that the one of the reasons for lesson planning is for proxy. That is, if a teacher is absent and another has to deliver the lesson in their place. Lesson plan helps them to be able to deliver the lesson effectively. Without date on lesson plan, the teacher that is teaching by proxy may not know when to deliver the lesson.

3.      Lesson Duration

Dating lesson plan also gives teachers insight into the duration of the lesson. It is from the date that teachers calculate the duration of the lesson. This helps them to further plan better for the lesson.

4.      Teacher Assessment

Date on lesson plan also helps in teacher’s assessment. Education supervisors use the date to verify what the teacher has taught over time. Often, supervisors compare date on students’ notebooks with the dates on lesson plans. They do so to verify that the teacher actually taught the topic.

5.      Student support

The essence of lesson plan is for the benefit of the student. Should any student be absent with leave, date on lesson plan help teachers to quickly identify what such student miss – and determine the content of make-up classes.

6.      Relevance of content

Finally, date on lesson plan determines the relevance of the content. This is important in re-using of lesson plans. From the date on lesson plan, teachers are able to tell if there has been a change in the curriculum since its development. Thus, the date indicates the relevance of the content.

Lesson Plan – Date: What is the correct date to write in lesson plan?

From the reasons above, the correct date to write on lesson plan is clear. It is definitely not the date that the teacher submits the plan. And it is not the date that the teacher wrote the lesson plan either. This is because neither of these two dates aligns with the reasons for writing the date.

Thus, the correct date to write on lesson plan is the date that the teacher [hopes to] deliver the lesson. It is this date that can help teachers plan ahead. Similarly, it is only by knowing the date that a teacher delivered a lesson that inspectors can tell what the teacher has taught over time.

Although one may argue that it is the date that a teacher wrote a plan that determine its relevance; this does not invalidate the date of delivery for same purpose. On the contrary, this date of development only serves one of the reasons and not the others.

Lesson Plan – Date: How to write date on lesson plan

Now we know the reasons for writing date on lesson plan. In addition, we know the correct date to write on lesson plan. But what is the correct way of writing date on lesson plan?

The general way of correctly writing date on lesson plan is simple. You can get the date from the time-table. Look up which day of the week your subject is allocated and then what date that is on the calendar.

Teachers may also write the date as a range. If you are writing lesson plan for week 4, the ideal practice is for you to check you timetable; see the day(s) of the week your subject appears on the timetable. Then write the date. If, however, your subject appears multiple times on consecutive days – 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th of May; it is also appropriate to simply write May 15 – 18.

Conclusion on Lesson Plan – Date

In this post, we discussed date as a component of any standard lesson plan. The post state the reasons for writing date on lesson plan. It also clarifies the correct date to write on lesson plan. Finally, the post describes the correct way to write date on lesson plan.

3rd Term Resumption – 4 Things Every Growth-focused School Must Do

Introduction

It is the first day of work after holiday. And I know how tough such a day as this can be. So, I will make it short and direct.

Period of Grace

Sometimes, the holiday is so good that it plays into term. The hangover of such, is what tempts some employees and organization to declare laissez-faire within the first few days of resumption. Some schools call this “period of grace”. This is the period during which school managements deliberately stunt school activities. During the period of grace after resumption, there is little or no lessons. Students do as they please, with little or no supervision while staff sit in gist units. Generally, schools close at period of grace earlier than their usual time. And there is generally low students’ turnout.

This is a common practice. It has lingered for long. And parents of schools that practice “period of grace” are aware of it. In fact, some parents deliberately keep their children at home during the first few days of resumption – the reason for the low students’ turnout. This is because they are aware that the school will still be in the “period of grace”. Not many parents want to send their children to go and play unsupervised at school. Children probably spend the entire holiday doing that. Unimaginably, there are schools that extend the period of grace from days to “weeks of grace”.

Your School Must Be Different

Inasmuch as this is common, let me also tell you a fact. Schools that want sustainable growth seldom have “periods of grace”. And if at all they do, it lasts for the shortest possible time – not more than a day or two. This is a fact, a reality. I mean, the target is to maximize profit and minimize loss. Why waste an entire week to commence the activities that brings in profit.

The 4 Things Every Growth-focused School Must Do at the first week of resumption

Schools that are deliberate about their growth are always busy from the word go. I believe that every school is pursuing growth. As such, here are four things every school must do during the first week of resumption.

Take Attendance

This is a well-known fact. For every successful business, the first line of action at the beginning and end of all trading period is to take stocks. This is perhaps, the most accurate way for you to measure and project your growth; profit or loss.

In how to mark attendance register, I discussed why taking attendance is importance. In addition to that, there is one or two especial reasons for doing so on the first day of resumption. Foremost is that attendance figure is one piece of information you may want to enter into your school diary. This helps in preservation of school culture.

Secondly, it helps teachers to avoid hassles with closing of attendance registers at the end of the term. Too often, unsuspecting teachers formulate the learners’ total weekly attendance for the first few weeks of resumption. This is because they fail to take attendance for this period. This is a moral dent as long as professional ethics is concerned.

Finally, taking attendance at resumption helps to boost early resumption. Majority of parents and students want to maintain as excellent record as possible. This includes having 100% attendance. Hence, knowing that the school takes attendance from the first day makes some to resume as early as possible.

Sustainably growing schools have the reputation of high attendance rate from the first week of resumption. On the contrary, struggling schools have the reputation of delaying academic activities during the first week of resumption.

Open Opinion Boxes

This is another practice that sets growth-focused schools apart from others. Every successful school is always on the look out for ideas that will foster growth. Apart from the executives whose jobs include thinking the school towards growth, the primary source of opinion for school growth comes from members of the school community – [non-executive] staff, students and parents.

If only school managements would listen to what their staff and students are saying, they could get the ideas to tackle most of its problems. Staff and students, within their secret meetings; they discuss the problem of the school, the challenges and solutions, weakness and strengths.

If only school managements would listen to what their staff and students are saying, they could get the ideas to tackle most of its problems.

This is not exclusive to school environment. It happens in every organisation. This is why big organisations spends millions in internal surveys. Banks, hospitals and other corporations keep opinion boxes in strategic places for members’ input.

This is why every growth-focused school must also do this all the time and especially during resumption. Why? Because during the holiday, your staff and students met, mingled and discussed with a lot of people from different background. It is unlikely that they did not discuss their various schools. As such, they invariably come back loaded with ideas. Any school that does not create the funnels for collecting ideas and opinions from its staff and students does itself amiss.

If you haven’t already, construct – or improvise – opinion boxes and keep it in strategic places within the school to collect opinions. For effectiveness, you may accompany each box with CTA inscriptions.

Revision

I won’t waste much time here. We all know this is one thing that every school must do. It is a professional requirement. However, I found it necessary to include it to the list. This is because a good number of schools do not observe it. And I know this because I work with many schools.

Due to the “period of grace” that I discussed earlier, some schools are simply unable to do revision as they should. Many students resume as from the second week of resumption. Even some teachers too! In many schools, academic activities do not start until the second week of resumption. This is a malpractice. No one school operates in isolation. Every school is a party in actualizing the national educational goals. This is why it is mandatory for every school to adopt the national curriculum and official schemes of work.

The curriculum and the schemes are deliberately planned based on professional understanding. And the professionals found it necessary to include revision as the first activity each term. This is still consistent with contemporary educational theories. So, why skip revision? Besides, there are subjects especially in higher classes that have new topics for the first week of resumption.

I tell you this, no school deliberate about its growth would want to have the reputation of “they don’t do anything in the first week”.

The school that resumes full academic activities from the first day does not only create a good impression. It also helps the students to do well academically. And this is the best marketing technique any school can have.

In addition, starting academic activities as early as possible encourages early resumption of students. And this is necessary for the next part.

So, if you have not started already; ensure your staff commence revision and other academic activities as soon as possible.

  1. Send School Fees Reminders

This is the last in my list of 4 things every growth-focused school must do this week of resumption. And there is no overbeating this particular one. It is no issue for succeeding schools. They have the system to handle school fees collection. But this is not so for upcoming schools. And to the later, I offer this last tip: send school fees reminder as from the first week of resumption.

Maybe not in as sternly as you would when it is due. But you should start the body language from the beginning. If you start at the middle of the term, you’ll receive your payment at the end or following term.

In my next post, I will share some effective tips for effortless collection of school fees. But let me share this very quickly. The key to smooth collection of school fees is communication. As an administrator, I have three channels of communicating school fees reminder to the parents.

First, the school fees policy. When enrolling their wards, we explain to the parents that we expect them to pay their children’s fees latest by the second week of resumption. They know this and we agree on it. We also agree on the consequences of failing to meet up and the next line of action.

Secondly, we use SMS. Initially, when sending resumption notification; there is a school fee reminder line. Then our welcome back to school SMS, another school fee reminder line – this is the one you should be sending this week. Afterwards, on the last due date; we send the final reminder SMS. By the end of the second week of resumption – which we allow for students to pay up; we must have narrowed the number of those that have not responded at all. So, we follow this with phone call. The phone call serves two purposes. First to get their response to past communications. Secondly, to inform them that we will not allow their ward into the school until debt is settled.

None, we don’t always get 100% collection. But it has kept us 90% and above for years. Schools that I introduce this communication strategy with the other mechanisms – which I will share in my next post – to, have seen similar results.

So, if you haven’t done so already; send a welcome back to school SMS to your parents. And do not forget to remind them of school fees payment.

Please let me know if you found this helpful. And subscribe to our newsletter below.

Debate: Professionally, is there Nursery 3 in Nigeria?

This post on Nursery 3 in one sentence

This post clarifies the ongoing debate on the class and Scheme of Work for Nursery 3 or Kindergarten 3 (KG 3) in Nigeria.

Introduction

Professionally, is there Nursery 3 or KG 3 in Nigeria? Why do some schools have nursery 3 and others do not? Why is Nursery Schemes of work not readily available? I have finished the topics in Nursery 2 Schemes of work with my child, is there Nursery 3 or I should proceed to Primary 1?

These and similar others are the kind of questions that many of our site members have sent to us – through mails, WhatsApp, SMS’s and Calls.

As always, we appreciate your feedbacks – whether it is commendation, complaint, question or suggestion.

As such, we have taken the time to provide authoritative answers to the many questions on Nursery 3 in Nigeria. In addition to answering the questions, I will explain the reason for the confusion.

Without further ado, let’s get to it!

Is there Nursery 3 in Nigeria?

This is usually the first question on Nursery 3. While some schools operate Nursery 3 or KG 3, others do not. Consequently, a part of later set of schools accuses the former of unprofessional conduct in operating Nursery 3.

And not only this. In a similar tone of disapproval, some parents have condemned the operation of Nursery 3. In fact, such parents add the operation of Nursery 3 as another basis for tagging private schools as “business centres”.

As a result of these, new and upcoming school owners, especially those who haven’t had prior education background, are not sure whether or not to create the Nursery 3 or KG 3 class.

So, which is which?

Is there Nursery 3 in Nigeria?

Unfortunately, there is no yes or no answer to this question within the professional context. But if one must, the shortest correct answer to the question is that there is no Nursery 3 in Nigeria. And this is because the national policy on education (NPE) has a unique name for what some schools call Nursery 3.

From the forgoing sentence, it is obvious that the terminologies contribute a major role to the confusion.

Hence, let me quickly define few related key terms.

TO BE UPDATED

Two New Subjects Every Good School in Nigeria Must Teach Starting September

Introduction to the Two New Subjects Every Good School in Nigeria Must Teach Starting September

It is almost the end of the current 2020/2021 academic session. And many schools are far into the preparation for a new, 2021/2022 academic session. A key question to consider in the preparation is what they should or not do in order for the session to be successful – or more successful than the current session. Success within academic environment has many implications – each for the various stakeholders.

Implication of Successful Academic Session

The most important, on which others hinges; is the implication of a successful session from the context of the learners. To these, and based on modern norm; excellent grades alone does not define a successful academic year. Instead, successful academic year also means one in which learners acquire contents that are relevant for survival in the present daily living; and the future.

This is why among the things that every good school in Nigeria must do for greater success starting September, is to teach these two subjects. As a matter of fact, many schools already teach these subjects.

What You Must Understand About This

If you are a parent, and your child’s school did not teach these two subjects by September; it means that something is amiss. And if so, you owe it to your child’s better education today and greater chances of survival in future; to demand the school to do the needful.

If you are a school administrator or owner, you must understand that this is not just a matter of another replaceable subjects. Instead, it is a question of the children’s wholesome development and survival in later years.

In this post, I outline the two new subjects that every school must introduce in September; and the reason for that.

The Reason for the Two New Subjects

Why do we need extra subjects? Are the ones we have not already many? Indeed, existing subjects in Nigerian schools are enough. This is particularly so in private schools – where some invent, split and rename subjects so as to look superior, modern or to impress parents.

The official subject listings in the national curriculum; and in government schools; are not as many as to invalidate the importance of the two new subjects. Certainly, a good number of private schools that understand the overwhelming importance of these two subjects have long began teaching them; some, since 2019. As a private school administrator, I ensured the immediate introduction of the subjects as soon as the national curriculum/Scheme of Work became available.

Also, it is pertinent to note that one of the reasons why other schools have not yet is because they were unaware of their existence – since our governmental education agencies are naturally poor at implementation and supervision of policies.

Why are the Two New Subjects Important?

That being said, let’s look at why the two new subjects are important. The major reason why the two new subjects are important is the inclusion of recent issues that are national and global concerns.

 

The Concerns

Except to one that is alien to this planet or to babes, one needs not introduce an adult to the fading bonds which binds our shared humanity in the modern world. Even more so within the Nigerian society.

In what one may liken to be another proof of Emerson’s Law of Compensation; the world is seeing almost as many new challenges as it is achieving new developments. And all of these are creating new histories. This, different people(s) are telling in ways diverse enough to efface the old, our shared origin and the last record of our true humanity.

This is because as the bond of society is break, the society goes into pieces; and every one twist and/or tell the history in the way that preserves his/her piece. Already, there are too many variations of our history that it is now becoming increasingly difficult to tell which is, and which is not true.

What We Must Do

Education remains the soul of the society, its compass. To navigate through the new and arising national and global challenges; we need to gather the bits and pieces of the various versions of our histories into a centre reservoir of national heritage that will represent unbreakable tie, knotting our society together.

This is the position of the learned members of the national education council when they ratified the inclusion of the two new subjects in the subject listing in 2011, 2013, 2016 & 2017.

Yet, 4 years later; we are yet to see the widespread introduction of the subjects across our schools. Once, again a handful have. Hence, I will now go ahead and mention the two new subjects that every good school in Nigeria must teach starting September.

What are the Two New Subjects Every Good School in Nigeria Must Teach Starting September?

The two new subjects are:

  1. History for Primary and Junior Secondary Schools
  2. Security Education for Primary and Junior Secondary Schools

In subsequent posts, I will give a review of the content of these subjects as the national curriculum outline. However, let me briefly say a word or two on Security Education.

Security Education

The beauty of education is that it prepares one ahead of eventualities. One could say that the NERDC foresaw the current incessant security challenges about 10 years; when it drafted the Revised 9-Year BEC.

Security challenges is perhaps the greatest nightmare that parents now wake up to face as they send their children off to school every morning. From individual adoption to mass kidnapping of pupils and students. Even within the school environment and at home, there are many security threats – including molestation, rape and food poisoning among others.

Now schools and parents have to adopt security measures and improvise what to teach their children in case of the occurrence of any of these – what to do, how to react/behave.

Many are unaware that all these are part of the national curriculum on Security Education. And that NERDC structured the content according to the age of the learners; such that they are better equipped to handle themselves as much as possible before help comes in the event of any of these ugly occurrences.

Hopefully, you are better informed of the two subjects now. And I will discuss even more in the next posts. However, if you are a school owner, administrator, teacher or parent; and you have decided to start teaching your young scholars Nigerian History and Security Education but you do not have the official scheme of work; please click here to download it from our store on paystack. You can use the search box there to search for related materials.

Lesson Plan Guide – Entry Requirement Guide

This Lesson Plan Guide – Entry Requirement details how to correctly and easily write Entry Requirement in your lesson plan or lesson note.

Introduction to Lesson Plan: Entry Requirement

Perhaps one of the most frequently asked questions during our Instructional Design training is the difference between previous knowledge and entry requirement. To some – especially new teachers, both are the same but simply a matter of choice of terminologies.

Nonetheless, this is not so. Known instructional design models place previous knowledge and entry requirement under different stages of the instructional design process. This fact is known to every experienced instructional designer.

In this post, I will trace the reason why some people confuse one for the other. More so, this post differentiates between entry requirement and previous knowledge in the simplest and easiest to understand terms. Finally, this lesson plan guide: entry requirement explains how to correctly and easily write entry requirement in your lesson plan/note.

That some teachers think it really doesn’t matter whether or not one correctly writes entry requirement in their lesson plan; is the reason school administrators and supervisors must ensure that teachers do. Did you ever wonder why some students do not understand some lesson even though 99% of the rest of class understand it? Well, this is one – such student may not have attained the entry requirement for that lesson.

But how do you know whether a student possesses the entry requirement or not if you did not even give it a good thought? You won’t even be able to effectively and efficiently help such student catch on!

Read on

Meaning of Entry Requirement

Entry behaviour or entry requirement is the prerequisite knowledge, skill and attitude expected of a learner to possess before he or she can understand a new lesson.

Compare this definition of entry requirement with that of previous knowledge. And it may be obvious to you why some people confuse one for the other.

The distinguishing word in the definition of entry requirement is prerequisite. While Entry Requirement as well as Previous Knowledge are experiences in relation to the current topic; entry requirement is the experience that the student MUST possess before he or she can understand a new lesson. Whereas, previous knowledge is just any experience at all that relates to the topic.

In other words, we can say that all entry requirement is previous knowledge; but not all previous knowledge is entry requirement.

An example to illustrate meaning of Entry Requirement

Take JSS 2 topic in Computer Studies: Practical Graphic Design for example. Any experience that the students may possess that relates to Graphic design may aid their understanding – i.e. getting the most – of the topic. Such include:

  • Meaning of graphic design
  • Examples of graphic design packages
  • Knowledge of graphic products like ID Card, Business card, posters, cover art, etc.

Now, although all the points I have mentioned above are previous knowledge for our topic: Practical Graphic Design. However, we may not regard any as entry requirement. This is because not possessing of the above does not stop the student from acquiring the practical graphic design skill.

Instead, a point we may consider as entry requirement for the topic is the ability to manoeuvre pointing devices like mouse and others. This is because, under normal circumstances, if a student cannot control pointing devices; then it will not be possible for such to acquire practical graphic design skills. To make the student acquire the skill, the teacher must first of all teach the student how to control pointing devices.

Does the explanation above clarify the meaning of entry requirement for you? I hope it does. Let us now see why people confuse entry requirement for previous knowledge

Why do some people confuse Entry Requirement for Previous Knowledge and Vice Versa?

Well, the answer is simple: both entry requirement and previous knowledge describe the knowledge, skill and attitude that a student possess in relation to the current topic.

But,

Is Entry Requirement or Entry Behaviour the same as Previous Knowledge?

No, entry requirement or entry behaviour is not the same as previous knowledge. I have explained this earlier.

 What then are the differences between Entry Requirement and Previous Knowledge?

Well, from my earlier explanation the differences should be clear to you now. But for further clarity, let me categorically state it again.

The differences between entry requirement and previous knowledge include:

  1. Previous Knowledge is the experience – knowledge, skill and attitude – that a student possesses which relate and can aid or hinder the understanding of the current topic; while entry requirement is the experience – knowledge, skill, and attitude – that a student is expected to possess before he or she can understand the current topic.
  2. Previous Knowledge may be formal or informal experience – experiences they acquire from the school or outside environment like home; but entry requirement is mostly formal – experiences that the student acquire from school.
  3. According to instructional design models; previous knowledge is under analysis of learners under general characteristics; while entry requirement is analysis of learners/content under specific competencies or entry behaviour. Simply put; we may place Previous Knowledge under Analysis phase of the ADDIE while we may place entry requirement under Design.

How to Easily Write Entry Requirement in Your Lesson Plan

The final spot in the Lesson Plan Guide: Entry Requirement is how to easily write entry requirement in our lesson plan.

After deciding the learning goals and using measurable verbs to state acceptable evidence of attainment (according to UbD Model), or specifying content and objectives (according to Gerlach and Ely model); Gerlach and Ely model provides that the next phase of the design step is Assessment of Entry Behaviour. Similarly, the ASSURE model mention analysis of specific learners’ competencies as part and parcel of learner analysis.

It is quite easy to set entry requirement. You can determine the entry requirement for your lesson plan by asking yourself questions on each of the lesson objectives and answering the questions accordingly.

Here is the two-step approach:

  1. Pick each of the lesson objectives and ask yourself: “what does the student need to already know, what attitude does he/her need to already possess; and what skill does s/he need to already have acquired before s/he can attain this goal?”
  2. Write your answer to question 1 above; and that becomes your first entry requirement!

Note however, that general competencies that learners in a particular level will normally possess may not be written as entry requirements. Instead, you should write only specific competencies. Let me further illustrate as well as conclude with the following example of entry requirement.

[qsm quiz=3]

Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge Guide

Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge Guide in One Sentence

This Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge Guides detail how to correctly and easily write previous knowledge in your lesson plan/note.

Introduction to Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge

Many teachers tend to automatically write the last topic as the previous knowledge for every new lesson. Although this may be, and is often right in most cases; it is not always the case.

So, when not and when is it right to take the previous lesson as the previous knowledge? How may we correctly and easily write previous knowledge? Is there a systematic approach?

There sure is a systematic approach. I provide that, and the answers to the other two questions in this guide.

Note: This is only a part of my guide on how to write standard lesson note or lesson plan in Nigeria. It is one of the articles that educators rate to be the best on the subject in Nigeria. Click here to check it out.

Meaning of Previous Knowledge

Previous knowledge refers to any kind of experience that the learners possess in relation to the topic under discussion – whether formal or informal, organized or unorganized.

This definition implies that any kind of experience at all – it may knowledge, it may be a skill or some form of behaviour – that the learners possess and that relate to the new topic; may be assumed as previous knowledge.  Hence, it is not only the previous topic that equals previous knowledge.

When previous topic is not equal to previous knowledge

Take SSS 3 Mathematics for instance, Week 2 topic – Matrix; and Week 3 topic – Simple & Compound interests; have no surface connection. That is, Matrix is not related to Simple Interest at the surface level. Knowledge of matrix does not directly aid the understanding of simple interest; neither will lack of the knowledge of matrix hinder the understanding of simple interest. As such, we cannot say the previous knowledge for week 3 is week 2’s topic.

When previous topic is equal to previous knowledge

However, as I noted earlier; there are times that teachers may consider previous topic as previous knowledge. Such time is when the previous topic relates to the new topic. That is, when the knowledge of the previous topic can affect the understanding of the present topic – either positively or negatively.

Take JSS 1 History for example, Week 1 topic – meaning of centralized state; relates to Week 2 topic – The Hausa States. If a student did not understand the meaning and features of a centralized state; then s/he may find it a bit difficult to understand the lesson on The Hausa States as an example of a centralized state.

So, I believe you now understand when not and when a previous topic may serve as previous knowledge.

Nevertheless, you should take note of the difference between Previous Knowledge and Entry Requirement.

But is that all? What else may serve as previous knowledge for a lesson?

From the definition of Previous Knowledge that I gave earlier; it is clear that what my serve as previous knowledge is not limited to the previous topic. In fact, I have also noted that previous topic may not even serve as previous knowledge altogether.

Then, in such case; what else may serve as previous knowledge?

The answer is this: Unorganized experiences of the learner. The previous topic may not or may serve only as an aspect of previous knowledge. This is the formal or organized knowledge aspect. But as the definition contains, previous knowledge may also include informal or unorganized experiences. The informal or unorganized experiences that may form part of previous knowledge are experiences the learners gain from their social and cultural activities – including the practices, norms and values of their societies.

For instance, prior to teaching Simple Interest; the learners already have experienced transactions involving interest. Hence, they know that a trader trades to earn interest though may not have thought of the systematic way of determining interest – which the topic aims to make them do.

Another example is SSS 1 chemistry. In treating properties of acid, the students have probably tasted unripe fruits and know it to have sour taste. A final example is in treating diseases in a certain rural community; they pupils may believe the attribution of epilepsy to some sort of superstition.

These kinds of experiences that will either facilitate or hinder assimilation of the current lesson all form part of previous knowledge.

Is it compulsory to include previous knowledge in Lesson Plans? If yes, why so?

We come now to the rationale behind previous knowledge in lesson planning.

Is it compulsory to include previous knowledge in lesson plan? Yes, it is.

But why is it compulsory?

  1. Teaching and learning is systematic
  2. Provide different angles for teachers to engage with learners
  3. Help students to remember new lessons

Teaching and learning being systematic

Teaching has been defined as a systematic process of transmitting knowledge, attitudes and skills in accordance with professional principles.  By extension, learning is also done in a systematic way. And the general pattern is from known to unknown. So, by writing previous knowledge, the teacher that will deliver the lesson will be able to ensure the systematic nature of teaching and learning.

This fact, supported by Piaget’s principle, must be remembered by teachers. Keller in the ARCS ISD models categorically noted that instructors can make lesson relevant to the learner by using familiar language and examples. This can be implied in this case that you, as the instructor – or the instructor if you are writing lesson plan for another – have to know what the learners are familiar with so as to use it.

Providing different angles for teachers to engage with learners

Without much talk, previous knowledge helps teachers to know at every point in time; the perspective of the learners. And as such, also know how the teacher will present issues in a way they will be able to contribute and understand.

Help students to remember new lesson

Apart from helping learners to understand new body of knowledge, planning your lesson from the previous knowledge helps learners to easily associate new concepts with existing one thereby facilitating retention and remembrance.

Renowned educational psychologists such as Ivan Pavlov adequately proved this fact.

How to determine Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge

Now that we know the meaning of previous knowledge; what does and doesn’t constitute previous knowledge; and the rationale behind including previous knowledge in lesson planning; let us now discuss the systematic approach to determine and write previous knowledge.

Summarily, there are two major ways to determine previous knowledge after the sources. These are:

  1. By looking up the scheme
  2. By considering the socio-cultural experience of the learners

Looking up the scheme of Work/Syllabus/Curriculum

The scheme of work, syllabus and curriculum are developed by experts who understand the systematic and interrelatedness of topics. Hence, the topic for the week before; usually serve as previous knowledge for the following week. Nonetheless, you must know that this is not always the case.

I have adequately explained when not and when such is the case.

Considering the socio-cultural experience of the learners

The second way to determine the previous knowledge for a topic is to consider the socio-cultural experience of the learners. You think of the social and cultural aspects of the learners’ daily living that relates to the topic.

Now, as a systematic way to write the previous knowledge for a topic, you should ask yourself two questions. And the answers to these questions will automatically become the previous knowledge.

Question 1: Is this topic related to any previously learned topic in the scheme of work or syllabus?

Now to be able to answer this, ensure you study your subject syllabus thoroughly. This is not a problem for experienced teachers. Another point to consider when you want to answer question 1 is what I mean by “related”. By related I mean if the previous topics in any way affect – either aid or hinders the understanding of – the current topic.

Question 2: What other things or experiences from the learners’ environment can be related to the topic?

An example of previous Knowledge

To conclude this guide on Lesson Plan: Previous Knowledge, let us look at my previous knowledge for JSS1 Information Technology note on data processing.

First, I asked myself question 1: Is this topic related to any previously learned topic in the scheme of work or syllabus?

Then in answering this question, I know, from my experience of the 9-Year Information Technology curriculum; that the students have memorized the definition of both data and information from earlier classes in definition of computer.

Then I asked myself question 2: What other things or experiences from the learners’ environment can be related to the topic?

Also, in answer to the second question, the students have unorganized knowledge of the existence of data. For instance, they know that the school has the data of all the students and staff.

Thus, both answers become my previous knowledge for my note. And I stated it as in the image below:

How to Capture and Retain Learners’ Attention

How to Capture and Retain Learners’ Attention in One Sentence

This post, How to Capture and Retain Learners’ Attention, discusses professional approach to make learners’ willing to learn.

Introduction to How to Capture & Retain Learners’ Attention

The problem

Among the many feedbacks that I received over the last one to two months, is this recurring question. A good number of teachers, especially parents and new ones seem to find it difficult to teach their wards. This is not because the wards find it difficult to learn. But it is because the teachers find it difficult to capture and retain the learners’ attention throughout the lesson period. For a few moments, such teachers capture the learners’ attention. Then in the next moment, the learners are doing something else or not paying attention to the teacher. They just will not listen. The teacher that hasn’t yet the experience will feel frustrated. But there is no more cause for alarm. There is no experienced teacher that is so unfortunate as to not have had such type of learner under his tutelage in the past.

A Fact Leading to Solution

Off course, learning is a willful act. This means, except the learner is willing to learn; no teacher can make him/her learn – except by means of the style of the ancient cruel lords of the fields and industries. There is no teacher nor parent that I know who want the ward to remember them as cruel lords of the arena.

Why would any teacher want that when there is an alternative, a better and professional approach?

Over the years; experts in the field of education, philosophy and psychologists – who took time to study the science and art of learning – have come to arrive at proven facts about the matter. In continuance, professionals in education including curriculum specialists, instructional designers and teachers are able to formulate specific solutions to the issue from the known facts.

Any experienced of the aforementioned professionals is able to proffer this kind of solution almost instinctively. In fact, learning how to capture and retain learners’ attention is one of the cardinal points of our instructional design training.

That being said, this post describes one of such solutions in layman’s language. This is to make possible for just about anybody with genuine desire to help learners to be able to capture and retain the learners’ attention – to make the learner willing to learn.

Where this solution ends: for you to seek outside assistance

Inasmuch as this post guides you to capture and retain learners’ attention; there are situations that you will need professional assistance. Such situation is when a child’s lack of attention is due to mental health condition. There is a mental health condition in which children are often in a state of activity or excitement and unable to direct their attention towards what they are doing. This condition is called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This condition normally requires the assistance of a professional to resolve. Thus, you may consider it beyond what a parent or (unspecialized) teacher can handle alone. As such, it is also beyond the scope of this guide.

Very Well Mind has a comprehensive discussion on ADHD. This include guide to help you know if your child has ADHD and what you can do. Click here to check the article on Very Well Mind.

Assuming your child does not have ADHD, but the “regular” difficulty in concentrating at studies; or if you are a teacher and seek ways to capture your learners’ attention and retain it throughout the span of your lesson – for effectiveness; the following guide should be of help.

The Model to Capture and Retain Learners’ Attention

I noted earlier that experts in education and/or psychology took time to study the art and science of learning. I also pointed out that from their studies, they have come to arrive at proven facts about the matter. One of such experts whose work is central to this guide is John Keller. John Keller is an American educational psychologist. Keller worked on an aspect of instructional design, motivational design.  The motivational design opines that learners learn more and better when they are motivated to do it willingly – when they see reasons to learn.

Consequently, based on his research findings; John Keller formulated the ARCS model.  The ARCS model serves as a template for instructors/instructional designers to incorporate learner’s motivation into their instructional contents/activities – so as to make and keep the learners to want to learn thereby ensure higher productivity.

The ARCS Model

Keller’s ARCS model broke learner motivation down into four components. These components are Attention, Relevance, Confidence and Satisfaction. While attention describes ways of making the learners notice the teacher and the interest that the learners display in what the teacher is teaching; the other components explains motivations that will make the learners to want to keep learning.

Going beyond capturing attention

The fact that your learner notices and picks interest in what you are teaching does not mean s/he will want to keep learning. To do this, you must ensure that certain conditions are met. In this post, I describe ways of making the learners notice the teacher with interest in what the teacher is teaching. Then in another post, I succinctly addressed the other components.

Levels of Motivation (Needs)

However, before I describe attention in detail; it is important to note that motivation theorists have proven that motivation is both spontaneous and induced. Inducing motivation is rather by gratification or satisfaction of motivation needs. Hence, theorists have identified different motivation needs. Further, they categorized these motivation needs into higher and lower orders.

For example, consider Abraham Maslow’s categorization of motivation needs below.

Maslow’s Theory of Motivation

Abraham Maslow in his theory of human needs identified seven vital human needs according to level of urgency or exigency. These are:

1.       Physiological Needs

These are the biological or survival needs of man – including the desire to eat food when hungry, drink water when thirsty, the need for rest, sex, air and to excrete unwanted materials from the body systems.

2.       Security and Safety Needs

The need for safety and protection from danger or external aggressors. The desire to seek for conducive or peaceful abode.

3.       Love and Belongingness Needs

This involves the aspiration of man to establish a cordial relationship with others. The desire to love and be loved.

4.       Achievement Needs

The desire to attain success or freedom drives man to go extra miles.

5.       Self-Esteem Needs

These are the things we desire in order that our ego will be boosted.

6.       Aesthetic Needs

The desire to pursue or admire beautiful things.

7.       Self-Actualization Needs

The desire to have uncommon opportunity to differentiate oneself from others.

General Rule of Motivation

And the general rule is that if a higher order needs in not satisfied, then lower needs will be irrelevant and will not be pursued. From this categorization of needs, we know that a learner will most likely neither pay attention to you nor learn when s/he is hungry; thirsty; tired; sexually excited; in want of fresh air or when in a smelly environment; and when s/he need to urinate/defecate.

Similarly, a learner may not pay attention to you or learn if s/he is afraid for one reason or another. This is why you cannot beat a student into understanding or learning. We can say the same for love and belonginess need. It is a common experience that students hardly learn if they dislike the teacher for one reason or another.

With what we know of self-control, we know that these things are truer with younger learners. Schools and teachers understand this. As such, they always try as much as possible to satisfy the higher order motivation needs of the learner before teaching. But parents who teaches their children at home have to ensure that the higher order needs are satisfied to maximum impartation.

How to Capture and Retain Learners’ Attention

Now that we understand some important motivation concepts, let us look at the ways to capture and retain learners’ attention:

To Be Continued

Setting Lesson Objectives

Setting Lesson Objectives in Summary

This post, setting lesson objectives discusses the three domains of educational objectives. It also provides a step-by-step guide on how to set the objectives for each – starting with the cognitive domain.

Introduction to Setting Lesson Objectives

Since I published How to Write Standard Lesson Note in Nigeria, and the differences between lesson plan and lesson note; both have risen to become one of the most popular guides on the subject in the Nigerian cyberspace. Google Analytics also shows that it is one of the posts that our site users read most frequently.

The guides however, are not complete. This is because I only gave the briefest description of the components of a standard lesson plan. Consequently, in this and subsequent posts; I will describe in further details, each of the components. I excerpted this from my on Instructional Design Manual for Nigerian Classrooms. It is the manual that I use for manual in our Instructional Design Training – very comprehensive. If you have missed out of our multiple Instructional Design trainings in the past and will like to have the manual; kindly pick it up on Paystack or chat me up on WhatsApp.

Lesson Objectives

Key to setting Lesson Objectives is being able to correctly define it. Hence, I begin with my definition of lesson objectives thus:

Lesson Objectives are the specific and measurable knowledge, skill and character that a topic is meant for the teacher to impart on the learners.

Lesson objectives is a key component of every lesson plan. And it is also under the design phase of Instructional Design Model. In addition, it is also the central point of every lesson. As a result of this, all Instructional Design Models captures this particular component. The Gerlach and Ely Instructional Design Model specifically outlined what lesson objectives should contain.

From the definition, you can note that the components of lesson objectives are three – knowledge, skill and character. These three components of lesson objectives are what educators/educationists refer to as the three domains of educational objectives. Educational objectives are the statements of what education (program) aims to impart on learners. Therefore, saying that the general three domains of education objectives to include knowledge, skills and character; means that whenever any education process is taking place, it aims to give the learner some new knowledge, skills (practical abilities) and real change in character. The jargon for these three domains of educational objectives are cognitive, psychomotor and affective respectively – with psychomotor being more professionally narrow in meaning than I imply. I will briefly discuss each of the domains of educational objectives in next section. I explore more details on this in the instructional design manual.

REMINDER: You can get the manual for better understanding. kindly pick it up on Paystack or chat me up on WhatsApp.

The three domains of educational objectives

1.       Cognition or Cognitive Objectives

The cognitive lesson objectives are the mental and conscious thinking skills that a lesson/topic aims to impart on the students. Educational theorist divided the cognitive domain into six subsets including:

  1. Knowledge
  2. Comprehension
  3. Application
  4. Analysis
  5. Synthesis
  6. Evaluation

You will find the shortest and simplest explanation of each of these in the manual. For now, I assume you are now able to define/explain the cognitive lesson objectives. Hence, I will proceed with setting lesson objectives for cognitive domain.

Setting Lesson Objectives: Cognitive Domain

Before I proceed to mention the steps in setting a good lesson objective, let me quickly mention this well-known fact. The fact is that setting cognitive lesson objectives is mostly not a problem for Nigerian teachers. This is because our education has unduly been too focused on cognition at the expense of skills and character. Every good scheme of work – or curriculum – does not only contain the topics that it expects teachers to teach learners of a particular level. But it also outlines the objectives of each topic as well as the instructional materials – alongside the teacher’s and learners’ activities.

The snag of

The Nigerian curriculum/scheme is that most part of if only outlines the cognitive objectives. Accordingly, most part of our examinations – for the few practical – only accesses the cognitive objectives of education. This is sadly and especially so with the social sciences and commerce. The affective domain is the most neglected domain in the Nigerian education system.

In fact, I personally believe this is one of the reasons for the current level of decadence in the society. More so, teachers must know that every topic carries with it some (separate/unique) objectives for each domain. As such, I ensure that majority (if not all) of our lesson notes do not only contain objectives; but different objectives for each domain.

In this post, I focus on guiding teachers to set cognitive objectives professionally.

Setting Cognitive Lesson Objectives

The guide to setting lesson objectives (in general) is contained on the definition of lesson objectives. Therefore, to set lesson objectives for any of the domains, we need to refer to the definition. The definition does not only tell us what a lesson objective should contain. But it also gives us the characteristics of a good lesson objective namely specific and measurable.

Characteristics of a good lesson objectives

Lesson Objectives should be specific

The specific characteristics of a lesson objective means that every good lesson objective should be timebound. You specifically state when you expect the learners attain the objectives. The Gerlach and Ely Instructional Design Model particularly advocated the specificity of lesson objectives.

Lesson Objectives should be measurable

The second characteristics of a good lesson objectives that we get from the definition is measurable. A lesson objective is measurable when there is a standard way of ascertaining its attainment. In other words, how will the teacher be able assess the learners to be sure they have acquired the objectives?

With these two characteristics of a good lesson objectives, we can now adopt a standard step to setting lesson objectives – for the cognitive domain in this part.

Steps to Set Cognitive Lesson Objectives

The steps to setting lesson objectives for any domain is the same. Variations in one domain from another only lies in identifying the goals and the right terminologies for each. I will discuss the general steps and these variations for the three domains starting with cognitive in this post.

The general steps in setting lesson objectives are:

  1. Make the lesson specific
  2. Identify the domain goals for the topic
  3. State the identified goals in measurable wordings
Making a Lesson Objectives Specific

As I explained earlier, specific lesson objectives mean that the teacher has stated the time for the learners to attain the objectives. Depending on the duration of the topic as the scheme has stated, the time for the attainment of a lesson objectives maybe a day, some days, weeks, months or program. But for a typical weekly lesson, teachers make their lesson specific by beginning with:

“At the end of the lesson, the learners should be able to:” So begin writing your lesson objectives, start with the phrase above to make it specific.

Identify the domain goals for the topic

By this, I mean that you should list out the targeted mental and conscious thinking abilities that you/the topic expects the learners to be able to perform within the time you specified above. If you are using any standard schemes just like these ones, doing this should be very easy. Our schemes as well as any other standard one contains the cognitive objectives.

However, the objectives so listed are usually do not cover all assessment area as Wiggins & Mc Tighe advocated for in their Understanding by Design model. Consequently, I prepared the following questions to guide teachers in identifying the cognitive objectives for every topic:

  1. What cognitive objectives are stated in the scheme?
  2. What common questions are set from the topic in external examinations?
  3. Is there a definition or concept to remember? – concepts that the learner will build on in future studies.
  4. Is there any important list – to mention – in the lesson?
  5. Is there any concept that memorization will help the learner concretize?
  6. Will there any concept that the learners will need to experiment?
  7. Will the lesson require the students to apply the concept in choosing between options?

If you write down the answers to these questions diligently, then you will have the cognitive objectives for the lesson. Note however, that before you answer these questions, you should go through the scheme, the recommended textbook and possibly past question papers – including for external examinations like NCEE, BECE, WASSCE, NECO, etc.

State the identified objectives in measurable wordings

The final steps in setting lesson objectives is to the identified objectives in the correct wordings. This is one of the major distinguishing features between lesson objectives drafted by professionals and non-professionals. For the later, can see objectives like:

  • At the end of the lesson, the students should know the meaning of food.
  • By the end of the week, the students should understand what changes are.

Even now, those that do not already know may be wondering what is wrong with the objectives above. Well, the short answer is that the objectives are wrong because of the underlined words used in the statements. Inasmuch as these words describes the overall phenomenon of what we aim for the students to attain, the words are not measurable. This is for the fact that when someone knows or understands something, we cannot say except we assess them. Consequently, the professional standard is that teachers use the words that they can use to both explain the phenomenon and also assess the learners.

For this reason,

educators have a list of verbs that teachers may use to state lesson objectives – for the different domains. In truly professional studies, educators even categorize the verbs into the different forms or divisions of the domains. This way, each of the division of cognition that I mentioned earlier has different verbs that teachers may use to state the objectives.

In this post, I will not list the verbs for each form of cognition. Instead, I will mention some of the verbs that you can use to state cognitive objectives. Anyone with a reasonable knowledge of the English Language and meaning of the forms of cognition, will instantly be able to pick the right word for any given form of cognition. Hence, you do not need to memorize them.

Some Words/Verbs Used to Set Cognitive Lesson Objectives

Some of the verbs that teachers can use to set cognitive lesson objectives are:

define, repeat, state, mention, name, list, enumerate, record, recognize, acquire, identify, criticize, estimate, calculate, judge, choose, select, infer, appraise, compare, rate, argue, etc. and their synonyms.

My simple tricks for teachers

during my training, is that teachers should use verbs/words that they will normally use to set assessment questions to also state the objectives. For example, if I were to set say examination question to assess the learners if they know the meaning of food; I will use words like define food. Hence, instead of stating my objective that “At the end of the lesson, the students should know the meaning of food.” I will write the objective as “At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to define food or state the meaning of food”.

In the restatement, you will notice that I can use both define and state in setting assessment question.

Conclusion

In this post, I discussed the meaning of learning objectives. I also explained the three domains of educational objectives. Finally, I outlined the steps to setting cognitive lesson objectives. The entire content of this post is culled from my comprehensive Instructional Design Manual for Nigerian Classrooms. The complete manual unedited manual contains a lot of more professional topics in layman explanation. With it, you will be able to write bulletproof lesson plans, evaluate lesson plans professionally. You will also learn how to ensure that your learners do not easily forget what you teach them.

If you will like to have the manual; kindly pick it up on Paystack or chat me up on WhatsApp. In subsequent posts, I will discuss how to set lesson objectives for the remaining domains of educational objectives – affective and psychomotor.

[qsm quiz=3]

Classroom stories 2: The Twin Who Refused to Collect Biscuit!

Introduction to the twin who refused to collect biscuit!

The short story – the twin who refused to collect biscuit – is a one of my classroom stories. Storytelling is an effective tool for teaching young learners. The concept and imaginary of a story well told, lives a lasting perception that enhances assimilation and permanence. I particularly recommend short – 5 minutes – stories as either part of introducing a lesson or illustrating a concept.

I wrote this, the twin who refused to collect biscuit, for teachers to use as part of introduction to a lesson – Lesson Note Primary 1 First Term Spoken English Language Week 1.  The teacher that intends to go with my recommendation should spare no effort in ensuring a realism in telling the story. More so, take care so as not to over dwell in the story.

For the sake of better output, I recommend the teacher paints or draws – creates – the pictorial representation of the characters in the piece. Don’t worry about your pitiable painting/drawing skills, kids love imperfection J. Endeavor to use local names for the twin in the story – Ejuma and Okopi are the respective names for male and female twin in Akweya local community. I use twin for personalization with both the male and female pupils.

NOTE:

This piece in itself may not serve the purpose and pleasure of reading.  For the intention is not to serve as companion at leisure but to hint the underlying concepts – that the accompanying lesson is meant impart. Therefore, if you seek the pleasure of reading; I recommend one of the numerous medieval classics – search here. I bet any of those will appease the wrath of your disappointment. Let me below to write for the kids in my heart.

The Twin Who Refused to Collect Biscuit!

This is Ejuma and Okopi – narrator shows the ugly painted pictures J. They are twins – explain the term.   Yesterday, Ejuma and Okopi went to market with their mother. At the market, Ejuma and Okopi met their mother’s friend, Ochanya – a female name. Ochanya speaks only English Language; because nobody (of the twins and mother) understands her language. Now, the twins’ mother told them – in their Akweya language – to greet her friend. The children murmured the greeting to their mother’s friend. So, their mother commanded them to speak louder. Then the twin greeted their mother’s friend, Ochanya, louder. But their greeting made everyone to laugh!  – |teacher asks why everyone laughed>> It was because they greeted good morning in the afternoon.

However, Mrs. Ochanya only smiled. And she responded correctly. She was happy that the children greeted her. So, she said to Ejuma, “check hands with me” but Ejuma did not. Then Mrs. Ochanya turned to Okopi. And she also said to Okopi, “check hands with me”. But Okopi also did not! Instead of checking hands with their mother’s friend, the children looked at her.

Nonetheless, Mrs. Ochanya really wanted to thank the children for their good behavior of greeting her. So, she thought of what to do for them. After thinking, she turned to them. And said, “come and take biscuit”. Sadly, both Ejuma and Okopi did not move an inch. The woman got angry. She did not give the children the biscuit. She now thinks the twins are just stubborn.

Discussion

Succeeding the narration, the teacher asks the pupils’ opinion on the story:

  • Do they think the twins were truly stubborn? The answer is no. Because being stubborn shouldn’t have stopped them from collecting the biscuit
  • Why then did they not do the things Mrs. Ochanya asked them to do? That is because the twins did not understand what she said.

Subsequent to the discussion, the teacher tells the pupils that in order not for them to be like the twins; they have to learn to greet and the simple things people would tell them to do. Then s/he tells them that they are going to start the learning thence. In conclusion, the teacher explains the objectives to the pupils.

Schemes of Works Downloads

Keywords: Schemes of Works Downloads

If you find our Lesson Notes useful and you wish to follow our publication on any subject or for any class; kindly click on the appropriate link to download the Schemes of Work that we use and will use in subsequent publication.

The download is on the secure paystck portal. Every scheme is at a cost of a token which you can pay within the secure platform.

Schemes of Works Downloads Links

  1. Lesson Plan Template – https://paystack.com/buy/leadinguides-lesson-plan-template
  2. Nursery 1 Schemes of Work – https://paystack.com/buy/unified-teaching-schemes-for-nigerian-nursery-schools-one
  3. Nursery 2 Schemes of Work – https://paystack.com/buy/unified-teaching-schemes-for-nigerian-nursery-schools-two
  4. Combined Nursery 1 & 2 Schemes – https://paystack.com/buy/combined-nursery-schemes-of-work
  5. Primary 1 Schemes – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-1-teaching-scheme
  6. Primary 2 Schemes – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-2-teaching-scheme-zmygoq
  7. Primary 3 Schemes – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-3-teaching-schemes
  8. Primary 4 Agric Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-agriculture-teaching-scheme
  9. Primary 4 Arabic Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-arabic-teaching-schemes-of-work
  10. Primary 4 Basic Science Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-basic-science-schemes
  11. Primary 4 Basic Technology Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-basic-technology-scheme
  12. Primary 4 CCA Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-cultural–creative-arts
  13. Primary 4 Civic Education Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-civic-education-scheme
  14. Primary 4 CRS Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-crs-scheme
  15. Primary 4 English Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-english-language-scheme-oplayy
  16. Primary 4 French Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-french-language
  17. Primary 4 Hausa Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-hausa-language-scheme
  18. Primary 4 Home Economics Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-home-economics-scheme
  19. Primary 4 ICT Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-ict-scheme-nzhwup
  20. Primary 4 Igbo Language – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-igbo-language-scheme
  21. Primary 4 IRS Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-irs-scheme
  22. Primary 4 Mathematics Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-mathematics-scheme
  23. Primary 4 PHE Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-phe-scheme
  24. Primary 4 Security Education Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-security-education-dgpszz
  25. Primary 4 Social Studies Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-social-studies
  26. Primary 4 Yoruba Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-4-yoruba-language-scheme
  27. Primary 5 CCA Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-scheme-cca
  28. Primary 5 Civic Education Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-civic-education-scheme
  29. Primary 5 English Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-english-language-scheme
  30. Primary 5 French Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-french-language-scheme
  31. Primary 5 ICT Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-ict-scheme
  32. Primary 5 IRS Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-irs-scheme
  33. Primary 5 Igbo Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-igbo-language-scheme
  34. Primary 5 Agriculture Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-agriculture-scheme
  35. Primary 5 Basic Science Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-basic-science-scheme
  36. Primary 5 Basic Technology Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-basic-technology-scheme
  37. Primary 5 Social Studies Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-social-studies-scheme
  38. Primary 5 Yoruba Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-yoruba-language
  39. Primary 5 Arabic Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-arabic-language-scheme
  40. Primary 5 PHE Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-phe-scheme
  41. Primary 5 CRS Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-crs-scheme
  42. Primary 5 Home Economics Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-home-economics-scheme-xunyqu
  43. Primary 5 Mathematics Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-mathematics-scheme
  44. Primary 5 Hausa Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-hausa-language
  45. Primary 5 Security Education Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-5-security-education-scheme
  46. Primary 6 Agriculture Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-agriculture-scheme
  47. Primary 6 Arabic Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-arabic-language-scheme
  48. Primary 6 Basic Science Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-basic-science-scheme
  49. Primary 6 Basic Technology Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-basic-technology-scheme
  50. Primary 6 CCA Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-cultural–creative-art-scheme
  51. Primary 6 Civic Education Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-civic-education-scheme
  52. Primary 6 CRS Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-crs-scheme
  53. Primary 6 English Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-english-language
  54. Primary 6 French Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-french-language-scheme
  55. Primary 6 Home Economics Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-home-economics-scheme
  56. Primary 6 Hausa Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-hausa-language-scheme
  57. Primary 6 Igbo Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-igbo-language-scheme
  58. Primary 6 ICT Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-ict-scheme
  59. Primary 6 IRS Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-irs-scheme
  60. Primary 6 Mathematics Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-mathematics
  61. Primary 6 PHE Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-phe-scheme
  62. Primary 6 Security Education Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-security-education-scheme
  63. Primary 6 Agriculture Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-agriculture-scheme
  64. Primary 6 Arabic Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-arabic-language-scheme
  65. Primary 6 Basic Science Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-basic-science-scheme
  66. Primary 6 Basic Technology Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-basic-technology-scheme
  67. Primary 6 CCA Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-cultural–creative-art-scheme
  68. Primary 6 Civic Education Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-civic-education-scheme
  69. Primary 6 CRS Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-crs-scheme
  70. Primary 6 English Language – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-english-language
  71. Primary 6 French Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-french-language-scheme
  72. Primary 6 Home Economics Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-home-economics-scheme
  73. Primary 6 Hausa Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-hausa-language-scheme
  74. Primary 6 Igbo Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-igbo-language-scheme
  75. Primary 6 ICT Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-ict-scheme
  76. Primary 6 IRS Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-irs-scheme
  77. Primary 6 Mathematics Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-mathematics
  78. Primary 6 PHE Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-phe-scheme
  79. Primary 6 Security Education Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-security-education-scheme
  80. Primary 6 Social Studies Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-social-studies-scheme
  81. Primary 6 Yoruba Language Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/primary-6-yoruba-language-scheme
  82. JSS1 Unified Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/jss-1-unified-teaching-scheme-kkxckx
  83. JSS 2 Unified Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/jss-2-unified-teaching-scheme
  84. JSS 3 Unified Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/jss-3-unified-teaching-scheme
  85. SSS1 Unified Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/sss-1-unified-teaching-scheme
  86. SSS 2 Unified Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/sss-2-unified-teaching-scheme
  87. SSS 3 Unified Scheme – https://paystack.com/buy/sss-3-unified-teaching-scheme
  88. Lower Basic History Scheme (primary 1-3) – https://paystack.com/buy/lower-basic-history
  89. Middle Basic History Scheme (primary 4-6) – https://paystack.com/buy/middle-basic-history-scheme
  90. Upper Basic History Scheme (JSS 1 – 3) – https://paystack.com/buy/upper-basic-history-scheme-jss-1—3

Scheme of Work – Nursery Mathematics based on NERDC curriculum

Summary of Scheme of Work – Nursery Mathematics based on NERDC Curriculum

This post, Scheme of Work – Nursery Mathematics based on NERDC curriculum; gives an overview of unified Mathematics Teaching Scheme of work for Nigerian Nursery Schools. There are also links to where you can download the official scheme of work in PDF format.

Meaning of Schemes of Work and How this scheme was developed

Scheme of work is a document which contain the breakdown of the topics in a curriculum or a teaching syllabus into weeks. In the simplest terms, scheme of work is the document that shows the topics that a teacher is to teach a particular class for every week of a term or terms.

In an earlier post, I discussed how the unified Schemes of Works for Nigeria came to be. I also describe the process of developing schemes of work. Click here to read this details.

Before I continue however, let me restate that government education agencies and ministries collaborates with examination bodies to develop the unified schemes of work for Nigerian schools.

Also, it is worth reemphasizing that there is need for unified schemes to eliminate or reduce uncertainties in performance evaluation. Hence, the unified schemes are some sort of standards. All independent schemes is expected to conform to the unified schemes. This is because external (final year) examinations set their questions based on the unified schemes of works.

Finally, the official schemes are the same for almost all the states of the federation. And the common problem is that the official schemes are not easily accessible and available to interested buyers.

This particular scheme of work – Nursery Mathematics and all our schemes of works are official.

We take off from the official scheme produced by the Education Resource Center (ERC), Abuja; then compares with those of other states.

Overview of the Scheme of Work – Nursery Mathematics based on NERDC Curriculum

The Scheme of Work -Nursery Mathematics based on NERDC curriculum contains all the topics for each week of every terms in the Nursery Classes (Nursery 1 & 2). These include all the topics for all the weeks in first term; second term and third term in Nursery 1. And also All the topics for all the weeks in first term; second term; and third term in Nursery 2.

Format

Unlike most of the scheme you will get elsewhere; the Scheme of Work – Nursery Mathematics based on NERDC curriculum is not simply PDF of scanned images. Our schemes are typed-text and searchable PDF documents.

The advantage of typed-text and searchable PDF documents over scanned images PDF is that of speed and seamless workflow. In typed-text PDF, you can easily search through the scheme for a given topic, term or concept. But you cannot do that with PDF that someone created from scanned images.

A teacher that is using the soft-copy of the typed-text and searchable PDF schemes can easily copy the topic and objectives to the lesson plan. But you cannot do this with scanned-images PDF schemes.

Content of Scheme of Work – Nursery Science based on NERDC curriculum

The official Mathematics Teaching Scheme of work for Nigerian Nursery Schools centers on the fundamentals of numeracy.

I have taught Mathematics at the Nursery, Primary, Secondary as well as A-level. And based on firsthand experience, I cannot emphasize enough on the importance of having concrete fundamentals of numeracy. I have mentioned on several occasions, that one of the major reasons why many students struggle with Mathematics is the lack of concrete understanding of the fundamentals of numeracy.

I know people who measure the quality of their (children’s) Nursery schools by the length of numbers that Nursery pupils are able to reel off hand. In fact, I have had to witness school administrators and owners boast of being ahead because nursery students of their school ca reel off more than those of others.

But this is not professional. There is no use overloading the under 5 years children with information that will aid their future studies. A child may be able to reel off 1 – 5000 off hand but struggle with Mathematics in later studies.

One of the key objectives of the official Mathematics teaching schemes of work for nursery schools is conceptual understanding. This means not to stuff nursery pupils with so much; but to offer them basic personal understanding of mathematics concept that they will use in future studies.

Hence, the scheme keeps the amount of numbers to teach nursery pupils within good range. Those who does not understand this usually say the scheme is scanty. That is not professionally true since many education experts from across country developed the national curriculum.

The general contents of the Scheme of Work – Nursery Mathematics based on NERDC curriculum include:

  1. Counting of Numbers
  2. Identification/Reading of Numbers
  3. Writing of Numbers

The content follows educational psychology of progressing from concrete (counting of real things) to abstract. It also follows the general professional understanding that reading precedes writing. Hence, the scheme gradually introduces writing of numbers after the pupils have learned to count and identify/read numbers. This further aids internalization of the concepts of numbers.

Most importantly, the scheme introduces few numbers at a time to ensure mastery. Also, writing of numbers proceeds from forming of writing patterns. This encourages cross-referencing with activities in letter work.

Download Scheme of Work – Nursery Mathematics based on NERDC curriculum

We are currently selling the our materials at 50% discount. Hence, the current price of our Science Teaching Schemes for Nursery Schools cost as follows:

  1. Complete Science Teaching Scheme for Nursery 1 & 2 – N1250 N625
  2. Compulete Science Teaching Scheme for Nursery 1 only – N 625 N312.50
  3. Complete Science Teaching Scheme for Nursery 2 – N 625 N312.50

How to buy Complete Science Teaching Scheme of Work for Nigerian Nursery Schools

We have three options for you to buy our complete Science Teaching Schemes of Work for Nigerian Nursery Schools:

  1. Buy from our store – you pay online. Immediately you pay, you will get the download link. Click here to go to store
  2. Buy from Our Paystack Product Page – this is also online. Our website is secured with valid web certificate. But some people prefer secure popular payment gateway. That is why we set this up. You also get the download link immediately you pay. Click here to go to our paystack product page.
  3. Contact us on WhatsApp – If you prefer to buy and pay directly to human, Click here to message me on WhatsApp.

Scheme of Work: Nursery Science based on NERDC curriculum

Summary of Scheme of Work: Nursery Science

This post, scheme of work: Nursery Science; gives and overview of the Science Teaching Scheme of Work for Nigerian Nursery Schools. There is also link to where you can download the official scheme of work in PDF format.

What is Scheme of Work?

Scheme of work is a document which contain the breakdown of the topics in a curriculum or a teaching syllabus into weeks. In the simplest terms, scheme of work is the document that shows the topics that a teacher is to teach a particular class for every week of a term or terms.

Who develop schemes of works for Nigerian Schools? And How?

After the relevant agencies develop the national curriculum and other independent curricular; schools buy the curriculum/curricular. Then examination bodies and schools’ academic board, which is made up of academic experts; develop examination/teaching syllabus from the curriculum/curricular.

A syllabus usually contains only the themes, sub-themes and topics that a teacher is expected to teach a particular class within a given period. This period is usually a term or year(s). A syllabus does not contain the topic for each week of the term. And it also does not particularly list topics in the order that a teacher should teach them.

Instead, it will just list the themes, the sub-themes and the topics under each theme.

So, after the academic board and examination bodies develop the syllabuses; schools will give the syllabus to trained subject teachers.

It is the trained subject teachers that uses the syllabus to create, first of all their unit of work plan, then their schemes of work.

The scheme of work must be in such a way that the teacher covers the syllabus with the students for every given class.

Uniform Scheme of Works for Nigerian Schools

Although individual schools can draft their schemes of work as I have described above; many schools do not do this. Instead, majority of the schools buy unified schemes of work from education ministries and agencies. A few, especially private schools, buy from independent – usually one-person – scheme of work developer or educational consultants.

Reason

This is because apart from making sure that schemes of work covers the syllabus, developing it also requires some professional skills and knowledge. Skills and knowledge like curriculum planning and evaluation strategies among others will ensure that the schemes of work is effective.

In addition to this, not many subject teachers in Nigerian schools are educationists. Also, subject teachers developing schemes of work independently takes time.

Regardless of whether subject teachers developed effective schemes that cover the curriculum/syllabus or not; external examination bodies set their questions with the assumption of the ideal. This means a lot of uncertainties for students.

The Need for Uniformity

It is government agencies that conduct most of the external (final year) examinations. For example, NECO conducts all the external (final year) examinations at the basic and secondary education in Nigeria. These include the National Common Entrance Examinations (NCEE) into federal unity schools; the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) which marks the successful completion of Basic Education in Nigeria; and the Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE). These examinations are unified – everything student that wants to write each, answer the same question regardless of their school.

However, non-unity schools independently conduct their common entrance examinations; and states also independently conducts their BECE. Similarly, WAEC conducts parallel SSCE.

Notwithstanding, both the state BECE and WAEC SSCE share the same or similar syllabus with NECO.

Official Schemes of Work for Nigerian Schools

Consequently, with every new curriculum or syllabus that NERDC or the examination bodies produce; government also tasks their education ministries and agencies to produce unified schemes.

These official schemes are the same for almost all the states of the federation. The problem is that the official schemes are not easily accessible and available to interested buyers.

This Scheme of Work – Nursery Science based on NERDC curriculum and all our schemes are the official ones.

We take off from the official scheme produced by the Education Resource Center, Abuja; then compares with those of other states.

Overview of the Scheme of Work – Nursery Science based on NERDC Curriculum

The Scheme of Work -Nursery Science based on NERDC curriculum contains all the topics for each week of every terms in the Nursery Classes (Nursery 1 & 2). These include all the topics for all the weeks in first term; second term and third term in Nursery 1. And also All the topics for all the weeks in first term; second term; and third term in Nursery 2.

Format

Unlike most of the scheme you will get elsewhere; the Scheme of Work – Nursery Science based on NERDC curriculum is not simply PDF of scanned images. Our schemes are typed-text and searchable PDF documents.

The advantage of typed-text and searchable PDF documents over scanned images PDF is that of speed and seamless workflow. In typed-text PDF, you can easily search through the scheme for a given topic, term or concept. But you cannot do that with PDF that someone created from scanned images.

A teacher that is using the soft-copy of the typed-text and searchable PDF schemes can easily copy the topic and objectives to the lesson plan. But you cannot do this with scanned-images PDF schemes.

Content of Scheme of Work – Nursery Science based on NERDC curriculum

The official scheme of work – Nursery Science based on NERDC curriculum has three major themes:

  1. Self-awareness
  2. The Child and the Environment
  3. Science & Nature

I have seen school owners buy schemes of work with overloaded subjects for the nursery classes. This kind of schemes have subjects like Practical Life, Agriculture, Discovery, Physical & Health Education, Handwriting, e.t.c.

Not to condemn this subjects. But when I looked through the contents for the subjects; I noticed that the four basic subjects in the national early years curriculum capture majority of the topics that form those subjects.

For example, in one of the blended scheme of work that I have; all the topics in Practical Life and Discovery are in the unified Science Scheme.

More encounters have convinced me that many lack wholesome understanding of the national curriculum cum unified schemes of work. Therefore, I recommend to school owners and administrators to stick with the national curriculum and strive towards effective implementation.

I understand the need to stand out with unique subject names. But let us know that the Nigerian curriculum is developed uniquely for the Nigerian school environment. Hence, it has proven to work where you intend to test others.

Finally, names of subjects does not make a school stand out, but quality of delivery.

Download Scheme of Work – Nursery Science based on NERDC curriculum

We are currently selling the our materials at 50% discount. Hence, the current price of our Science Teaching Schemes for Nursery Schools cost as follows:

  1. Complete Science Teaching Scheme for Nursery 1 & 2 – N1250 N625
  2. Compulete Science Teaching Scheme for Nursery 1 only – N 625 N312.50
  3. Complete Science Teaching Scheme for Nursery 2 – N 625 N312.50

How to buy Complete Science Teaching Scheme of Work for Nigerian Nursery Schools

We have three options for you to buy our complete Science Teaching Schemes of Work for Nigerian Nursery Schools:

  1. Buy from our store – you pay online. Immediately you pay, you will get the download link. Click here to go to store
  2. Buy from Our Paystack Product Page – this is also online. Our website is secured with valid web certificate. But some people prefer secure popular payment gateway. That is why we set this up. You also get the download link immediately you pay. Click here to go to our paystack product page.
  3. Contact us on WhatsApp – If you prefer to buy and pay directly to human, Click here to message me on WhatsApp.

VTU Business – PiusJoe Telecoms

In this post, VTU Business – PiusJoe Telecoms, I explain what the VTU business is. I also explain how it is an effective personal finance management tool. Finally, I discuss how you can make money from it; how much to make; as well as how you can start a VTU business in this period COVID19 lockdown period. I used my VTU Busines – PiusJoe Telecoms – as case study.

Introduction

VTU stands for Virtual Top-Up. VTU is a business package that communication companies offers to enable individuals to securely buy, sell and pay for utility services.

Last October, at the Independent Education Seminar at Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology (FCAPT); I spoke on Sustainable School Growth and Multiple Streams of Income for Teachers.

The objectives of my talk was to provide leading guides for school owners and administrators on how to achieve sustainable growth in their schools; and also to provide directions for teachers on how they can create multiple source of income.

Then, and on the former; one of the sources of the multiple streams of income for teachers that I included in the list is the VTU business.

At the time however, I wasn’t and didn’t think I would go into the business myself for some reasons. But this boring and tiring COVID19 break revealed different perspective and prospects.

Hence, I started my VTU Business – PiusJoe Telecoms – on the 7th of July, 2020. It is now 20 days. And I now have better first-hand information on VTU than I had to share last October. Have I made any profit? Of course yes! How much profit did I make in 20 days? What are the projections? How can you start yours? These are the questions I address in this post.

Is VTU Scam?

No!! VTU is absolutely not a scam. Now you must know that I represent my brands in other businesses. For those that understand what this means, I prioritize my name brands above all else. Therefore, speaking on this; not just to individuals but also on the public domain means that I guarantee it is genuine without reservation. That being said, I am not asking you send money to anyone – not even to me. You can do what I am going to explain below absolutely on your own without help.

With this assurance, I can now say that if you are still buying paper airtime and paying your TV and electricity bills with scratch card; then I categorize you into one of two groups: It is either you are an arrogant rich person or you are a pitiable poor person.

If not for business, at least I believe you will do this for the personal finance management aspect of it – to reduce cost.

So let’s begin.

How Does VTU Work?

First let us explain the VTU technology in detail – but without boring you with ‘technobabbles’ (i.e. technical terms/details).

VTU is the digital form of the traditional way of recharging our mobile phones; subscribing for data and Cable TV packages; and paying for utility bills. This means that instead of doing these things the traditional way, VTU allows us to do them with our computers and phones.

Traditional ways

The traditional way that we recharge our phone with airtime credit is by buying a Paper or scratch card. Then scratching/unpinning it, we load by dialling the USSD code for our mobile network together with the recharge pin.

We also do the same to buy data (internet subscription). After loading the airtime credit with USSD code, we still use another USSD code to buy the data plan of our choice.

As for CableTv subscription and electricity bill payment, quite a good number of people travel all the way to nearest office of their TV network and power distribution company to make payment. But recently too, some now renewal their subscription through scratch cards.

Problems of these traditional ways

With deeper service penetration and wider coverage, subscribers come to discover many problems with the traditional ways. Some of these problems are:

1.       Accessibility

If anything takes you to a place where there is no paper or scratch recharge card, then you will not be able to recharge your phone when your airtime is exhausted. Many have been stranded in their journey, maybe you too!

2.       Difficulty of recharging

To recharge, one must first of all scratch the card or remove the staple pins; dial the right USSD code and enter the recharge pin one after another. Not for many young people, but this is a heavy task for the older people. Some people even forget the recharge USSD code for their mobile network – that’s not funny.

3.       Damage of Recharge Card

Maybe wet by liquid, or you over-scratch the card; but it is a common problem with traditional way of recharging. Sometimes the recharge card gets damaged or some of the recharge pin become undiscernible. Then you’ll have trouble recharging your credit airtime – usually several minutes of call with customer care agents.

4.       Loss of Recharge Card

Have you bought recharge card that got lost before? Well, this is not a forbidden experience. And people face this problem occasionally. When you do, you do not only losses the opportunity to call but also your money!

5.       Loss of time

Go to the seller; buy the recharge card; scratch it or remove the pin; locate the recharge pin; recall the recharge USSD code for your network; dial the code; enter the recharge pin; and send.

Isn’t that time-consuming to you? Sure, it is! Have you been so busy at work that even though you have the card you were unable to load until a later period? Or maybe you were so occupied that you were unable to recharge your TV subscription for a couple of days?

These are not uncommon experiences. And that is a major problem.

VTU – The Problem Solver

Just as the different companies were thinking of how to overcome the problems I mentioned above – and also make life easier for their subscribers; MTN broke the ice with their VTU technology.

The VTU is now in three forms. This means you can recharge your credit airtime easily in anyone of three ways. These include:

  1. VTU sim Cards
  2. VTU USSD codes
  3. VTU Website/Portal

Now before I explain each of these, you should know that the VTU technology has two main objectives:

  1. Make recharging easier for subscribers
  2. Create Small and Medium business opportunities for willing and interested subscribers

VTU SIM Cards

This is the very first form of VTU technologies. Since it is the take-off point from the traditional ways, this VTU technology is also very similar to the traditional ways.

This VTU technology works like this:

1.       Buy VTU sim card

Interested subscribers who want to do the VTU business buys a special kind of sim card. This sim card is called VTU sim card. The telecommunication companies made this sim to be different from the regular ones in what they can do. For example, you can send any amount of airtime to anybody with the sim card. This is not like sharing or gifting airtime. You cannot do this with your regular sim card.

There is no single VTU sim card for all the mobile networks. So, you must buy VTU sim card for any mobile network you want to be selling airtime for. This means if you want to sell airtime for all the networks; you must buy 4 VTU sim cards and at least a 2 double-sim phones or 4 different single-sim phones.

2.       Load your capital into the VTU sim card

Alright, a little business studies – capital is the money you want to use to start a business. After you buy the VTU sim card, you will fund the VTU sim card with the amount of money you want to use to start the business.

3.       Start selling by sending airtime directly to buyers

After the prospective VTU businessman or woman fund his/her VTU sim card; business has started. The person can start announcing that s/he sells airtime. And if anybody wants to buy airtime, he or she collects the money; and simply sends the amount of credit airtime directly to the buyer’s phone. The VTU businessman/woman can collect the money by hand or through bank payment. And s/he can send the airtime to anybody anywhere and at any time.

Do you see how selling airtime through VTU is better than the traditional way? The seller can sell to people that are far away and the buyer can buy from someone that is far away too.

The buyer will not need to scratch any card, locate any pin or dial any code. S/he will just receive an SMS notification that his or her recharge of the amount is successful. Isn’t that amazing! Recharging like this has no disadvantages to the buyer at all. The mobile network operator’s computer will simply see it as if the person has recharged usual.

Well off course, technically the record will be there that the buyer recharged through VTU.

In fact, in support of the cashless economy policy and to promote the VTU business; many of the telecommunication companies may even give the subscriber bonuses if they recharge through VTU. Also, to enable the VTU business owners to make profit, the VTU system offers discount to the business owners. This discount ranges from 0.5 to 5%.

Disadvantage of VTU Sim card technologies to Small and Medium VTU Business Start-up

The major disadvantage of this VTU technology to the VTU business owner is that s/he will need to buy two or more phones and two or more VTU sim cards. Therefore, if you don’t have a lot of money to start the business, then it will be difficult.

VTU USSD Codes

The second and better VTU Technology is the VTU USSD Codes. Shortly after introducing the VTU technology, it became a very successful business for those that went into it.

So, many companies considered going into it too. Not only small and medium businesses this time but even large companies. There are companies like banks, payment gateways, and even the telecommunication companies themselves!

With the involvement of these big companies, comes better system. The companies are able to link subscribers’ phone line (number) to their bank and payment gateway accounts. Then through some technical setup, they created special code for each company. With these codes, users are able to recharge their airtime and make payment directly from their bank accounts and payment gateways.

This VTU technologies works as follows:

1.       Technical setup and USSD code creation

The first thing is that large companies carry out the technical setup. This majorly surrounds putting up necessary MoUs, partnership, policing, database sharing and linking subscriber base to bank/payment gateways. After this, the companies create USSD codes that users of different network operators will use to make purchases and payment.

All these happens without the knowledge of the ordinary user. Also, the USSD code for the different companies that offers the VTU business differs. In fact, just like the VTU sim card, any company that wants to add VTU for any mobile network operator to their services will create special USSD code for that mobile network operator. There are cases were the same code works for two or more mobile operators though.

Most companies offer E Top-up (another name for VTU – Virtual Top-Up) as one of the options in their already existing services. For example, banks offer E Top-Up alongside their mobile banking codes.

2.       Subscribers Top-up

After the setup and the creation of the VTU USSD codes, the companies will begin advertising their VTU platform to their subscribers. And users can instantly begin to recharge their credit airtime and make payment by dialling the codes.

 Below are VTU (E Top-Up) USSD codes for some companies.

CompaniesCode to access VTU (E Top-Up)
1.       MTN*131#
2.       GLO*777#
3.       Access Bank*901#
4.       First Bank*894#
5.       Zenith Bank*966#
6.       GT Bank*737#
7.       FCMB*329#
8.       Jaiz Bank*389#
9.       Eco Bank*326#
10.   UBA*919#
11.   Union Bank*826#
12.   Fidelity Bank*770#
13.   Sterling Bank*822#
14.   Quick Teller*322# or *805#
15.   OPay*955#

NOTE: For the non-banking VTU platform like Quick teller and Opay, you must have account with them for the code to work. Similarly, the bank’s codes work only on your BVN line. Otherwise, some return error. However, sometimes instead of the errors; it will reroute you to either create account or one of your mobile network self-service platforms.

VTU Websites/Portals/Apps

This is the latest VTU technology. This takes advantage of the platform-independent and programmable nature of the web. It incorporates and brings airtime, data (internet subscription) and payment features to one place.  There is also mobile app specially dedicated to this technology.

Find how VTU Websites/Portals and Apps Works below

1.       Distributors Set up the platform and sell in bulk to resellers

Just like the VTU USSD Code technology, large communication companies carry out the initial setup. These are usually telecommunication companies like MTN, GLO, AIRTEL and 9Mobile. But there are also national/multinational non-mobile-network-operator companies like Unify and Zazoo.

With the exception of the mobile operator companies, most of the direct VTU distributors deals in wholesale. Hence, although their prices maybe low per unit, they mostly do not sell in unit but in bulk. And distributors mostly sell to VTU retailers (Resellers).

However, the mobile network operators who are also distributors like MTN, GLO, AIRTEL & 9MOBILE offers end subscriber unit sale. Still at this, their prices are usually more than those of resellers.

2.       Resellers buys in bulk from distributors and sell to subscribers

To buy and sell from distributors; people that are willing to go into the VTU business will visit the distributors’ platform, register and fund their account with capital.

Thereafter, resellers sell directly to subscribers from their capital. The good part of the VTU Website/portal technologies is that it allows resellers to emulate their distributors platform. So, every reseller tends to have their independent VTU website/portal.

Through this websites or portals, the VTU reseller and anybody can visit and buy, sell and make payments. When either the reseller or anybody else buys, sells or makes any payments from the website; they receive discounts.

HOW TO RECHARGE, BUY & MAKE PAYMENTS THROUGH VTU RESELLER WEBSITE
1. Choose a good reseller website and register

Recharging, buying and making utility payments through VTU reseller websites is a very good personal financial management option. Although most people usually do not keep record of how much they spend on airtime and data subscription on a monthly basis; if they do, they will see how much they could be saving.

How much do you budget for data per month?

Personally, on average; I use between 20GB – 30GB monthly. That depends on how much work I have for any particular month – and that’s very conservative, it could be much higher. Ordinarily, that cost around N5, 000 – N8,000. But I mostly cut cost by buying about half my data needs as night plan. And the other half as regular. Still, I was spending between N 3, 000 to N 5, 000 monthly on data.

Now that’s not much for some people. But I still wanted to save cost, at least money no dey scratch body.

While I was thinking of how, my thought went immediately back to my lecture on VTU. And I began to look for good reseller to register under. Then my generous Lagos friend posted on facebook. I got into her inbox and she redirected me to her WhatsApp group.

Step 1

I got her link from the group, then I registered on the distributor’s portal under her for free. And that is how I began the journey of saving huge cost and later starting my telecom business – PiusJoe Telecoms.

So, the first step you need to take so that you can buy airtime, data and make utility payment at lower and even start your telecom business (if you want to); is to get a trusted VTU reseller, and register under him/her.

You need to register under a reseller because like I said earlier, most VTU distributors usually do not allow you to register under them directly. Instead, if you want to be directly under a distributor; you first of all register under a reseller for free. Then you upgrade your reseller level to stand on your own – to stand directly under the distributor.

Do you want to start buying airtime, data and making your electricity (all states) and Cable TV (whether GO TV, Startimes, or DSTV) payments at lower prices? Are you thinking of a reseller you can trust, well; I have upgraded my reseller membership, you can trust me. And I am available 24/7 to guide you through the processes all for free, click here to register under me.

2. Fund Your Wallet

Did you register in the steps above? Congratulations! You’re on your way to start saving cost or even start the popular VTU business.

Immediately you register, you view all the items in one screen.

Now from screenshot 1 above, there is will be able to see all the items that are on the three screenshots. He used his smartphone. That is why the screenshots are three. But if you are using iPad, Tablet or Laptop/Desktop, you will be able to a place I circled with red pencil. There, you will see that your “wallet is N 0.00”.

Wallet in VTU Portal or Website

Wallet here is like your regular wallet, purse or handbag. If you are going to market to buy something, you put the money you want to use in buying inside your wallet, purse or handbag. For the people that have excellent personal financial management, when they keep money for a particular item in their wallet; they will never again use that money for something else.

For instance, if they keep N5000 in their wallet to buy perfume when they get to market; but on their way to market they see an interesting book that cost N2000, these financially disciplined people will not touch their N5000 perfume money to buy the book. Instead, if they have extra money; they buy the book. Otherwise, they will simply say, another time.

This is exactly how the wallet in your VTU portal works.

Immediately you complete your VTU registration, a special bank account is created for you with Providus Bank. This special bank account is your wallet.

So, the next step for you to start buying airtime, data and making electricity and Cable TV subscription at a cheaper rate is to fund your wallet.

To fund your wallet is like keeping the amount of money you want to use to buy airtime, data and making payment or to even do the business in your wallet.

Remember, your VTU wallet work like the wallet of a financially disciplined person. Any money you keep in the wallet can only be used to buy airtime, data or to make electricity and Cable TV payments. You will not be able to withdraw the money to buy rice or fura da nono.

In my case, since I know the estimated amount of money I use to buy airtime/data on a monthly basis; I simply fund my wallet with that amount – around N3,000. Then whenever I needed airtime or data, I simply go to my portal and recharge or buy data with the amount until it finishes. Then I will fund it again.

How to fund your wallet in VTU portal

You can fund your VTU wallet just like you deposit money in your regular bank account. You can transfer, go to bank and deposit with deposit slip, go to any POS close to you and deposit or use your ATM card to pay online – if the money you want to deposit is already in your bank account.

The first step to is to go back to your portal and click on deposit money. I circled it with purple color pencil in screenshot 2.

After you click on Deposit Money, it will load and show you where you can enter the amount of money you want to fund your wallet with and how you want to pay. You can fund your wallet with as low as N100 and as high as N5, 000, 000 (five million naira).

VTU Business - PiusJoe Telecoms

In the sample screen above, I entered N3,000. That means I want to pay N3,000. But that is not important, you can enter any amount, make sure it is more than M100 (One hundred naira).

Then click on the select method of payment and choose one by clicking on it. In my example screen above, I choose Cash Deposit or Mobile Transfer or Internet Banking.

The distributor who runs the portal says the platform is secure. And you can see from the website address that the connection is over a secured socket. In addition, they use interswitch which is a very well-known platform.

But if you are sceptical about entering your bank details or if the money you want to deposit is cash with you; select cash deposit. After that, click on Click to Proceed.

Immediately you click on the “Click to Proceed “above, you will see your VTU Wallet bank account details like the one of the earlier friend in screenshot 3 below:

From the screenshot 3 above, you can see Your VTU Wallet Bank Name & Account Number. It is not compulsory for you to repeat this process every time you want to fund your wallet. Simply transfer money into the account and it will automatically go to your VTU on the portal.

Once you fund your wallet, you are set to buy airtime and data and also make payments for your electricity and cable tv at cheaper price. See the description of to perform that below:

3. Buy and Sell Airtime and Data and Make Electricity & Cable TV payment at cheaper prices

You have created a VTU account. You have funded your wallet. So, I say congratulations!!

You are now set to start saving cost or start the business. But let me first tell you that doing the VTU business is simple. Anyone with VTU Account can do the VTU business. To do it, you simply buy and sell airtime and data as well as make payments for other people. No matter how simple this is, there are people who do not even know that it exists. There are people who will not be able to do it – due to lack of understanding and other factors like time. And of course, there are the arrogant rich people and pitiable poor people who though understands how it works and have the means will deliberately refuse to do it.

These are the people you render the business services to.

Whether you are doing for yourself or you are doing it as a business (for other people). The steps are the same.

Steps to Buy and Sell airtime on VTU Portal
  1. Login to your VTU portal.

Click on this link to login or simply type www.clubkash.com/piusjoetelecoms. The screen below will load.

VTU Business - PiusJoe Telecoms

Enter the phone number you register with and then your password and click login.

Go to Quick Actions and click on Buy Airtime

  • Choose Network, enter amount and phone number
  • After you click on the Buy Airtime in the Quick Actions area, it will show you where to choose the mobile network – whether MTN, Airtel, Glo or 9Mobile; Enter the amount of airtime you want to buy/sell; and the phone number you want to recharge. Then Click Buy Now. And the phone number will automatically be recharged.
  • It is as simple as that – no scratching, no dialling code.
  • Points to Remember about buying airtime from VTU website/Portal
  • Remember the following when buying airtime from VTU portal:
    1. The minimum amount you can recharge is N50
    2. If you set Auto renew to Yes, anytime the person’s airtime finishes; the system will automatically recharge the phone number from your wallet – whether the person pay you or not, long as you have money on your wallet.
    3. As a free member, if you want to do airtime business; then your profit is between 0 to 3%. This depends on the macro economy in the country for the day. The best assurance for your airtime is to sell at a price a little above the actual value. For example, you can sell N100 airtime at N105; N200 at N210, etc.
    4. You can also print airtime recharge card for glo, airtel, and 9mobile. MTN is currently unavailable for printing.
    5. If you upgrade your VTU account, you will get up to 5% discount on all airtime purchases in addition to other benefits.

Steps to Buy and Sell Data

1.   Login to your VTU portal.

Click on this link to login or simply type www.clubkash.com/piusjoetelecoms. The screen below will load.

VTU Business - PiusJoe Telecoms

Enter the phone number you register with and then your password and click login.

2. Go to Quick Actions and click on Buy Data bundle

3. Choose Network, data plan and enter phone number

After you click on Buy Databundle on the Quick Actions Area, it will load a page where you can choose the mobile network, the data plan and enter the phone number. Then click on Buy Now

Points to Remember About Buying Data from VTU Business
  1. You get most of your saving or profit from VTU data

If you are getting into VTU so as to cut cost, purchasing data through VTU is your best bet. You will be getting your data at nearly half the regular prices from your mobile network operator – sometimes even less than that. It is the same if you are into VTU for business. You will be buying at about half the regular prices. This means about 20 – 50% profit or more. See the regular prices of the most popular data plans and the price you get from VTU website (as at August 11, 2020) below:

Network &
Data Plan/Worth

(Monthly)

Regular Price from Mobile Network (NGN)
Price you get from VTU website (NGN)
Amount you save/profit you make (NGN)
Percentage profit (%)
MTN
1.5GBNGN 1,000N578N42273
2GBN1200N720N48067
3GBN 1500N1080N42039
4.5GBN2000N1552N44829
6GBN2500N2070N43021
GLO
1GBN345N290N5521
2.9GBN 1000N817N18322
4.1GBN 1500N1155N34530
5.8 GBN 2000N1274N72657
7.7GBN2500N1575N92559
10GBN3000N1841N115963
9MOBILE
1.5GBN1000N1000
2GBN1200N1200
4.5GBN2000N2000
11GBN4000N4000
AIRTEL
1.5GBN1000N1000
2GBN1200N1200
3GBN1500N1500
6GBN2500N2500
8GBN3000N3000
11GBN4000N4000

Imagine the amount of money you could be saving or making through VTU – especially if you are using MTN and GLO. These prices are not static. It changes with the macro economy in the country for the day. But the prices WILL NOT EXCEED those of the regular from the mobile network providers. Instead, it is usually lower.

Even at the prices above, the cost reduction/profit margin is still high. This is because 7 out of every 10 mobile network subscribers in Nigeria uses either MTN or GLO.

  1. The prices above are all available to every VTU member – even free members!
  2. If you are a business owner and you upgrade your membership to VIP, you will get even more discount. See prices that are available to VIP members in the table below:
Network &
Data Plan/Worth (NGN)
Regular Price from Mobile Network (NGN)
Price for VIP VTU members (NGN)
Amount you save/profit you make (NGN)
Percentage profit (%)
MTN
1.5GBNGN 1,000N330N67073
2GBN1200N660N54067
3GBN 1500N990N51039
4.5GBN2000N1485N51529
6GBN2500N1980N52021
GLO
1GBN345N290N5521
2.9GBN 1000N817N18322
4.1GBN 1500N1155N34530
5.8 GBN 2000N1274N72657
7.7GBN2500N1575N92559
10GBN3000N1841N115963
9MOBILE
1.5GBN1000N800N20025
2GBN1200N1000N20020
4.5GBN2000N1800N20011
11GBN4000N3200N80025
AIRTEL
1.5GBN1000N900N10011
2GBN1200N1000N20020
3GBN1500N1200N30025
6GBN2500N2250N25011
8GBN3000N2700N30011

Can it be better than this? There are not many businesses that you can start with zero naira and make a profit above N100 in a single sale.

Now, look at the tables above; how much do you think you will save a month? If you haven’t started but would like to; remember I can guide through the process.

Get in touch with me:

By Call/SMS – 08067689217

On WhatsApp – 08067689217

On Facebook – PiusJoe Ankpa

On Twitter – PiusJoeAnkpa

How Much I Saved/Made from VTU in 20 Days

Earlier in the post, I promised to state whether I profited from VTU in the first 20 days of operation. Well, if I must give a number, I made exactly N5,155 in the first 20 days (July 8 – 27, 2020). That is plus the fact that I didn’t have to pay for my data anymore – I saved the entire money I normally use to buy data. This too is around N 5,000. And I consumed exactly 19.03 GB of MTN data bundle within the period. If I had purchased the data from MTN, that would have cost me extra N5,000 – minimum.

So, in total; I could say I earned about N15,155 from VTU in 20 days. That is not too bad for one who only planned to save N 5,000 cost on data at the start. In fact, I am officially a VTU businessman.

Wait! That gain is despite the fact that I advertised on twice – 2 separate facebook posts and broadcast message to selected WhatsApp contacts actually. I maintained my usually workaday activities. I was still reporting to office to work on our ongoing web project. It is while there and a prospective buyer places a request across that I attend to it. My client circle was narrow – about 15 people max.

What if I had up to 100 people buying from me in a month! In fact, that is my target for next month. If you are not already doing the VTU business, and you are not interested in joining soon; please get on my client list.

PiusJoe Telecoms

I sell directly to you, at a very affordable rate and timely. See my pricelist below:

NETWORK/DATA PLANS
PRICE
YOU SAVE YOURSELF
MTN
1GBN345N320
2GBN675N525
3GBN1010N490
4GBN1350N425
5GBN1700N520
GLO
1GBN475
2.5GBN950
4.1GBN1430N70
5.8GBN1950N50
7.7GBN2400N100
AIRTEL
1.5GBN950N50
2GBN1200=
3GBN1500=
4.5GBN1820N50
6GBN2300N200
8GBN2800N200
9MOBILE
1.5GBN900N100
2GBN1200=
4.5GBN1900N50
11GBN3500N500
NOTE: All plans valid for 30 days.
The process is simple:
  1. Send me a request on Call/SMS (08067689217), WhatsApp (08067689217), or Facebook (PiusJoe Ankpa). In the request, just state the data plan and phone number you want me to send the data or airtime to.
  2. I send you the data and
  3. You make the payment.

For those interested in the VTU business, there’s another aspect I will reveal in another post.

I hope you gained some insight into VTU business from the post. I will keep guides coming on this topic coming – on my free time.

African Excellence Award 2020 LeadinGuides Wins Instructional Design Award

;eadinGuides Wins Instructional Design Award

On Monday, July 27, 2020; The LeadinGuides Team announced their 2020 Instructional Design award. Edward Faulkner, The Award Coordinator of the awarding institution – MEA Markets; communicated this to the team earlier that day via email.

MEA Markets

MEA Markets is a quarterly publication dedicated to researching and publicizing the major moves and events as they happen across the entire Middle East & Africa region.

The institution is a member of Greater Birmingham Chambers of Commerce and a Certified CPD based in Staffordshire, England.

The African Excellence Award

The African Excellence Award is a major category of the two-continent award. Anonymous voters nominated LeadinGuides for consideration in the Award in late April.

Following a thorough 3-step selection, screening and voting process that span months; LeadinGuides came out winner of Nigeria’s Instructional Design Specialists of the Year 2020.

In an acceptance message, PiusJoe Ankpa, the Chief Executive & Learning Officer at LeadinGuides; appreciated the highly qualified and professional team at MEA Markets. PiusJoe also reiterated the commitment of the LeadinGuides Team to both creating quality Instructional materials for Nigerian classrooms and instructional design for learning and corporate environment.

The MEA Markets will publish the full list of the award in their annual magazine alongside official announcement in September 2020.

This award is important to us at LeadinGuides as it adds international credence to our Instructional Design Training. The August edition of the LeadinGuides Instructional Design Training commences Monday, August 3 to Saturday, August 8, 2020.

Meaning of Instructional Design

Meaning of Instructional Design in brief

In this post, meaning of Instructional Design, I give the simplest but professional meaning of Instructional Design. I present the meaning in a way that non-education professionals will easily understand. In conclusion, I briefly state a difference between Instructional Design and Lesson Planning.

Introduction

We have had many Instructional Design Training. And although the term ‘Instructional Design‘ may sound enticing; not everyone in the education circle understands its meaning. Consequently, some who ought to have participated in the training have missed out of previous opportunities for want of understanding.

It is true that a good number of educators may not have had any earlier intentional contact with the term. Nonetheless, that is rather unfortunate to me. Especially at this time that every teacher out there seeks alternative source of income. It is a well-known fact that our chances of earnings is in direct proportion to our professional vastness and proficiency. This is what the popular counselor and psychiatrist, Craig D. Lounsbrough implied when he said: “I fear that should I seek out the treasures around me, they might by comparison reveal that I have not cultivated the treasures within me.”

Hence, the treasure – alternative source of income – that an educator seek is a comparison of the treasure s/he cultivates within. Instructional Design is of the closest relation with any educator’s profession. It does not only increases your vastness and proficiency in the profession; but it also opens more opportunities. This is because Instructional is not limited to the classroom alone. It is a vast body of knowledge that you can practice in the corporate environments across the sectors just the way you apply them in the classroom. In fact, it is one of the best way that a teacher can make himself or herself extra relevant in the corporate environment. Many veteran teachers currently freelance for corporate organizations as part of HR.

Do you see how Instructional Design is closely related to an educator’s profession now? I am sure you do. But what exactly is the meaning of Instructional Design? And how is it different from Lesson Planning? Read on

Meaning of Instructional Design

Professionally, the combined works of (Merrill, Drake, Lacy, & Pratt, 1966) at the Department of Instructional Technology, Utah State University; and (Wagner, 2011) on The Journal of Applied Instructional Design defines Instructional Design as the practice of systematically designing, developing and delivering instructional products and experiences, both digital and physical, in a consistent and reliable fashion toward an efficient, effective, appealing, engaging and inspiring acquisition of knowledge.

Now that is a very elaborate definition. But it may not be easy for you to fully grasp the professional perspective to it – especially if you are new to the field of Instructional Design. Therefore, I will present the simplest but professional meaning of Instructional Design in the following sections.

Instructional + Design

The term Instructional Design is made of two words – Instructional and Design. Instructional here is an adjective which tells describes design. And it means that which gives instructions or simply giving instruction.

Meaning of Instructional Design - LeadinGuides

So, Instructional Design is simply a type of design which gives instruction. 

Meaning of Instructional Design 2 - LeadinGuides

But this is not elaborate enough. Hence, let’s make it more elaborate. We’ll do this by looking up the meaning of instruction in our dictionary.

Meaning of Instruction

Both the Oxford and Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionaries contain three meanings for the word instruction.

Therefore, dictionary 101 demands that we pick the meaning that is most relative to the context of our discussion. This corresponds to definition number 3 and 1 in Cambridge and Oxford Dictionaries respectively. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Instruction is the process of teaching.

And process on the other hand means a series of actions that you take in order to achieve a result.

Bringing it together,

We could say that instructional means that which gives a series of actions that a teacher takes in order to achieve a result.

Now what result does a teacher aims to achieve?

Generally, teachers teach to educate (or give education to) a learner.  And, professionally, education means desirable or desired skills, knowledge and character that is beneficial to an individual and the society. This is typically the result that any teacher aims to achieve in a lesson. The teacher aims to pass onto the students the skills, knowledge and character that the syllabus stipulates. In Instructional Design however, the designer extends the aim of the teacher further. Beyond simply targeting to educate the student, ISD aims to make this happen in an efficient, effective, appealing, engaging and inspiring way.

  • Efficient – using available resources
  • Effective – that as many students as possible learn what is intended and relatively permanently.
  • Appealing – in a way that the learners will like and are comfortable
  • Engaging – in a way that involves the students.
  • Inspiring – when the students are happy and willing to learn.

So in conclusion, instructional as in ISD means that which gives a series of actions that a teacher takes in order to give desired skills, knowledge and character to learners in an efficient, effective, appealing, engaging and inspiring way.

Meaning of Design

The design in Instructional Design means a plan (outline) that gives instruction. Wiktionary defines a plan as a drawing showing technical details. Technical means applying the knowledge, methods or techniques of a subject, art, craft or industry.

Therefore, we can conclude that the design in ISD means is a drawing (made) by applying the knowledge, methods or techniques of the field of education/instructional design which gives instructions. Doing things according to set principles or techniques is better referred to as the systematic way. This is why experts regards Instructional Design as being systematic.

Definition of Instructional Design

We formulated that instructional means that which gives a series of actions that a teacher takes in order to give desired skills, knowledge and character to learners in an efficient, effective, appealing, engaging and inspiring way.

Similarly, we defined design is a drawing (made) – in a systematic way – by applying the knowledge, methods or techniques of the field of education/instructional design which gives instructions.

Therefore, we can define as a way of drawing a series of actions based on education theories that a teacher takes in order to give desired skill, knowledge and character to learners in an efficient, effective, appealing, engaging and inspiring way.

Differences Between Instructional Design and Lesson Planning

Now, this meaning of Instructional Design makes it very similar to Lesson Planning. This is because lesson planning is also about drawing out the steps they intend to take to deliver a lesson.

But there are a couple of differences between lesson planning and instructional design. We will discuss this in detail during the August edition of our Instructional Design Training. However, I will state two to help you better understand the meaning of Instructional Design.

The major difference between instructional design and lesson planning that I will discuss here is this:

Instructional Design is more technical than Lesson Planning

Both Lesson Planning and Instructional Design are technical. But Instructional Design is more technical. The technicality of lesson planning is often limited to format and content. Whereas Instructional Design is not only technical in format and content; it is more intentional and conscious of educational theories.

Once you give any qualified person a good lesson plan format – like this my lesson plan template – and you explain the right content for the fields; such a person will be able to write good lesson plan. But this is not so with instructional design. If a teacher is to plan the lesson by the Instructional Design way, s/he basis every content that s/he writes into the fields on certain educational theory or educational psychology. These educational theories or educational psychology are imbued into the Instructional Design process.

Conclusion

In conclusion of the meaning of Instructional Design, and its difference with lesson planning; except you or your staff are able to instantly answer the following questions without mincing words, I strongly recommend you take an instructional design training.

We designed the August edition of our Instructional Design Training specifically help teachers adopt the Instructional Design approach to lesson planning. Click here to read more about the training. Or click here to register right away.

Selected Questions

Invariably, I cannot write out all the questions that you may use to assess your skills in instructional design for classroom. But here are a few that give you a glimpse. The first three questions are for the cognitive domain; while 4 and 5 are for psychomotor/physical and affective respectively.

  1. Mention the steps in integrating Instructional Design Models into lesson planning
  2. Mention ten commandments of integrating educational theories into lesson planning
  3. List four instructional design models that is suitable use and their implication in the classroom
  4. Practically apply given classroom Instructional Design Model to plan a lesson
  5. Demonstrate the behaviour of basing instructional decisions on proven educational theories

August Instructional Design Training

Announcing the August Instructional Design Training

We are glad to announce the commencement of registration for our August Instructional Design Training (ISD). Registration commenced on Saturday, July 18, 2020. Unlike the previous, which was primarily for our Instructional Designers; this training, we purposely designed for all, to meet the various needs of every school’s classroom environment.

 Duration

This is a week-long intensive training.  The elaborate content is divided into six modules – one for each day. Training for each day is to last for 3 hours. We further split the hours into three 1-hour units. Separate facilitators will handle each 1-hour unit. Each day, each module and each unit has clearly defined objectives with professionally crafted activities to attain each objective. We designed the activities so as to meet the different learning styles.

Date and Time

The August Instructional Design Training will hold from Monday, August 3 through Saturday, August 8, 2020. Training for each day begins at noon (12:00:00) prompt. All date and time is in West African Time. Participants agree to avail themselves at the right time for the training.

Platform

This training will hold on WhatsApp group. Our facilitators designed each unit to appeal to the learning style of each participant. The medium of this training will include text, slide (image), voice notes, video illustrations and practical activities. Participants will automatically receive the WhatsApp group invitation link immediately after registration.

Contents of the August Instructional Design Training

Instructional Design (ISD) is a broad field of study. In fact, it is an independent professional course of study in many universities across the world. And many independent institutions such as the Lagos Business School (LBS) offer the complete training pack for a good price. Such professional universities and independent institutions’ training span months to years.

Surely, this August Instructional Design Training does not promise to give in six days, what the universities give in years. Instead, it focuses on the aspects of Instructional Design that we can implement in our various classrooms.

Consequently, there are six broad themes for each module of the training. The themes are as follows:

  1. Fundamentals of Instructional Design
  2. Principles, Means and Methods of Instructional Design
  3. The Instructional Design Model for Nigerian Classrooms
  4. Integrating Instructional Design Models into Lesson Planning
  5. Psychology, Philosophies and Theories of Learning
  6. Practice of Educational Theories

NOTE: These are broad themes. Each theme has 3 units and several sub-units underneath.

Aim of the Training

Although it is not unknown to Nigerian educators that there different kinds of learners in every classroom, majority of our classrooms do not currently accommodate all of the kinds of learners. This means fewer students are able to get the best out of the lesson. in addition, our classrooms have been unduly too inclined towards cognition at the expense of skill and character development.

Therefore, the major aim of this training is to help educators plan their lessons to the seconds based on proven educational theories that ensure equal learning opportunities for all learners to develop not only their mental skills but also physical and character.

The major question that the training aims to answer are How:

  1. can we offer equal learning opportunities to every learner in the class?
  2. can we professionally ensure that every learner get the best of every lesson, and permanently so?
  3. do we set separate but interrelated objectives for the three education domains in every of our lessons?

Many professional issues are buried in the answers to these questions. And we will explore all in detail during the training.

Registration

To register for the August Instructional Design Training, kindly click here. After you make payment, you will automatically receive the invitation link to the training group platform. Alternatively, contact us on WhatsApp direct payment.

Certificate

Certificate of participation is available for the training at the cost of N500 only. It is however only available to those who will actively take part in the training. We will give out the methods of paying for the certificate during the training.

Extras

      • Training Manual and Lesson Plan Template – N500
      • Daily Motivation Extras
        • The Special Mandates of a School
        • The Enterprising Teacher
        • School Administrators as Military Generals

REGISTER NOW

Standard Lesson Plan Template for Nigerian Schools

What is the Standard Lesson Plan Template for Nigerian Schools?

This standard Lesson Plan Template for Nigerian Schools is a pattern for teachers to use in writing their lesson plans.. This template is standard because it contains all the standard components of any lesson plan. It is also professional because this template incorporates some learning theories at lesson-plan level .

Teachers use the Standard Lesson Plan for Nigerian Schools to create their lesson plans. They do this by filling in the lesson-specific values of the standard components of lesson plan. This is done in a clean and professional layout.

Components of this template

This template contains all the standard components of any professional lesson plan. The learning objectives section is neatly divided into the three educational domains. This is in order to make the teacher intentional about setting separate objectives for each domain.

In addition, the template clearly split the lesson development into steps, beginning with set induction or warm-up in step one. Every step of the lesson development ends with the standard Assessment for Learning (AFL).

A particular features of this template is the notes feature. The notes feature enables the teacher to write out the note on the topic which he or she intends to give to the students. This will help the teacher to put everything in one place. It will also help supervisors to know exactly what the teacher is teaching the students.

The second unique feature of the template is the summative assessment feature. This feature helps the teacher to spell out the test s/he will conduct at the end of each lesson. In addition, the feature allows the teacher to evaluate his or her lesson. S/he does this by taking proper inventory of the class overall performance. There are fields for set pass mark, percentage pass and failure, the highest and lowest score.

Finally, there is a well-defined field for the head of department to mark/remark on each lesson plan. The head can do this before and after delivery, based on the class performance in the summative assessment.

This is a true tool for accountability.

Who is the Standard Lesson Plan Template for Nigerian Schools for?

The Standard Lesson Plan Template for Nigerian Schools is for individual teachers, school administrators and school owners.

Individual teachers this to make their work easier, faster and professional. Also, school owners and administrators buy it and distribute it to their teachers to make them write according to standard. 

How to use the Lesson Plan Template

Teachers:

If you do not have or use computer to create lesson plan; you can print this template and manually write your lesson plan as you normally do. Otherwise, you can write the plan right in the template with your computer; print and submit or remotely submit directly to your head of department.

School Owners/Administrators:

You can print this template and distribute to your teachers to manually create their plan. Alternatively, you can send the template directly to your teachers to create their lesson plans by editing it. Better still, you can share the template to your remote workgroups and let your teachers remotely plan and submit their plans.

How to get the Standard Lesson Plan Template for Nigerian Schools

This Standard Lesson Plan Template for Nigerian Schools cost N 300 – three hundred naira only. Click here to download the template. Alternatively, contact me on WhatsApp.

Say Not To Rape by RullDee aka Igbo Boy Wey Dey Rap Hausa

Say No To Rape by RullDee aka IgboboyWeyDeyRapHausa

The IgboboyWeyDeyRapHausa, RullDee, has just lent a voice to say NO TO RAPE. This piece, SAY NO TO RAPE is in respect to all victims and deterrent to all perpetrators.
Listen, download and share till it get to where it get to go

Click Here to download Say No to Rape by RullDee

Watch & Download Say No To Rape by RullDee Video

Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum

The Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum in One Sentence

This post with keywords: Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum – discusses all the past and present editions of the Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum up to the latest.

This will enable you to have a fuller understanding of the subject matter. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials.

Introduction to the Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum

The online community of the Nigerian education sector is currently inundated with a lot of information and resources. Far too many people claim to have and sell different educational materials – from curriculum to syllabus, scheme of works to lesson notes and so on.

To convolute things further, since everyone wants to sell; all claim to possess official materials – materials in-line with the NERDC curriculum. A school owner called me to request for lesson notes that are in line with the new 2020 NERDC curriculum that someone sold to her.

In the following sections, I list and discuss all past editions of the Nigerian 9-Years Basic Education National curriculum. I conclude this post by discussing the edition that schools are currently using.

The Entire 3-Series Post

This post is the second of a 3-part article. The entire article is a comprehensive post. I addressed all possible issues concerning the national curriculum as it is currently subsisting among the Nigerian education community. However, in order not to make this a tedious reading for the reader; I have shared the entire article into three part.

Part One – Meaning of Curriculum and How to Choose the Right Curriculum for your School

The first part defines what the (national) curriculum is. It enumerates the components of curriculum and discusses the types of curriculum in Nigerian schools. I concluded the first part by providing leading guides on how to choose the right curriculum for your school.

Part Two – Editions of the Nigerian National Curriculum

In the second part – of which this post is the last unit of, I discuss all the past and existing editions of the Nigerian National curriculum. This will enable you to have a fuller understanding of the subject matter. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials. Because the editions of the national curriculum are many, and to make the reading easier for you; I divided the second part into three smaller units.

The first unit – The Nigerian Indigenous and Missionary Curriculum

This unit discuss the type of curriculum that Nigerians used to train themselves before the arrival of foreigners. The unit also details the arrival of missionaries and the era of mission school with their curriculum.

The Second Unit – The Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum

I committed the second unit of part two to the Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum. This was the curriculum that the British colonial governments used to train Nigerians during colonization.

The Third Unit – The 6-3-3-4 & 9-Years Basic Education National Curriculum – Which is this post

The third unit of part two discusses the truly national curricula. It began by discussing the curriculum of the National Curriculum Conference. Then the third unit proceeded to 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. The third unit concluded by discussing the latest edition of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

Part Three – Curriculum, Syllabus, Scheme of Work, Unit of Work plan and Lesson plan

In the last part, I distinguished between curriculum, syllabus, course of study, scheme of work, Unit of Work plan and lesson plan. This last part addresses the major confusion issues between the terms.

The Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum

The Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum traces its origin to the 6-3-3-4 national curriculum. Consequently, I began this article with the 6-3-3-4 national curriculum.

The 6-3-3-4 National Curriculum

In the first post, I discussed the National Curriculum Conference and the National Policy on Education. The conference was held between September 8 and 17, 1969. The decisions at the conference eventually led to the publication of the National Policy on Education (NPE).

The National Policy on Education (NPE)

The National Policy on Education has a broad curriculum – as we had it before the UBE. The broad curriculum aims at creating enough learning opportunity for all children, irrespective of gender, age, ability, class, interest, etc. The NPE also laid foundation for the 6-3-3-4 system of education.

Implementation of the National Policy on Education (NPE)

Although the NPE is the wish of all Nigerians in writing, its immediate implementation was truncated by the Nigerian Civil war.

Consequently, when normalcy was restored, the government – of the second republic – began implementing the provisions of the National Policy on Education. First, the NPE was revised in 1981 to reflect recent developments. The civilian regime – second republic, according to the revised policy, adopted education “as instrument par excellence for effecting national development”.

Launch of the 6-3-3-4 curriculum

After the revision of the NPE, the government officially launched the 6-3-3-4 system of education in September, 1982. The 6-3-3-4 system of education means stipulated that the nation’s education shall cover six years of primary education, three years of junior secondary, three years of senior secondary and four years of tertiary education.  Accordingly, suitable curriculum was developed for the system of education.

Aims and Objectives of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The 6-3-3-4 curriculum was the direct product of the National Education Policy – which itself resulted from the National Curriculum Conference. This was the product of the yearnings and aspiration of the native people. The primary objective of the 6-3-3-4 was to realize a self-reliant and self-sufficient nation.

Content of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The 6-3-3-4 system emphasized academic and pre-vocational education. As I mentioned earlier, the curriculum was broad/comprehensive. It contained all the subjects as in the UBE edition – even more since each subject stood on their own unlike the UBE that compacted some subjects. As a result of the extensive length of subjects, the curriculum divided the subjects into two – the core and the elective subjects.

This also aligns with the 1980 West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASCE). In addition, vocational subjects were included and language policy changed. Originally, the plan was that continuous assessment would serve as the method of assessing the learners at the junior level while state and national examination would be used at the senior school level.

Implementation of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The government launched the 6-3-3-4 curriculum in September, 1982. However, when the curriculum was launched; many states were not prepared to implement it – remember the regionalization of education since Macpherson regime.

The politics of the time did not permit uniform implementation. Specifically, while the federal schools and schools in the states that was controlled by the ruling party began the implementation; schools in the states that was controlled by the opposition party did not commence implementation.

It was until the second military era in 1983 that the 6-3-3-4 curriculum was nationally implemented. Hence, the curriculum remained in use for nearly twenty years. Notwithstanding, the implementation was not hitch free. More so, the actualization of the objectives was not realized.

Experts attributed the ineffectiveness of the curriculum to a number of issues. Two major of such issues are: first, was hurried planning and financing. The curriculum was not test-run in small scale before national implementation. The second complaint was that the curriculum contained too many subjects. The later became a major reason for revision of subsequent national curriculum.

The Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC)

The second military era between 1983 and 1999 pursued a lot education policy. In 1988, the government merged Nigerian Educational Research Council; Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre; Nigerian Book Development Council; and Nigerian Language Centre to establish the Nigerian Education Development Council (NERDC).

One of the major mandates of the NERDC was to develop, review and enrich curriculum at all levels. Thenceforth, the development and revision of the national curriculum become the duty of the NERDC.

I will in the next section discuss the subsequent curriculum.

The 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

In an unforgettable event in the history of the nation, the military ceded power to civilian democratic rule. This ushered in a new era national aspirations and objectives. Accordingly, the government piloted new educational policies to meet the present aspirations and expectations.

A Respond to Global Development: Education for All

At the time a major development in the global education community was the Education for All (EFA) campaign of the United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The EFA was a part of the plans to actualize the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The World Education Forum adopted the EFA in April of 2000. It aimed that all children would receive primary education by 2015.

Nigeria, being a member of the United Nations since 1960, launched the Universal Basic Education (UBE) in September 30, 1999. Another – a most important – reason for the UBE programme was to build a new and better Nigeria that aligns to democratic principles.

The Aims and Objectives of the UBE Programme

The UBE emphasized formal basic education for all Nigerian children.  The objectives of the programme are:

  • developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and strong commitment to its vigorous promotion;
  • the provision of free compulsory Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school-going-age;
  • reducing drastically dropout rate; improved relevance and efficiency;
  • catering for the learning needs of young persons who for one reason or the other, had to interrupt their schooling;
  • Ensuring the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy; numeracy; manipulative communicative and life skills as well as the ethnical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for lifelong learning.

Scope of the UBE Programme

The UBE Programme did not cover tertiary education. Instead, it targeted education from Early Years through the first nine years of schooling – i.e. primary and junior secondary education. By lumping the first nine years of school – which is was Primary 1-6 and Junior Secondary School 3 in the 6-3-3-4 system – the UBE programme defined a new system of education for the nation. – the 9-3-4 system. The 9-3-4 system of education under the UBE programme means that there are three levels of formal education – the first level being the first nine years comprising Grade 1 through Grade 9; the second level being the 3 years of senior secondary school; and the last level being the 4 years of tertiary education.

The new system of education required a new curriculum. This curriculum is the 9-Year Basic Education curriculum.

Implementation of the UBE Programme

Though the UBE programme was launched in 1999, it did not begin implementation immediately. One of the reasons for was that there no adequate infrastructure – including appropriate curriculum.

The National Council on Education

As a result of the above, the National Council on Education was ignited to action. The National Council on Education is the highest decision making body in the education sector in the country. Its composed of members of Federal and State Ministry of Education, Education Agencies and Parastatals, Professional Bodies and Examination bodies.

2004 Education Act

In order to give more weight to the UBE programme, and also for the educational needs of the time, the government of Nigeria enacted the Free Education Act, 2004. This Act mandated all state governments to implement the UBE programme; parents to ensure that their wards compulsorily complete the UBE programme; and local government to ensure parents’ compliance with the directive. Most importantly, the Act officially restructured the school system to the 9-3-4 style.

Also pursuant to attaining the UBE objectives, the National Policy on Education was revised. The new structure was also enshrined in the revised National Policy on Education. The new structure invalidated First School Leaving Certificate (FSLC) in favour of the Basic Education Certificate (BEC).

The 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

With the new Education Act, the question of structure, finance and compliance was settled. Hence, to perfect arrangements for implementation of the scheme, NERDC developed the required curriculum. Between January and March, 2005; the NERDC convened a meeting of experts. NERDC also organized several workshops to the 9 – Year Basic Education curriculum. The NERDC did this by revising and merging the Primary and Junior secondary curricula of the 6-3-3-4 system.

In December 25, 2005; NERDC presented the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum to the NCE at its meeting in Ibadan. The National Council on Education approved the curriculum. Subsequently, the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum was introduced into Primary and Junior Secondary Schools in September, 2008 –  for effective implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme.

Content of the 9 – Year Basic Education Curriculum

The 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum reflects depth, appropriateness and interrelatedness of the curricula subjects. Also emerging issues which covered value orientation, peace and dialogue – including human rights education, family life/HIV and AIDS education, entrepreneurship skills, etc. – were infused into the relevant subjects of the 9-Year Basic Education curriculum.

In all, the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum had 20 subjects. These include:

  1. Mathematics
  2. English Language
  3. Basic Science
  4. Basic Technology
  5. Computer Studies
  6. Agricultural Science
  7. Home Economics
  8. Social Studies
  9. Civic Education
  10. Business Studies
  11. Cultural and Creative Arts
  12. Nigerian Language (Hausa, Igbo or Yoruba)
  13. Arabic
  14. French

Distribution of Subjects under the Basic Education Curriculum

Although the BEC contained 20 subjects, not all levels of the 9-Year school are expected to offer all the subjects at once. The curriculum divided the 9 years in three:

  1. Lower Basic – Primary 1 to 3 – same as Grade 1 to Grade 3
  2. Middle Basic – Primary 4 to 6 – Grade 4 to 6
  3. Upper Basic – JSS 1 to 3 – Grade 7 to 9.

The subjects are distributed such that:

  • Lower Basic offered a minimum of 11 subjects and a maximum of 12.
  • Middle Basic offered a minimum of 12 subjects and a maximum of 13.
  • The Upper Basic offered a minimum of 13 subjects and a maximum of 15.

The End of the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

As I have stated earlier, one of the major objectives of the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum was to ensure that learners acquire useful knowledge, skills and values for participating effectively anywhere in the world.

The first batch of the JSS students under the BEC completed their programme in June, 2011. Also, the Primary school pupils who will be products of the Basic Education curriculum are expected to enter JSS one by September of 2014. This necessitated evaluation of the curriculum to identify loopholes and how to make it better.

With respect to this, educators provided feedbacks on the curriculum – recommending amendments. Key of the amendments that the feedbacks recommended included repetitions of concepts – both at the same and different classes and levels – and also outdated contents. Other issues that led to the discontinuation of the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum are that:

  • The presidential summit on education which was held in 2010 identified that the curriculum was overloaded in term of the number of subjects
  • There were new national and global issues that changed the educational needs of the time – including issues of Security Education, Disaster Risk Reduction Education and issues of Climate Change.
  • Issues of modern teaching and learning methods emerged in the global education community – which the national curriculum had to incorporate.

As a result of these issues with the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum, decision reached at the Presidential Summit on the Restoration of Education in Nigeria held in October 2010 directed the NERDC to revise the BEC. The NERDC are to revise the BEC in line with – an earlier – Presidential Task Team Report on Education, and also taking into cognizance international best practices and global competitiveness, without compromising the quality of the school curriculum.

In the last section of this post below, I discuss the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

The New Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

The New Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum is the Nigerian National curriculum that came into existence in 2013 which schools are currently using now.

The problems of the 9-Year BEC that I mentioned earlier occasioned the new Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. In addition to the issues, there was new national objectives that the education had to target. That was the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS).

The National Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS)

Recall that the government of Nigeria launched the UBE programme in demand of the new system of government – in addition to being a respond to global Education for All (EFA) campaign of the UNESCO.

After one democratic administration (1999 – 2003), the needs of the nation have changed. Pre-1999, the desire of Nigerians – as well as the wish of the rest of the world for them – was a peaceful democratic regime and the access to basic education. Nigerians were tired of the violent military regime and sort alternative. They celebrated at the transition from military to democracy in 1999.

However, by the time the first democratic tenure elapsed – when the UBE programme was just beginning to take hold – the country had begun to experience the inevitable aftermath of the long years plunged by military regime. There was poverty in the land, unemployment was on the rise and the values of the citizenry began to wade.

The new (second democratic) government of the day – though the same as the previous – swung into action. To remedy the impending national issues of the day; it launched the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) on 30th March, 2004.

Objectives of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS)

The NEEDS had five major targets which include:

  • Value re-orientation
  • Poverty Eradication
  • Job Creation
  • Wealth Generation
  • Using Education to Empower the Citizenry

These objectives – just as any other national economic strategy – are hinged on education.

The Vision 2020

Four years into implementing the UBE programme – as the launched of the BEC occasioned – alongside the NEEDS, Nigeria began experiencing a growth turnaround. Conditions seem right for launching onto a path of sustained and rapid growth. Then then Governor of Central Bank saw reasons with the Goldman Sachs projections of Nigeria. Both the CBN governor and the Goldman Sachs were optimistic that Nigeria could be among the top 20 largest economy by 2020.

The government consequently launched the vision 2020 project in 2008/9. Education, being an instrument par excellence for effecting national development in Nigeria – as the revised NPE of the second republic puts it – has to see to the actualization of the vision 2020.

The problems of BEC, the objectives of the NEEDS and that of Vision 2020 compounded to induce a compulsory curriculum review. The result of that review is the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

Objectives of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

The new 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum primarily targets the objectives of the NEEDS and vision 2020. These objectives include:

  • Value re-orientation
  • Poverty Eradication
  • Job Creation
  • Wealth Generation
  • Using Education to Empower the Citizenry
  • Contributing to make Nigeria one of the top 20 largest economy in the world by year 2020

Content and Structure of the New Revised 9 – Year Basic Education Curriculum

The new 9-Year Basic Education curriculum revised the BEC from 20 subjects to a maximum of ten (10) subjects. The stakeholders that participated in the curriculum review did through a conceptual framework. The framework is such that they identified and grouped related subjects in the BEC, thereby achieving reduction in subject listings. Find the grouping in the table below:

Grouping of Subjects in Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum
Composite subject
Constituent subjects
Basic Science and Technology (BST)Basic Science, Basic Technology, Physical and Health Education and Information Technology
Religion and National Values (RNV)CRS/IRS, Social Studies, Civic Education and Security Education
Prevocational Studies (PVS)Agriculture and Home Economics

 

After the grouping, the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum has 10 subjects. The curriculum structures the subjects thus:

  • Lower Basic – minimum of 6 subjects and maximum of 7
  • Middle Basic – minimum of 7 subjects and maximum of 8
  • Upper Basic – minimum of 9 and maximum of 10

The final subject distribution is as in the table below:

Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum Subjects
LOWER BASIC

Primary 1 – 3

MIDDLE BASIC

Primary 4 – 6

UPPER BASIC

JSS 1 – 3

1.      English Studies1.      English Studies1.      English Studies
2.      Mathematics2.      Mathematics2.      Mathematics
3.      Basic Science and Technology  (BST)3.      Basic Science and Technology (BST)3.      Basic Science and Technology (BST)
4.      Cultural and Creative Arts (CCA)4.      Cultural and Creative Arts (CCA)4.      Cultural and Creative Arts (CCA)
5.      Religion and National Values (RNV)5.      Religion and National Values (RNV)5.      Religion and National Values (RNV)
6.      One Nigerian Language6.      Prevocational Studies (PVS)6.      Prevocational Studies (PVS)
7.      Arabic (Optional)7.      French7.      French
 8.      One Nigerian Language8.      Business Studies
 9.      Arabic (Optional)9.      One Nigerian Language
  10.  Arabic (Optional)

 

Implementation of the New 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

The systematic implementation of the revised curriculum commenced from Primary 1 and JSS 1 in September, 2013. Systematic implementation means that only these two – beginning – classes started using it while the other classes – Primary 2 to 6 and JSS 2 and 3 – continued with the Basic Education curriculum. The systematic implementation allowed for the gradual phasing out of the earlier BEC in subsequent years.

All primary classes ought to be using the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum since 2019. Similarly, all Junior secondary schools in Nigeria ought to be using the Revised 9 – Year Basic Education Curriculum since 2016.

The Latest Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum

I noted from the beginning of the article how someone sheepishly sold a purported 2020 edition of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum to a school owner.

I am not aware of any 2020 edition of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. The latest edition you can get anywhere – as at the time of writing this post – is the 2017 edition.

2017 Edition of the 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum

In 2016 there was outcry over the inclusion of Christian Religious Studies and Islamic Studies as a substituent of RNV.

The protesters agitated for Religious Studies to be made standalone subjects. Consequently, at its 62nd Meeting, presided over by the Honourable Minister of Education, Mal. Adamu Adamu, held at the Afficent Events Centre, Nassarawa, GRA in Kano from Monday 24th- Friday 28th July, 2017; the National Council on Education ratified the separation of Religious Studies into standalone subjects. This means that Christian Religious Knowledge and Islamic Studies was approved to be separated from Religion and National Values. There was no new curriculum neither of CRS nor IRS.

However, there was an addition to the Revised 9-Year BEC. Also at the meeting in Kano, the National Council on Education ratified the return of History into the national curriculum. Consequently, NERDC developed History curriculum for Grade 1 through 9.

The implementation of the History curriculum commenced in September 2019. Hence it is mandated for all schools to acquire and begin the implementation of the curriculum as well as to teach CRS/IRS as separate subjects. As at today, all schools ought to be teaching History already.

Conclusion

This post on the Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum ends the part of the 3-series post – on the Nigerian National Curriculum.

With the end of this post, you should now be able to:

  • Define or explain the term curriculum without mincing words;
  • State the components of a curriculum;
  • Confidently participate in curriculum talk within the school workspace environment;
  • Choose the right curriculum for your school;
  • Mention and differentiate the contents of the editions of the Nigerian National Curriculum; and
  • Authenticate any curriculum that someone tries to sell to you.

These however, are not all there is to curriculum. For when you talk about curriculum; other terms like syllabus and Scheme of Work comes to mind. Not only do some educators find these terms confusing, but confusion becomes more when terms like unit plan and lesson plan comes to the discussion.

Authoritatively differentiating them is the focus of the last part of the series on curriculum. Check back frequently for this post.

Spread Love

Finally, we want to reach as many educators as possible – with our well researched articles. This, we believe is a role we can play in the ongoing Nigerian Education Reformation. In addition, some of your social media connections may find this useful.

If you think so, help us accomplish our goals by sharing this with your friends.

We want to hear from you

We also anticipate and welcome feedbacks, questions, suggestions, requests and orders. If you have any of these – especially if you need any educational resource – do not hesitate to contact us via email – [email protected]; phone – 07056053189; or WhatsApp: +234-80-6768-9217  and +234-80-6734-9791

 


[qsm quiz=3]


References

The materials I consulted in writing the entire article are listed below:

Project Writers Ng. (2016, January 14). NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND PLANNING FROM 1968 TILL DATE; THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Project Writers Ng: https://www.projectwriters.ng/national-development-plan-and-planning-from-1968-till-date-the-nigerian-experience/

Adeoye, E. A. (2017). CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: THEORY & PRACTICE (A study Guide for PGD Ed) Students.

Ajayi, I. A. (n.d.). TOPICAL ISSUES IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION (A Study Guide for PhD in Educational Administration). University of Ado-Ekiti.

AKANBI, G. O., & ABIOLU, O. A. (2018). Nigeria’s 1969 Curriculum Conference: a practical approach to educational emancipation. Cadernos de História da Educação. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326884292_Nigeria’s_1969_Curriculum_Conference_a_practical_approach_to_educational_emancipation

AKPAN, G. A., USORO, H. S., & IBIRITAM, K. S. (n.d.). The Evolution of Vocational Education in Nigeria and Its Role in National Development. The Intuition. Retrieved from http://globalacademicgroup.com/journals/the%20intuition/The%20Evolution%20of%20Vocational%20Education%20in%20Nigeria%20and%20Its%20Rol.pdf

Amaele, S. (2017). HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA. University of Ilorin.

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (3rd Edition). (2008). Cambridge University Press (Armada).

Danielson, C. (2002). Enhancing Student Achievement. Retrieved from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/102109/chapters/School-Organization.aspx

Ewemade, I. (2015). National Economic Empowernment Development Strategy (NEEDS) as a Panacea for Employment Creation and Self Employment and Self Reliant. Journal of Educational and Social Research. Retrieved from https://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/jesr/article/viewFile/6557/6283

Fafunwa, A. B. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria. London: George Allen & Uniwin.

Iheanacho, E. N. (2014). National Development Planning in Nigeria: An Endless. International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment Search for Appropriate Development Strategy.

Imam, H. (2012). Educational Policy in Nigeria from the Colonial Era to the Post-Independence Period. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION.

Musingafi, M. C., Mhute, I., & Kaseke, K. E. (2015). Planning to Teach: Interrogating the Link among the Curricula, the Syllabi, Schemes and Lesson Plans in the Teaching Process. Journal of Education and Practice.

Nduka, O. A. (1975). Western Education and the Nigerian Cultural Background. Ibadan: Oxford University Press.

NERDC . (2015). NERDC Basic Technology for Junior Secondary Schools 2. Ikeja, Lagos: Learn Africa Plc.

NERDC. (2004). The National Policy on Education. Yaba, Lagos: NERDC. Retrieved from http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/AFR/Nigeria/TCH/National%20Policy%20on%20Education.pdf

NERDC. (2007). 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Basic Technology) for JSS 1 – 3. Abuja: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

NERDC. (2013). Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

Nwangu, D. I. (2009). ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION. Enugu State University of Science & Technology.

Ojebiyi, O. A. (2014). An Historical Survey of the Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria . Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.

Omoifo, C. N. (2012). ADVANCED CURRICULUM THEORY (A Study Guide for . University of Benin.

Osokoya, I. O. (1995). History and Policy of Nigerian Education in Nigeria . Ibadan: AMD Publishers.

Quinn-Young, C., & White, J. E. (n.d.). A HIstory for Nigerian Schools, Pupils Book Two. London: Evans Brothers Limited.

Soludo, C. C. (2006). CAN NIGERIA BE THE CHINA OF AFRICA? Benin. Retrieved from https://www.cbn.gov.ng/out/speeches/2006/Govadd27-11-06.pdf

Stephens, M. (2019, April 23). Does Nigeria Use British or American English? Retrieved from Naija Home Based: https://www.naijahomebased.com/does-nigeria-use-british-or-american-english/

Teniola, E. (2018, March 20). Our new national development plan. Retrieved from Vanguard: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/03/our-new-national-development-plan/

The Glossary of Education Reform. (2013, August 29). LEARNING EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Glossary of Education Reform: https://www.edglossary.org/learning-experience/

UBEC. (n.d.). About UBE. Retrieved from Universal Basic Education Commission: https://ubeconline.com/about_ubec.php

Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum

The Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum in One Sentence

This post with keywords – Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum – discusses all the curricula that foreign managed schools used to train Nigerians during colonial era. The post contains the various editions of the Nigerian national colonial curriculum. For each edition, it describes the content and the objectives – where there is considerable change.

Introduction to the Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum

The online community of the Nigerian education sector is currently inundated with a lot of information and resources. Far too many people claim to have and sell different educational materials – from curriculum to syllabus, scheme of works to lesson notes and so on.

To convolute things further, since everyone wants to sell; all claim to possess official materials – materials in-line with the NERDC curriculum. A school owner called me to request for lesson notes that are in line with the new 2020 NERDC curriculum that someone sold to her.

In the following sections, I list and discuss all the editions of the Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum. I began by discussing the objectives of the colonial education for Nigerians.

The Entire 3-Series Post

This post is the second of a 3-part article. The entire article is a comprehensive post. I addressed all possible issues concerning the national curriculum as it is currently subsisting among the Nigerian education community. However, in order not to make this a tedious reading for the reader; I have shared the entire article into three part.

Part One – Meaning of Curriculum and How to Choose the Right Curriculum for your School

The first part defines what the (national) curriculum is. It enumerates the components of curriculum and discusses the types of curriculum in Nigerian schools. I concluded the first part by providing leading guides on how to choose the right curriculum for your school.

Part Two – Editions of the Nigerian National Curriculum – which this is a part

In the second part – of which this is the second unit of, I discuss all the past and existing editions of the Nigerian National curriculum. This will enable you to have a fuller understanding of the subject matter. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials. Because the editions of the national curriculum are many, and to make the reading easier for you; I divided the second part into three smaller units.

The first unit – The Nigerian Indigenous and Missionary Curriculum

This unit discuss the type of curriculum that Nigerians used to train themselves before the arrival of foreigners. The unit also details the arrival of missionaries and the era of mission school with their curriculum.

The Second Unit – The Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum – That is this post

I committed the second unit of part two to the Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum. This was the curriculum that the British colonial governments used to train Nigerians during colonization.

The Third Unit – The 6-3-3-4 & 9-Years Basic Education National Curriculum

The third unit of part two discusses the truly national curricula. It began by discussing the curriculum of the National Curriculum Conference. Then the third unit proceeded to 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. The third unit concluded by discussing the latest edition of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

Part Three – Curriculum, Syllabus, Scheme of Work, Unit of Work plan and Lesson plan

In the last part, I distinguished between curriculum, syllabus, course of study, scheme of work, Unit of Work plan and lesson plan. This last part addresses the major confusion issues between the terms.

 The Nigerian Colonial Curriculum (1882 – 1948)

From preceding discussions – on Indigenous and Missionary curriculum; it is clear that western education became widespread in Nigeria at about 1842. And even so, the western education activities were not evenly distributed across the country. Instead, it was concentrated within Badagry and Lagos – including Abeokuta, Benin and Warri. These are the areas with pronounced activities of the foreigners – missionaries and merchants.

Start of colonialism

Although there was reasonable presence of foreigners in Nigeria since the 14th century; the foreigners had little or no interest in the politics of the land. While the missionaries settled for their works of evangelism, the merchants focused on their businesses.

There was however a turn of event between 1851 and 1861. The British foreigners capitalized on the dynastic rivalry between the King of Lagos and the Oba of Benin and gained control of the land. Eventually, Nigeria became a colony of Britain.

Delayed interest of colonial government in Nigerian education

However, the colonial governments did not immediately intervene in education. (Osokoya, 1995) noted that this was due to three reasons.

The first reason is because religious interest preceded political interest – and so it was only proper that the political government allowed the religious community to enjoy some moments of freedom. Another reason was that the colonial government is modelled after the British style – where education was decentralized and the private and religious organizations were allowed to establish and run schools on their own. Finally, the colonial government did not intervene in the education due to its cost implications.

Development of colonial government’s interest in Nigerian Education

The colonial government’s lack of interest in education did not last long. As from 1872, the colonial governments donated £30 to each of the active missionary organizations. The government increased the financial support – grant-in-aid – to £200 pounds in 1877. This was sustained until 1882.

As a natural occurrence, the grant-in-aid made the government an active contributor to the business of education. But beyond making the government an active contributor to education business of the land, the grant-in-aid also gave the government the right to claim control of the business.

Consequently, the colonial government decided to gradually intervene in the policy making in education, through what they called education ordinance. The education ordinances of the successive colonial governments included curriculum regulation among other aspects of education.

Therefore, such ordinances as those that resulted in a significant change in the curriculum include:

  1. 1882 education ordinance which produced the 1882 curriculum
  2. 1887 education ordinance which produced the 1887 curriculum
  3. The Northern Nigeria education curriculum
  4. 1916 education ordinance which produced the 1916 curriculum
  5. The 1926 curriculum

Aims and Objectives of the Colonial Education in Nigeria

I have earlier discussed that every curriculum is a means to attaining the education needs of its time. The colonial curricular are not exemptions. Just like the missionary curriculum, the colonial curricular were designed to attain the education needs of the colonial administrators for the people. The aims and objectives of the colonial education in Nigeria is to produce:

  1. low level manpower that could be cheaply used as interpreters, messengers, artisans and clerks;
  2. some indigenous youths who could help the rural farmers in planting, harvesting and processing some needed cash crops which were exported to Europe as raw materials to their industries;
  3. semi-literate citizens that could conform and be absorbed as instruments for actualizing the British philosophy of colonialism

These education needs informed the curriculum especially at the earliest period of the colonial government’s interest in education. When aims however changed with time – when native blacks and nationalists started filtering into the administration of the colony.

I will now briefly enumerate the content of each of the curriculum in the following sections.

1882 curriculum

The 1882 curriculum came into force on May 6, 1882. The 1882 West African Education ordinance enabled the curriculum. The ordinance was the government’s first formal attempt to control education in the colony. Hence, there was no much change in the curriculum – the government basically inherited the 3R’s curriculum of the mission schools. However, one major change was that the 1882 curriculum made religious studies optional. It also mandated uniform curriculum across the schools – both government and mission schools.

Content of the 1882 curriculum

The content of the 1882 curriculum include:

  1. Reading
  2. Writing
  3. English Language
  4. Arithmetic
  5. Technical Education – leatherwork, needle-work, carpentry, smithing weaving and book binding
  6. Geography – optional
  7. History – optional
  8. CRS – optional

The 1887 curriculum

It is pertinent to note that after the British succeeded in making Lagos a colony, their interest to enlarge the colony to other parts of Nigeria increased. There were a lot of expansion campaigns that were going on as the development in education within the Lagos – Badagry axis unfolded.

The successful expansion of the Lagos colony made Britain to separate Lagos from the Gold Coast – Ghana – colony. In addition to the separation of the colonies, there was increase in the number of educated Nigerian nationalists. These nationalists also increased agitation for a more Nigerian-focused education. These led to the 1887 education ordinance – which brought the 1887 curriculum.

Content of the 1887 curriculum

The 1887 education ordinance focused rather more on educational administration issues than on curriculum. As a result, the 1887 curriculum is basically the same as the 1882 curriculum. The major difference was the provision for fundamentals of science and technology education.

At around 1859, the expanding colonial government and the economy in Nigeria created the high demand for both tradesmen and higher level of technological manpower. The subsequent required the services of technologists by the colonial administration. The importation of these skilled labours from Europe will increase their financial cost of running the colony.  More so, recruiting junior technical workers from Britain – who will obviously come from the lower socio-economic class would have negative effect on their assumed superior image.

Consequently, the schools – at different times – introduced primary Science around 1859. Also during the era of the 1887 curriculum, 13 secondary schools were established – starting with CMS Grammar School in 1859.

The content of the 1887 curriculum included the following elementary and Grammar School subjects:

  1. Reading
  2. Writing
  3. English Language
  4. Arithmetic /Mathematics
  5. Needle Work – for female students
  6. Geography – optional
  7. History – optional
  8. CRS – optional
  9. Science and Technology – Primary Science and Introductory Technology
  10. Latin
  11. Classics

NOTE: Secondary schools had more subjects. However, the subjects vary from school to school.

The Norther n Nigerian Education Curriculum (1909 – 1929)

The northern Nigerian education curriculum is the curriculum that western schools used to train people of the Northern Nigeria during the colonial period.

Recall that western education in Nigeria started from the south – southern protectorate. And most of what I have discussed so far applies only to the present day western and eastern Nigeria. The southern protectorate existed nearly 40 years before northern – in 1900.

However, when the British eventually established the northern protectorate in 1900; they sought to replicate in it the educational functions they have been performing in the south – out of need. Nonetheless, the religious, political and cultural setting of the then north was different from the south. Consequently, while the British employed direct rule in the south; they applied indirect – diplomatic – rule in the north.

The northern education curriculum came into force after the colonial government established the first government primary school – Nassarawa primary School – in Kano in 1909. The curriculum remained in used – with little changes – until the Clifford education ordinance in 1926. And even the 1926 education act only regularized the curriculum rather than change altogether.

Aims and Objectives of Colonial Education for the Northern Nigeria

Soon after the creation of the Northern protectorate, the British had two immediate problems. First was how to fuse the colonial political administration with the well-established Muslim local administration.  The second major problem was how to introduce western style education in such a region where organized Islamic Education was in full progress. Hans Vischer – a missionary worker –  was appointed administrative officer to organize a system of education for the protectorate of Northern Nigeria. After research and studies, Vischer produced a report which can be considered the best statement of the aims and objectives of the colonial education for the northern Nigeria. These include following:

  1. Develop the national and racial characteristics of the natives on such lines as will enable them to use their own moral and physical forces to the best advantage;
  2. Widen their mental horizon without destroying their respect for race and parentage;
  3. Supply men for employment in the government;
  4. Produce men who will be able to carry on the native administration in the spirit of the government;
  5. Impart sufficient knowledge of Western ideas to enable the native to meet the influx of teachers, and others from the coast with the advent of the railway, on equal terms;
  6. Avoid encouraging the idea, readily formed by Africans, that it is more honourable to sit in an office than to earn a living by manual labour, introducing at the earliest opportunity, technical instruction side by side with purely classical training
Content of the Norther Nigerian Education Curriculum

Based on the aims and objectives of the colonial education for the northern Nigeria, the 1887 curriculum that the south was currently using at the time was not sufficient.  In addition, the north vehemently refused anything that has to do with the Christian missions. Consequently, they were not going to accept CRS in their schools.

The solution to this was the secular nature of the education that the northern colonial government ran. Consequently, the northern education curriculum included part of the already existing traditional education of the northern people; and part of the 1887 curriculum in the south.

 The 1916 Curriculum

The colonial government amalgamated the Southern and Northern protectorate in January 1914. After the amalgamation, the government enacted the 1916 education ordinance. This ordinance controlled education in the whole country – covering both the southern and northern region.

Content of the 1916 curriculum

The content of instruction remained largely the same as the 1887 curriculum – because the 1916 ordinance was majorly administrative in nature. However, the 1916 curriculum also added one major subject to the curriculum – Moral instructions i.e. Training on the formation of character and habits of discipline.

The 1926 curriculum

Phelps-Stoke Commission

Between 1920 to 1924, Phelps-Stoke Commission – a philanthropic organization in America established in 1911 by Miss Caroline Phelps-Stokes to enhance the religion and education of black peoples in Africa and the United States of America – set up a research team to evaluate the educational needs of Africa – especially in the area of religious, social, hygienic and economic conditions – and the educational work done so far.

The Phelps-Stoke Commission published their findings and recommendations in 1922 and 1926. Reacting to the 1922 recommendations, the British Secretary of State for the colonies set up a committee on Native Education in the British Tropical African Dependencies, in November 1923. The committee was to advise the government on educational matters.

The 1925 Memorandum on Education

In 1925, the committee packaged a comprehensive pieces of advice in a document. Nigerian Education Historians call this document the Memorandum 1925 Memorandum in education.

The 1925 Memorandum on education is the most comprehensive policy on education of the colonial government. The document also defined the Nigerian educational structure. Subsequent colonial governments based their educational policies on the recommendation of this document.

In 1926, Sir Hugh Clifford began the implementation of the 1925 Memorandum on education. The major target of the memorandum was domestication of education to suit the needs and culture of the people. Hence, even in the 1926 ordinances, the north and south still maintained independent education framework – though the government tried to harmonize things and ensure compliance as much as possible.

Consequently, in 1926; separate education ordinances for north and south came into existences – thus creating the 1926 curriculum.

Aims and Objectives of the 1926 curriculum

The aims and objectives of the 1926 curriculum include:

  1. Adaptation of education to the mentality, aptitudes, occupations, and traditions of the various peoples;
  2. Attracting the greatest importance to religious teaching and moral instruction related to the conditions and daily experience of the pupils;
  3. Localization of learning
  4. Making the acquisition of their knowledge of English and Arithmetic essential before the start of apprenticeship for skilled artisans;
  5. Instilling into pupils through the education system the view that vocational careers are as honourable as the clerical, and making them equally as attractive;
  6. Promoting better education of girls and women in the tropical African communities since educated wives and mothers mean educated homes;
  7. Instituting a complete education system, comprising infant and primary school education for boys and girls; secondary or intermediate education; vocational education; advanced education; and adult education.
Contents of the 1926 curriculum for infant, primary, middle and secondary schools

From the discussions above, it is obvious that the 1926 curriculum was an expansion of the already curricular. The key additions to the curricular include:

  1. Nigerian Languages – Hausa in the North, Yoruba in the west and Igbo in the East
  2. Cultural and Creative Art
  3. Vocational Aptitude
  4. Gardening
  5. Hygiene
  6. Religious Studies – CRS and IRS
The Amalgamation of the North and South Education Board

In 1929, the colonial government merged the education department of the north and south. However, there was no major change in the 1926 curriculum.  Instead, Hussey’s Policy on Education – which was a proposal that resulted from the amalgamation of the education departments – defined a new and uniform system of education for Nigeria.

Hussey’s Policy on Education was adopted in 1939

Although the 1926 curriculum expected learners –both in the south and north – to complete the curriculum in 14 years; it structured the 14 years differently for both regions. While the south operated the 2-6-6 structure or system – which means 2 years in elementary school; 6 years in primary school; and 6 years in secondary school – the north operated the 2-4-4-4 structure or system – which means 2 years in elementary school; 4 years in primary school; 4 years in middle school; and 4 years in secondary school.

Regionalization of Education

There was no more major curriculum change in Nigeria until the national curriculum conference. However, there were many other developments in the education sector. Customarily, almost every government comes to power with her policy – an education was not exempted. One of such major development that impacted the Nigerian national curriculum is the 1952 education act.

The Arthur Richard’s Constitution of 1946 divided Nigeria into three regions: West, East and North. Extending this further, the 1951 Macpherson’s Constitution gave each region power to legislate and make laws on education, health, agriculture and local government within the boundaries of its region.

Consequently, this constitutional provision led to the division of education department into three parallel departments, to reflect the three regions. Each region thereafter made its laws. All further developments in the sector danced to the political drum of the region.

1948 Curriculum

In1943, the government organized two commissions with a view to improving higher education in the country. The commissions include the Asquith Commission, the Elliot Commission and the Ashby Commission. Based on the recommendations of the commissions, tertiary institutions – now first generation universities – were established. In order to prepare students for the higher institution, the curriculum was expanded in the 1948 education ordinance.

The Ashby Commission Curriculum Revision

Similarly, in 1959; the government of Nigeria set up the Ashby Commission to investigate and recommend to the government – among others – on the needs for higher education in Nigeria. The Ashby commission’s report was comprehensive. It embraced the secondary, technical, commercial, veterinary and higher education needs of Nigeria. Two of the major findings of the commission’s investigation – with regard to curriculum – was that the graduate students of the then secondary education were not well-prepared for higher education; and also that the secondary education was too literal.

Consequently, the commission recommended curriculum review for the secondary education – so as to equip them adequately for the higher education. As a result, the curriculum was expanded to accommodate more subjects. Later in 1962 when the second generation universities were established the Nigerian government also established the National University Commission – to oversee and ensure quality of high education in Nigeria.

It was this curriculum that took us through independence – until the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 curriculum.

In the next section, I discuss the immediate curriculum of the 1969 curriculum conference.

The 6-3-3-4 curriculum

In the first post, I discussed the National Curriculum Conference and the National Policy on Education. The conference was held between September 8 and 17, 1969. The decisions at the conference eventually led to the publication of the National Policy on Education (NPE).

The National Policy on Education (NPE)

The National Policy on Education has a broad curriculum – as we had it before the UBE. The broad curriculum aims at creating enough learning opportunity for all children, irrespective of gender, age, ability, class, interest, etc. The NPE also laid foundation for the 6-3-3-4 system of education.

Implementation of the National Policy on Education (NPE)

Although the NPE is the wish of all Nigerians in writing, its immediate implementation was truncated by the Nigerian Civil war.

Consequently, when normalcy was restored, the government – of the second republic – began implementing the provisions of the National Policy on Education. First, the NPE was revised in 1981 to reflect recent developments. The civilian regime – second republic, according to the revised policy, adopted education “as instrument par excellence for effecting national development”.

Launch of the 6-3-3-4 curriculum

After the revision of the NPE, the government officially launched the 6-3-3-4 system of education in September, 1982. The 6-3-3-4 system of education means stipulated that the nation’s education shall cover six years of primary education, three years of junior secondary, three years of senior secondary and four years of tertiary education.  Accordingly, suitable curriculum was developed for the system of education.

Aims and Objectives of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The 6-3-3-4 curriculum was the direct product of the National Education Policy – which itself resulted from the National Curriculum Conference. This was the product of the yearnings and aspiration of the native people. The primary objective of the 6-3-3-4 was to realize a self-reliant and self-sufficient nation.

Content of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The 6-3-3-4 system emphasized academic and pre-vocational education. As I mentioned earlier, the curriculum was broad/comprehensive. It contained all the subjects as in the UBE edition – even more since each subject stood on their own unlike the UBE that compacted some subjects. As a result of the extensive length of subjects, the curriculum divided the subjects into two – the core and the elective subjects.

This also aligns with the 1980 West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASCE). In addition, vocational subjects were included and language policy changed. Originally, the plan was that continuous assessment would serve as the method of assessing the learners at the junior level while state and national examination would be used at the senior school level.

Implementation of the 6-3-3-4 Curriculum

The government launched the 6-3-3-4 curriculum in September, 1982. However, when the curriculum was launched; many states were not prepared to implement it – remember the regionalization of education since Macpherson regime.

The politics of the time did not permit uniform implementation. Specifically, while the federal schools and schools in the states that was controlled by the ruling party began the implementation; schools in the states that was controlled by the opposition party did not commence implementation.

It was until the second military era in 1983 that the 6-3-3-4 curriculum was nationally implemented. Hence, the curriculum remained in use for nearly twenty years. Notwithstanding, the implementation was not hitch free. More so, the actualization of the objectives was not realized.

Experts attributed the ineffectiveness of the curriculum to a number of issues. Two major of such issues are: first, was hurried planning and financing. The curriculum was not test-run in small scale before national implementation. The second complaint was that the curriculum contained too many subjects. The later became a major reason for revision of subsequent national curriculum.

The Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC)

The second military era between 1983 and 1999 pursued a lot education policy. In 1988, the government merged Nigerian Educational Research Council; Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre; Nigerian Book Development Council; and Nigerian Language Centre to establish the Nigerian Education Development Council (NERDC).

One of the major mandates of the NERDC was to develop, review and enrich curriculum at all levels. Thenceforth, the development and revision of the national curriculum become the duty of the NERDC.

I will in the next section discuss the subsequent curriculum. Click here to continue to unit three of the part 2.

If you have any question or request, do not hesitate to contact us on WhatsApp: +234-8067-6892-17 or via email: [email protected]


[qsm quiz=3]


References

The materials I consulted in writing the entire article are listed below:

Project Writers Ng. (2016, January 14). NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND PLANNING FROM 1968 TILL DATE; THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Project Writers Ng: https://www.projectwriters.ng/national-development-plan-and-planning-from-1968-till-date-the-nigerian-experience/

Adeoye, E. A. (2017). CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: THEORY & PRACTICE (A study Guide for PGD Ed) Students.

Ajayi, I. A. (n.d.). TOPICAL ISSUES IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION (A Study Guide for PhD in Educational Administration). University of Ado-Ekiti.

AKANBI, G. O., & ABIOLU, O. A. (2018). Nigeria’s 1969 Curriculum Conference: a practical approach to educational emancipation. Cadernos de História da Educação. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326884292_Nigeria’s_1969_Curriculum_Conference_a_practical_approach_to_educational_emancipation

AKPAN, G. A., USORO, H. S., & IBIRITAM, K. S. (n.d.). The Evolution of Vocational Education in Nigeria and Its Role in National Development. The Intuition. Retrieved from http://globalacademicgroup.com/journals/the%20intuition/The%20Evolution%20of%20Vocational%20Education%20in%20Nigeria%20and%20Its%20Rol.pdf

Amaele, S. (2017). HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA. University of Ilorin.

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (3rd Edition). (2008). Cambridge University Press (Armada).

Danielson, C. (2002). Enhancing Student Achievement. Retrieved from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/102109/chapters/School-Organization.aspx

Ewemade, I. (2015). National Economic Empowernment Development Strategy (NEEDS) as a Panacea for Employment Creation and Self Employment and Self Reliant. Journal of Educational and Social Research. Retrieved from https://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/jesr/article/viewFile/6557/6283

Fafunwa, A. B. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria. London: George Allen & Uniwin.

Iheanacho, E. N. (2014). National Development Planning in Nigeria: An Endless. International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment Search for Appropriate Development Strategy.

Imam, H. (2012). Educational Policy in Nigeria from the Colonial Era to the Post-Independence Period. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION.

Musingafi, M. C., Mhute, I., & Kaseke, K. E. (2015). Planning to Teach: Interrogating the Link among the Curricula, the Syllabi, Schemes and Lesson Plans in the Teaching Process. Journal of Education and Practice.

Nduka, O. A. (1975). Western Education and the Nigerian Cultural Background. Ibadan: Oxford University Press.

NERDC . (2015). NERDC Basic Technology for Junior Secondary Schools 2. Ikeja, Lagos: Learn Africa Plc.

NERDC. (2004). The National Policy on Education. Yaba, Lagos: NERDC. Retrieved from http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/AFR/Nigeria/TCH/National%20Policy%20on%20Education.pdf

NERDC. (2007). 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Basic Technology) for JSS 1 – 3. Abuja: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

NERDC. (2013). Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

Nwangu, D. I. (2009). ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION. Enugu State University of Science & Technology.

Ojebiyi, O. A. (2014). An Historical Survey of the Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria . Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.

Omoifo, C. N. (2012). ADVANCED CURRICULUM THEORY (A Study Guide for . University of Benin.

Osokoya, I. O. (1995). History and Policy of Nigerian Education in Nigeria . Ibadan: AMD Publishers.

Quinn-Young, C., & White, J. E. (n.d.). A HIstory for Nigerian Schools, Pupils Book Two. London: Evans Brothers Limited.

Soludo, C. C. (2006). CAN NIGERIA BE THE CHINA OF AFRICA? Benin. Retrieved from https://www.cbn.gov.ng/out/speeches/2006/Govadd27-11-06.pdf

Stephens, M. (2019, April 23). Does Nigeria Use British or American English? Retrieved from Naija Home Based: https://www.naijahomebased.com/does-nigeria-use-british-or-american-english/

Teniola, E. (2018, March 20). Our new national development plan. Retrieved from Vanguard: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/03/our-new-national-development-plan/

The Glossary of Education Reform. (2013, August 29). LEARNING EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Glossary of Education Reform: https://www.edglossary.org/learning-experience/

UBEC. (n.d.). About UBE. Retrieved from Universal Basic Education Commission: https://ubeconline.com/about_ubec.php

Nigerian National Curriculum Editions

The Nigerian National Curriculum Editions in One Sentence

This post with keywords – Nigerian National Curriculum Editions – lists and describes all the editions of the Nigerian National Curriculum – from the time before the influence of foreigners until date.

It is more or less a detailed history of western education in Nigeria – from the curriculum perspective. This post will give a deep understanding of both the essence and content of education. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials.

Introduction to the Nigerian National Curriculum Editions

The online community of the Nigerian education sector is currently inundated with a lot of information and resources. Far too many people claim to have and sell different educational materials – from curriculum to syllabus, scheme of works to lesson notes and so on.

To convolute things further, since everyone wants to sell; all claim to possess official materials – materials in-line with the NERDC curriculum. A school owner called me to request for lesson notes that are in line with the new 2020 NERDC curriculum that someone sold to her.

In the following sections, I discuss the type of curriculum that Nigerians used to train themselves before the arrival of foreigners. The unit also details the arrival of missionaries and the era of mission school with their curriculum.

The Entire 3-Series Post

This post is the second of a 3-part article. The entire article is a comprehensive post. I addressed all possible issues concerning the national curriculum as it is currently subsisting among the Nigerian education community. However, in order not to make this a tedious reading for the reader; I have shared the entire article into three part.

Part One – Meaning of Curriculum and How to Choose the Right Curriculum for your School

The first part defines what the (national) curriculum is. It enumerates the components of curriculum and discusses the types of curriculum in Nigerian schools. I concluded the first part by providing leading guides on how to choose the right curriculum for your school.

Part Two – Editions of the Nigerian National Curriculum

In the second part – beginning from this post, I discuss all the past and existing editions of the Nigerian National curriculum. This will enable you to have a fuller understanding of the subject matter. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials. Because the editions of the national curriculum are many, and to make the reading easier for you; I divided the second part into three smaller units.

The first unit – The Nigerian Indigenous and Missionary Curriculum – which is this post

This unit discuss the type of curriculum that Nigerians used to train themselves before the arrival of foreigners. The unit also details the arrival of missionaries and the era of mission school with their curriculum.

The Second Unit – The Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum

I committed the second unit of part two to the Nigerian National Colonial Curriculum. This was the curriculum that the British colonial governments used to train Nigerians during colonization.

The Third Unit – The 6-3-3-4 & 9-Years Basic Education National Curriculum

The third unit of part two discusses the truly national curricula. It began by discussing the curriculum of the National Curriculum Conference. Then the third unit proceeded to 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. The third unit concluded by discussing the latest edition of the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum.

Part Three – Curriculum, Syllabus, Scheme of Work, Unit of Work plan and Lesson plan

In the last part, I distinguished between curriculum, syllabus, course of study, scheme of work, Unit of Work plan and lesson plan. This last part addresses the major confusion issues between the terms.

Nigerian National Curriculum Editions

Making a list of past curriculum in Nigeria can is basically the same thing as going through the history of education in Nigeria. This is because Nigeria did not have a truly national curriculum prior to the 1969 national curriculum conference. And even after then, the politics of the country greatly influenced the education as well as the curriculum in use.

Stability set into the system only after the country switched to the current reign of democracy. Consequently, we come to know what we now have as national curriculum after 1999.

Nonetheless, I briefly gave a review of the curriculum before the 1999 era just to give you a fuller understanding of the Nigerian education environment.

This will help you to appreciate where we are coming from. You will also become conscious of your role in fulfilling the nation’s dreams.

Loosely speaking, we can say Nigeria has had six (6) different curricular: 3 regional curricular and 3 national curricular.  These include the:

  1. Indigenous Education Curriculum
  2. Missionary Curriculum (1842 – 1882)
  3. Colonial curriculum (1882 – 1948)
    1. 1882 curriculum
    2. 1887 curriculum
    3. The Northern Nigeria education curriculum
    4. 1916 curriculum
    5. 1926 curriculum
  4. The 6-3-3-4 curriculum
  5. The 9-Year BEC
  6. The Revised 9-Year BEC

As you will find out – after going through the entire article; even the briefest review of these curriculum will produce relatively lengthy reading. Consequently, I split this second article in the series into three sub-units. This will give you better and less tedious reading experience.

This first sub unit focuses on indigenous and missionary curricula. The second sub unit focuses on the colonial curricula. Finally, the third sub unit discusses the Basic Education Curriculum with its revision.

The complete series will prove to be a highly profitable reading for anyone undergoing a postgraduate programme in education – and doubly so, if in the field of curriculum studies.

The Nigerian Indigenous Education Curriculum

This is the curriculum that different peoples of Nigeria used to educate their people long before any form of foreign intrusion. Each of the Nigerian peoples had curriculum for training people to meet their educational needs.  These curricular were majorly informal in nature.

Goal of Nigerian Indigenous Education

(Fafunwa, 1974) stated that the Nigerian indigenous education has seven cardinal points. These were the purpose of education – the education needs of the time. The seven purpose of education include to:

  1. develop the child’s latent skills;
  2. develop the child’s character;
  3. inculcate respect for elders and those in authority;
  1. develop intellectual skills;
  2. acquire specific vocational training and to develop a healthy attitude towards honest labour;
  3. develop a sense of belonging and participate actively in family and community affairs; and
  4. understand, appreciate and promote the cultural heritage of the community at large

Contents of Nigerian Indigenous Education Curriculum

With the unique education needs, the indigenous peoples of Nigeria needed a curriculum to achieve the goals. (Amaele, 2017) noted that the contents of Nigerian indigenous education curriculum include:

  • Technology – weaving, sculpturing, blacksmithing, carving, farming, fishing, cattle rearing, hair plaiting, dress making, bead weaving, leatherwork, pottery, brick making, basket weaving, raffia works, mat weaving, etc.
  • Citizenship – Activities on character building, since conformity was necessary;
  • Physical Education – Physical training through physical contests, wrestling, perseverance activities, etc.;
  • Arts and crafts – carving, painting, modelling, artistic and creative pursuits, songs and dances, masquerades etc.;
  • Arithmetic – counting, games, etc.;
  • Science – Study of facts about natural environments: a father moves about with his son, introducing him to the names of different objects, plants, animals, etc.;
  • History – including stories about the gods, traditions of various societies which were preserved in folklore and regarded as legends which pass from one generation to another.

Method of Teaching in Nigerian Indigenous Curriculum

indoctrination, modelling, initiation ceremonies, reward and punishment, imitation, role play, oral literature, poetry, instruction, observation, intention, participation, apprenticeship. Emphasis is laid on practical knowledge, skills and character.

Levels of Education in Nigerian Indigenous Curriculum

The indigenous Nigerian education is well structured into four levels that are sacredly guided. One may not skip a level. There was little or no space for “special children”. Everyone must proceed the levels religiously. The levels of education under this curriculum include:

  1. Infancy – ages 0 to 5
  2. Childhood – ages 6 to 12
  3. Adolescence – ages 12 and above
  4. Higher Education – Secret Cult & traditional medicine

The Missionary Curriculum (1842 – 1882)

Although Islamic Education existed long in (Northern) Nigerian before the advent of the Christian missionaries, the current (secular western) education in Nigeria traces its origin to the missionaries.

The Islamic Education Curriculum

Off course, there was the Islamic/Arabic Education curriculum that aided the attainment of the Islamic education needs of the Muslims in Nigeria from the late 11th century. However, because this constitute a separate subject matter from that which we discussing, I shan’t say much of Islamic religion curriculum – until when I shall discuss the subjects under the current curriculum.

The Christian Education Curriculum

As I have noted above, modern education in Nigeria traces its origin to the works of the early Christian Missionaries. It was the missionaries that first built formal schools.

The Portuguese Catholic Missionaries in Nigeria

Although, the education activities of the Christian missionaries became most pronounced as from 1842 – after the abolition of slave trade; as early as 1515, the Portuguese Catholic Missionaries had established a primary school in the palace of the Oba of Benin – basically for the children of the Oba and his chiefs which they later converted to Christianity.  (Quinn-Young & White) placed the arrival of the Portuguese in Lagos to be in 1472. The Catholic missionary activities also extended to Brass, Akassa, Warri where churches and schools were established. But the Catholic influence was almost wiped out by the slave trade which ravaged West Africa for nearly three hundred years (Fafunwa, 1974).

The British Missionaries in Nigeria

The Catholic Missionaries were not the only set of Portuguese that came to Nigeria in the 14th century. Neither were the Portuguese the only Europeans to come to Nigeria. The events that followed the industrial revolution in Europe saw many Europeans in Africa – in general, and Nigeria in particular. The influx was a combination of missionaries and merchants. While the former came for evangelism; the later came for commerce. Notwithstanding, both believed in and actually used education to achieve their objectives – to the extent that the politics of the time permitted.

(Osokoya, 1995) reported that the anti-slavery works of the British interested Badagry and Abeokuta to the point that both formally invited the missionaries. In response to this request, in 24th September, 1842; the Wesleyan Methodist Society sent Rev. Thomas Birch Freeman Mr. & Mrs. William De Graft to start both Christian and education work at Badagry. This paved the way for other missionary societies into Nigeria. These included:

  • Church Missionary Society;
  • Baptist Mission;
  • Roman Catholic Mission;
  • Presbyterian Church of Scotland;
  • Primitive Methodist Missionary Society; and
  • Qua Iboe Mission.

Each of these missionary societies operated independent mission schools.

Aims of the Mission Schools

The education of the missionary societies was directed towards three principal goals. This included:

  1. Convert the students to Christianity
  2. Train indigenous manpower – including Sunday school teachers and Catechists – to carry out the evangelical work to the various local communities
  3. training of lower manpower to serve as interpreters, messengers, clerks, cleaners, etc. for the various missions and the British Businessmen

Contents of the Missionary Curriculum

(Ajayi) stated that although the missionaries had the same general aims of education as stated above, the mission schools had no uniform curriculum. For example, while the Catholic mission schools used Portuguese as medium of instruction; the non-Catholic mission schools used English Language.

Nonetheless, education historians often find a common ground for the curriculum of the mission schools. Experts generally agree that the mission schools originated the 3R’s curriculum in Nigeria which will later be inherited by the colonialists. The 3 R’s stand for Reading, ‘Riting and ‘Rithmetic.

This once again demonstrated how curriculum is a means to an end. The missionary curriculum perfectly meets their aims for educating the Nigerians at the time:

  1. They needed Nigerians that are able to Read the Bible so as to preach to, and convert the locals; hence they made reading a key component of their curriculum.
  2. The Nigerians who were to do this evangelism work also needed to be able to write to the foreign missionaries. So the foreign missionaries included Writing.
  3. Finally, the foreign missionaries wanted Nigerians that could carry out businesses in the names of the missionaries and also interpret during business transactions. This creates the need for basic Mathematics, hence Arithmetic was included in their curriculum.

Aside these contents of the missionary curriculum, (Amaele, 2017) said the missionaries also taught subsidiary subjects like agriculture, nature study, craft.

The Missionary and the Colonial Governments

The missionaries provided the independent non-uniform education to serve their evangelism purpose uninterrupted for a long time – over 50 years! However, the narrative changed with the advent of colonization. Nonetheless, this did not happen immediately the British assume control of government. For about 20 years after Britain established its colonial government in Nigeria, it did not concern itself with matters of education.

The colonial government eventually gave education thoughts beginning from 1882. With every new era of education, comes new curriculum. So was the colonial education. The objectives of the colonial education were different from the missionary education.

In the second unit of the part 2 of the article, I discussed the colonial education – the aims, objectives and curriculum. Click here to go the post.

If you have any question or request, do not hesitate to contact us on WhatsApp: +234-8067-6892-17 or via email: [email protected]


[qsm quiz=3]


References

The materials I consulted in writing the entire article are listed below:

Project Writers Ng. (2016, January 14). NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND PLANNING FROM 1968 TILL DATE; THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Project Writers Ng: https://www.projectwriters.ng/national-development-plan-and-planning-from-1968-till-date-the-nigerian-experience/

Adeoye, E. A. (2017). CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: THEORY & PRACTICE (A study Guide for PGD Ed) Students.

Ajayi, I. A. (n.d.). TOPICAL ISSUES IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION (A Study Guide for PhD in Educational Administration). University of Ado-Ekiti.

AKANBI, G. O., & ABIOLU, O. A. (2018). Nigeria’s 1969 Curriculum Conference: a practical approach to educational emancipation. Cadernos de História da Educação. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326884292_Nigeria’s_1969_Curriculum_Conference_a_practical_approach_to_educational_emancipation

AKPAN, G. A., USORO, H. S., & IBIRITAM, K. S. (n.d.). The Evolution of Vocational Education in Nigeria and Its Role in National Development. The Intuition. Retrieved from http://globalacademicgroup.com/journals/the%20intuition/The%20Evolution%20of%20Vocational%20Education%20in%20Nigeria%20and%20Its%20Rol.pdf

Amaele, S. (2017). HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA. University of Ilorin.

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (3rd Edition). (2008). Cambridge University Press (Armada).

Danielson, C. (2002). Enhancing Student Achievement. Retrieved from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/102109/chapters/School-Organization.aspx

Ewemade, I. (2015). National Economic Empowernment Development Strategy (NEEDS) as a Panacea for Employment Creation and Self Employment and Self Reliant. Journal of Educational and Social Research. Retrieved from https://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/jesr/article/viewFile/6557/6283

Fafunwa, A. B. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria. London: George Allen & Uniwin.

Iheanacho, E. N. (2014). National Development Planning in Nigeria: An Endless. International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment Search for Appropriate Development Strategy.

Imam, H. (2012). Educational Policy in Nigeria from the Colonial Era to the Post-Independence Period. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION.

Musingafi, M. C., Mhute, I., & Kaseke, K. E. (2015). Planning to Teach: Interrogating the Link among the Curricula, the Syllabi, Schemes and Lesson Plans in the Teaching Process. Journal of Education and Practice.

Nduka, O. A. (1975). Western Education and the Nigerian Cultural Background. Ibadan: Oxford University Press.

NERDC . (2015). NERDC Basic Technology for Junior Secondary Schools 2. Ikeja, Lagos: Learn Africa Plc.

NERDC. (2004). The National Policy on Education. Yaba, Lagos: NERDC. Retrieved from http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/AFR/Nigeria/TCH/National%20Policy%20on%20Education.pdf

NERDC. (2007). 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Basic Technology) for JSS 1 – 3. Abuja: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

NERDC. (2013). Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

Nwangu, D. I. (2009). ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION. Enugu State University of Science & Technology.

Ojebiyi, O. A. (2014). An Historical Survey of the Development of Science and Technology Education in Nigeria . Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.

Omoifo, C. N. (2012). ADVANCED CURRICULUM THEORY (A Study Guide for . University of Benin.

Osokoya, I. O. (1995). History and Policy of Nigerian Education in Nigeria . Ibadan: AMD Publishers.

Quinn-Young, C., & White, J. E. (n.d.). A HIstory for Nigerian Schools, Pupils Book Two. London: Evans Brothers Limited.

Soludo, C. C. (2006). CAN NIGERIA BE THE CHINA OF AFRICA? Benin. Retrieved from https://www.cbn.gov.ng/out/speeches/2006/Govadd27-11-06.pdf

Stephens, M. (2019, April 23). Does Nigeria Use British or American English? Retrieved from Naija Home Based: https://www.naijahomebased.com/does-nigeria-use-british-or-american-english/

Teniola, E. (2018, March 20). Our new national development plan. Retrieved from Vanguard: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/03/our-new-national-development-plan/

The Glossary of Education Reform. (2013, August 29). LEARNING EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Glossary of Education Reform: https://www.edglossary.org/learning-experience/

UBEC. (n.d.). About UBE. Retrieved from Universal Basic Education Commission: https://ubeconline.com/about_ubec.php

Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students Part Two

Introduction to Factors Affecting the Performance of Students Part Two

this post titled, Factors Affecting the Performance of Students Part Two, further outline some factors that affects student performance. Here, we examined these factors from the parent and school effects.

Academic performance refers to the level of performance in school, accomplishment or success in school. This is the core of educational growth. academic performance as the process of developing the capacities and potentials of the individual student so as to prepare that individual to be successful in a specific society or culture. It is important to keep in mind that academic performance may largely be a function of the context in which it takes place, and therefore the necessary abilities may also vary according to the context. In this regard, we can conclude that the concept, meaning and criteria of academic success may also vary according to the context.

In the initial part of this write-up, we had examined factors such as student attitude, skill and abilities of the teachers, classroom environment, development of study skill, time management, teaching-learning methods and so forth.

If you have not read the part one of this write up, simply click Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students. to go through it.

More of these factors that affect the academic performance of student are:

  1. Large Number of Students in a Class

Class congestion is  disadvantageous to the academic performance of students. Class teachers are the once who normally face this problem. It reduces their class manageability; their deliverable – they are unable to implement the appropriate teaching-learning processes and instructional strategies, which in turn affect the performance of the student academically.

The teachers are unable to make provision of personal attention and as a result of which, academic performance of the students may undergo detrimental effects. In some cases, when the number of students are large within classrooms, the teachers provide explanation of the academic concepts on black-board or through the use of technology and give class and home-work assignments. They correct the assignments, submitted to them by the students. Some students perform well, whereas others depict errors. In case of errors, the teachers usually ask them to learn from the students, who have performed well. Hence, teachers tend to move on to the next lesson in the next class, as they need to complete the syllabus within limited time.

(Maganga, 2016), also explained that, in science subjects, when teachers are providing training to students on the implementation of experiments by making use of school laboratory equipment like test tubes, other equipment and procedures, it becomes very difficult or impossible for the teacher to monitor the performance, understanding and right implementation of such practical. There are high tendencies that some of the students may not understand the procedures explained by the teacher, hence are unable to perform the experiment independently.

  1. Self-efficacy and Motivation

Self-efficacy is how people feel about themselves and how much they like themselves, especially socially and academically. Through the many pressures and daunting responsibilities of being a student, one learns and understands the importance of having a high self-efficacy in college. Having one’s academic achievement meet one’s academic expectations and desires is a major key to most college students’ self-efficacy. Having a high self-efficacy has many positive effects and benefits, especially among college students. Students who feel positive about themselves succumb less easily to pressures of conformity by peers, are more persistent at difficult tasks, are happier and more sociable, and most pertinent to this study is that they tend to perform better academically.

On the other hand, students with a low self-efficacy tend to be unhappy, less sociable and are more vulnerable to depression, which are all correlated with lower academic achievement. High academic performance influences perceived competence and motivation.

  1. Parental and Home Factor

Parental and home or environment factors greatly have effects on the academic performance of the students. Quite true that some of these parental and home/environment factors have positive effects on student’s performance; a lot of these factors tend to have negative impact on the academic performance of the students. These parental and home/environment factors are:

  • Level of Parents Education

Parents’ educational qualifications are  important aspects that  enhance the academic learning of their children. Well educated parents who are professionals such as doctors, lawyers, engineers, administrators, educationists, teachers, researchers, academicians, etc. can provide good education to their children. They can send their children to reputed schools and also provide them with all the needed materials and resources needed to promote learning. On the contrary, when parents are illiterate or have low level of literacy and how financial ability, there are unable to provide qualitative education to their children. It is also common to find with low level of education or who are out-rightly illiterate to low interest in the education of their children. This is because such parents may not have low or no understanding of the importance of education in.

  • Poverty

The problem of poverty is one of the major barriers within the course of academic achievements. The individuals residing in the conditions of poverty and backwardness experience this major problem in terms of finances. When their per capita income is low, then they experience problems in not only meeting the educational and school requirements. Also, there will be problems in meeting their living requirements, such as diet and nutrition, health, medical and so forth. Therefore, the problem of poverty is critical factor that hinder the academic performance of the students. When they do not possess the essential sources to enhance their learning, they will be unable to improve their grades.

  • Large Family Size

Extended family system and  polygamous homes often leads to large family. When there are more than two children within the family, then it is considered as a large family size. With three or more children within the family, then, usually it becomes difficult for the parents to meet all their needs and requirements, especially, when the family belongs to economically weaker sections of the society. When parents are working or are engage in full time jobs, they will experience problems in finding time for interaction with their children or in meeting their needs and requirements. More children imply increased costs. The fact remains that the upbringing of children involves large number of costs. The academic performance of the students undergoes detrimental effects as a result of large family size.

This can only be offset when there is a corresponding or higher increase to income with. If it is not so, then, more children and limited income, means reduction in the ability to provide quality education to children. It usually becomes difficult to meet the requirements of every child, in the face of large family with limited income.

  • Resources

The lack of resources, civic amenities and infrastructure are barriers towards the acquisition of qualitative education. It is vital to make provision of adequate diet and nutrition for the students, so that they are able to wholeheartedly concentrate on their studies. Civic amenities, such as, clean drinking water, electricity, technology, textbooks, stationary and other are essential to enhancing.

Lack of resources and civic amenities may impede the concentration, interest of the students upon their studies, as a result desired results may not achieve. however, with a strong determination, students may still be able to understand concepts of studies with limited civic amenities. But then, it remains a general growth what when ‘equipment’ is not available, even the most courageous will find it difficult to achieve set or desired goals. Same vein has it is economically true that input affects output. All things being equal, a student who is provided with needed resource will outperform the other student who is has poor or little resources.

  • Viewpoints and Perspectives

In the present existence, especially in rural areas, individuals who possess the viewpoints that education is meant for boys while girls are meant to learn the household chores exist. They are of the perspectives that when boys get educated, they would be able to obtain employment and enhance the well-being of their On the other hand, girls have to eventually get married; hence, it is vital for them to acquire training regarding the performance of household chores. These mainly include, preparation of meals, cleaning, washing, fetching water, and taking care of siblings and other elderly members of the household. These factors discourage girls from acquisition of education and their academic performance suffers a setback, even when they are in schools.

  1. School factors

Students’ performance has a significant relationship with the availability of enabling academic environment with facilities. Such facilities are library, experimental lab, computer laboratory, etc. in the institution. Study effort from student and the proper use of the facilities; a good match between students’ learning style enhance the student’s performance. Student performances are linked with use of library and level of their parental education. The use of the library enhances the student performance. The academic environment is the effective-variable for students and has positive relationship with fathers’ education and grade level. Provision of adequate learning facilities enhances student performance.

The contribution of school factors in influencing the academic performance of the students have been stated as follows:

  • Professionalism of Teachers

Professionalism of teachers is important, especially in their dealings with students. In this aspect, the continuous enhancement of teachers’ teaching skills, knowledge matters towards improving learning and development of the students. Professionalism of the teachers is shown primarily in the teaching-learning processes, instructional strategies, communication and their approachable attitude. Teachers who shows professionalism in these areas are acknowledged and appreciated by other staff and teachers; they are also appreciated by the students and they take pleasure in learning from them. When teachers are unhappy because students fail to complete their homework assignment and at the right time. In such cases, professionalism is shown when teachers are decent in their communication. They should explain the consequences to the students in a calm manner and any kind of harsh behavior should be avoided

  • Extra-Curricular Activities

Students usually take pleasure in the learning and acquisition of education, especially, when there is adequate provision of extra-curricular activities. Activities in school such as artworks, handicrafts, music, singing, dancing, role playing, sports, games and so forth, are extra-curricular. Students normally take pleasure in them. They are not only pivotal to the development of creativity among the students, but also in getting their, interest and willingness via the engagement in extra-curricular activities. They are able to develop their concentration towards learning through these activities. When students  involve in extracurricular activities, they perform well in their assignments and tests.

  • Rewards

Rewards, as important factors,  help in motivating the students to be more committed toward academic pursuits. They are incentives to arouse students’ interest, performance. In secondary schools, students enjoy playing and engaging in recreational and leisure activities. They in some cases neglect their studies. Especially, when they are unable to understand the concepts or have to watch a television show and so forth. Parents at home create means of motivating their children. This can be by  giving them their favorite ice-cream, take them out for dinner or give them gift etc.

People consider as stimulating factors that contribute positively in the improvement of the academic performance of the students. As teachers communicate about rewards within the classroom, then students develop the keenness to work hard for good grades. They believe that through their good performance, their parents and teachers, both would get pleased.

  • School facilities

The facilities of a school is also a factor that affect the academic performance of students. Examples of such facilities are library facilities, laboratory facilities etc. The library is the place, where students obtain the materials that used of to enhance one’s learning. Library is a building or a room that houses the collection of books, tapes, newspapers, articles and journals. Individuals read and borrow them. Library is important in the teaching-learning processes. It is regarded as one of the most important educational services. The main purpose of the school libraries is to make provision of books and the necessary materials.

Laboratory is  a room or a building, specially built for teaching by demonstration of a theoretical phenomenon into practical terms. Teachers use laboratory in  teaching-learning processes and experiments primarily related to science subjects. Within the laboratory, the teachers provide practical demonstration of the concept. The students tend to recall more what they observe rather than what they hear. Practical work in the learning of academic concepts involves students in activities. These activities are observing, counting, measuring, experimenting, recording, investigating, testing, analyzing and field-work.

Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students.

Introduction to this post with keywords – Factors Affecting Students’ Academic Performance

It is a well-known maxim in the education world that “no child is dull”. More so, majority of the educators agree that you should not write any child off. However, it is undebatable that certain learners just wouldn’t perform well in their academics – even as others continue to fly academically. This tends to create some philosophical inconsistency – for if no child is dull, then all should perform well. Why then do some students perform well while others do not?

I strongly believe that a number of factors are responsible for this disparity. Consequently, in this post; I discuss a few factors that affect the academic performance of students.

Why this article about factors affecting Students’ Academic Performance?

For the development of individuals, community, nation and the world at large; education is pivotal. To bring about needed improvements in all aspect of the human life and to be able to utilize innovative methods and techniques, enhanced educational skills are needed. However, educational stakeholders must pay attention to the factors that have the potential to affect the performance of students negatively or positively.

Education is one of the cardinal aspects that not only inculcates the essential skills,
abilities and knowledge among students, but also leads to overall growth and progress
of the students, community, nation and the world as a whole. An educated person is not only able to accomplish his desired goals and objectives, but is also able to render an efficient contribution towards the well-being of the community. The development of academic knowledge, skills, abilities and proficiency among the individuals is enhanced through learning and academic performance.

The academic performance of students in secondary schools determines the future goals, interest of student; what course they will student at tertiary level and what career path to choose and build. The extent to which a student can learn and develop is to a large degree affected by many factors.

            The Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students

The factors that affect the academic performance of students are as follows:

1.      Student’s Attitude:

Every student from secondary schools to tertiary institutions posse the ability to differentiate what is ideal and what is not ideal. Every student that succeeds possess a positive feeling towards his or her education and is conscious of his or her performance also. Such student possesses the character of diligence, discipline and resourcefulness; they are passionate readers. They give much off their time to studies, and less time for leisure activities. It is also important that such student possess a positive thought in terms of their schools, teachers and all academic subject. The lack of this traits in most students will explain low or under performance of the student. Positive attitude of student involves being goal-oriented. That is, studying for self-development and not only to pass examination. Having a clear picture of a desired future is the bed rock for a positive attitude of student.  A positive attitude of student will help the student to devote their time to tireless and passionate study.

2.      Resources of the school:

Within schools, it is vital to make provision of resources that can be utilized to enhance the academic performance of students. The textbooks, notes, learning materials, technology, library facilities and laboratory facilities, especially in science subjects should include the essential materials. When students are provided with the necessary tools and equipment, they will be able to acquire a better understanding of what is been taught in schools. In some cases, especially the students who are deprived, marginalized and socio-economically backward and are unable to afford the books and materials required for learning; they tend to depend only upon the library and other facility of the school.

3.      Skills and Abilities of the Teacher:

Teachers have an imperative role in influencing
the academic performance of the students. They are bestowed with the authority to direct all the classroom activities and administer learning. It is therefore vital for the teachers to possess the traits of professionalism and conscientiousness. They need to possess an approachable nature, listen and provide solutions to the problems experienced by the students. They should possess adequate knowledge and information regarding the subjects that they are teaching, usage of technology, modern and innovative methods in the teaching and learning processes, managing discipline and directing all of the classroom as well as school activities and functions in a well-organized manner. The teachers in some cases are strict, but strictness should be maintained within limits. The main objective of the teachers should only be to enhance the academic performance of the students and lead to their effective development

4.      Classroom Environment:

The academic concepts are made known to the students by
the teachers within classroom. Teachers have the main job duty of completing the subject
syllabus. Therefore, it is vital that classroom environment should be disciplined, and well-ordered. Within the classroom, it is vital for the teachers and the students to
implement or show the traits of morality and ethics. It is vital to promote mutual understanding and co-operation among the teachers and students as well as among the fellow students. The efficiency in the management of the classroom, consequently, introduces a well-organized and efficient management of the lesson plans, instructional strategies, teaching-learning processes and so forth. When there is discipline and effective communication among the individuals, then it would help the students learn better and improve their academic performance.

5.      Role of Parents:

Home is referred to as the place from where the foundation of
learning and education takes place. In order to produce good academic outcomes, it is vital
for the parents, children and other family members to encourage a learning atmosphere within homes. For instance, when students experience problems in certain subjects, then parents are responsible for providing help. This help may be in the form of private tuitions or they themselves may teach their children. They make provision of technology and other learning materials at home to enhance the academic performance of their children. Parents play an important role in leading to operative growth and development of their children. In schools, whatever problems that children go through regarding academics and other
areas, they normally communicate to their parents. Parents are sources of security,
encouragement and help their children in providing solutions to their problems.

6.      Social Circle:

Children get enrolled in schools not only to learn academic concepts,
but they also learn, how to interact and socialize with others. Students usually form friendly
terms and relationships with the fellow students. Forming a social circle and friendships have a positive effect upon the academic outcomes of the students. As when one has to work on a project or prepare for a test, then group study is in most cases beneficial. It also causes social satisfaction and happiness in one’s student life (Kudari, 2016). Forming a social circle proves to be beneficial to the individuals in number of ways, such as, solving academic problems, getting involved in leisure activities, sharing one’s joys and sorrows, and so forth.

7.      Motivating and Encouraging Students: –

In academic learning, some of the concepts
are difficult to learn and understand. When problems and difficulties are experienced by the students, then they need to obtain assistance from others. When students are unable to
achieve the desired grades, then instead of getting angry on them, the teachers and parents
need to make provision of help and assistance. They should motivate the students and
encourage them to do well in future. They need to understand their weaknesses and help
them. When students find certain areas difficult to learn, then teachers should repeat the
concepts, provide them class and homework assignments, so that they are able to acquire
complete understanding of the concepts

8.      Development of Study Skills: –

In order to enhance one’s academic performance, it is
vital for the individuals to develop study skills within themselves. The students themselves
need to generate awareness regarding study skills, so that they are able to produce desired
academic outcomes. Some of the study skills include, memorizing from the textbooks or
other materials, making notes, practicing writing essays and articles, especially in languages, practicing calculations in mathematics and so forth. One of the important areas is, when one is studying, it is vital to completely concentrate towards one’s studies. Inability to completely concentrate is one of the factors that leads to undesired academic outcomes. Memorizing is regarded as one of the rare techniques, hence, the teachers encourage students to acquire understanding of the concepts instead of memorizing.

9.      Time Management:

Students in secondary schools have a busy schedule, hence it is
vital for them to generate awareness in terms of effective time management. Research has
indicated that the normal schedule of the secondary school students comprise of school hours, then they need to spend some time in completion of home-work assignments. They also get involved in some kinds of extra-curricular activities and sports. Playing and getting engaged in creative activities, not only help them concentrate better, but they are able to stimulate their mind-sets. For the secondary school students, it is important to get engaged in extracurricular activities and for this purpose, they need to implement proper time management skills. It is essential for the students to create a balance between all the tasks and activities. The activities that are more important should be given more time and lesser amount of time can be spent on the activities that are less important.

10.  Teaching-Learning Methods:

The teaching-learning methods and strategies should
be appropriate and encouraging to the students. The teachers in school are the ones that
contribute an imperative part in promoting learning among the students. It is essential for
them to ensure that the teaching methods used should prove to be beneficial to the students.
For instance, if the students are able to learn better through dictation of notes, then teachers
should provide notes. If the students are able to learn better through verbal explanation, then they should promote verbal explanation and so forth. Within home, if students are taking
private tuitions of certain academic subjects such as, mathematics or science, or their parents teach them, then too, it is vital for the parents and tutors to make sure that effectual teaching-learning methods are implemented, which may encourage learning among the students and help them understand better.

11.  Approachability and Professionalism:

The teachers in school are required to be
approachable and professional in their conduct. They are the ones, whom students approach, in case they have any problems and difficulties. When the teachers are friendly and generous, then the students feel comfortable in not only approaching them, but also in clarifying their doubts. The professionalism and approachable attitude on the part of the teachers is of utmost significance in influencing the academic performance of the students in a positive manner. On the other hand, at home, parents or tutors are the ones, who supervise their studies, hence, it is vital for them to be professional in their conduct. Teaching should be implemented in a calm and pleasant manner. Any kind of harsh attitude should be avoided, as it may demotivate the students

Check out our lesson notes, school management tips and Nigerian Education reformation issues

    Works Cited

The works that I consulted include:

  • Kapur, R. (2018). Factors Influencing the Students’ Academic Performance in Secondary School in India. 1 – 25.
  • Al-Zoubi, S.M., & Younes, M.A.B. (2015). Low Academic Achievement: Causes and
    Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(11), 2262-2268. Retrieved April 25, 2018fromhttp: www.academypublication.com/ojs/index.php/tpls/article/viewFile/tpls05112262 2268/477
  • Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Vol. 15, No. 5, October, 2015, pp.49-63.doi: 10.14434/josotl.v15i5.19068
  • Entwistle, N. J. & Ramsden, P. (1983). Understanding student learning. London: Croom Helm.
  • David, N.M. (2014). Determinants of Poor Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Sumbawanga District, Tanzania. Sokoine University of Agriculture. Morogoro Tanzania. Retrieved April 25, 2018 from
  • http://www.suaire.suanet.ac.tz:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/622/Davi %20Melack.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  • Brophy, J. (1986). Teacher influences on student achievement. American Psychologist, 41, 1069-1077
  • Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement. Knoxville, TN: Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center.
  • Wenglinsky, H. (2000). How teaching matters: Bringing the classroom back into discussions of teacher quality. Princeton, NJ: Policy Information Center.
  • Robinson, K. (2013, April). How to escape education’s Death Valley [Video file]. http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_how_to_escape_education_s_death_valley? language=en
  • Srinivas, P., & Venkatkrishnan, S. (2016). Factors Affecting Scholastic Performance in
    School Children. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 15(7), 47-53. Retrieved March 25, 2020 from http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jdms/papers/Vol15 Issue%207/Version-1/J150714753.pdf
  • Lizzio, A., Wilson, K. & Simons, R. (2002). University students’ perceptions of the learning environment and academic outcomes: implications for theory and practice, Studies in Higher Education, 27(1), 27–51

The Nigerian National Curriculum – Meaning, Components & Types

The Nigerian-National-Curriculum in one sentence

This article with keyword: Nigerian-National-Curriculum authoritatively defines what the (national) curriculum is. It enumerates the components of curriculum and discusses the types of curriculum in Nigerian schools and provide leading guides on how to choose the right curriculum for your school.

Introduction to Nigerian-National-Curriculum

The surge in the availability of information resources among Nigerian academicians tends to spurn increasing confusion – in the meaning of key terms used to describe key statutory school records viz. curriculum, syllabus, scheme of work and lesson plan.

I receive requests for, and send a lot of these materials monthly. And an experience that has become somewhat too frequent is people requesting for one while they actually meant another. Each time, I have to first explain and differentiate between the confusing terms. Thereafter, I will ask, just to be sure, what they really wanted before sending.

Where Lack is Failure

For a profession such as being an educator, the inability to state the meaning and differentiate between these terms without mincing words shows a major failure. For one that it shows the teacher is not prepared/qualified to take up highly roles in the system. Lately, we have seen educators being appointed into education ministries/commissions and agencies. An instance is the appointment of Mrs. Folasade Adefiyaso as the honourable commissioner of education, Lagos state ministry of education. Hers is only but one of many of such appointments. Educators form members and head of the education ministries, commissions, agencies and committees anyways. But if an educator is unable to say the meanings and differences between curriculum, syllabus and scheme of work with certainty; how then will such an educator be able to dispense the duties of higher roles – which sometimes involves formulating and supervising the implementation of trio?

This post with keywords – Nigerian-National-Curriculum

This a comprehensive post. I hope to address all possible issues concerning the national curriculum as it is currently subsisting among the Nigerian education community. However, in order not to make this a tedious reading for the reader; I have shared the entire post in three. This is the first part.

In the second part, I shall discuss all the past and existing editions of the Nigerian National curriculum. This will enable you to have a fuller understanding of the subject matter. It will also help you to authenticate any curriculum that people may try to sell to you – so that you don’t fall prey to fake “official” materials.

In the last part, I distinguish between curriculum, syllabus, course of study, scheme of work, Unit of Work plan and lesson plan. This last part addresses the major confusion issues between the terms.

Causes of the confusion in the meaning of curriculum, syllabus and scheme of work

For the much I know, there are two major causes of the confusion of the meaning pf curriculum, syllabus and scheme of work.

1.      Dictionary Definitions

The first, especially between curriculum and syllabus, is dictionaries. Looking up, the meaning of both curriculum and syllabus in the dictionary are somehow similar.

Nonetheless, it is a well-known fact that dictionaries only give general and contemporary meanings of terms. And in most professional studies, dictionary definitions are too narrow to be accepted.

Hence we can infer that those that tends to confuse the meaning of curriculum and syllabus may have overly relied on the dictionary definitions.

2.      Regional Relativeness of the meanings of the terms

Another major reason for the confusion of the meaning of the curriculum and syllabus is because the meanings of the terms are relative to the region of the world – with marked difference between American and British. (Musingafi, Mhute, & Kaseke, 2015) proved that classical American understanding of curriculum makes no clear distinction between curriculum and syllabus. Whereas, there is a clear difference between curriculum and syllabus in British system.

Hence, we can deduce that, just like in other terms, this disparity between American and British system is the cause of the confusion in Nigeria.

But which is applicable in Nigeria? Does adopting one and not another equates to wrong?

Well, unlike the English Language itself; which permits a Nigerian to choose and stick to whichever – of American and British – that suites him or her; the question of the meaning of curriculum, syllabus and scheme of work is different. So, adopting any, other than that which is accepted constitute a major wrong.

Meaning of Curriculum in Nigeria

As I stated earlier, dictionaries have not helped in clarifying the differences between curriculum and syllabus. And to make the matter worse, some even confuse both with scheme of work.

Dictionaries only give the meanings of words as people imply at the current time. This is one of the reasons we have different versions of a dictionary. More so, it accounts for why a word may have more than one meanings.

(Musingafi, Mhute, & Kaseke, 2015) proved that Americans may use curriculum and syllabus interchangeably. Perhaps, it is because American English is more or less loose than British English. For, as the same writers proved, the Brits use both words strictly – hence, if they say curriculum; they do not mean syllabus and vice versa.

Nigeria’s Lingua Franca

Although the spoken English is relatively diverse; when it comes to choosing between American and British English on official matters; (Stephens, 2019) noted that  the officially allowed language in Nigeria is the British English.

Consequently, the British meaning of curriculum and syllabus supersedes the American meaning. Be that as it may, one cannot but assume that even if American educationists want to discuss both terms at professional level; A chance is that they use British definitions to differentiate between curriculum and syllabus.

Definition of Curriculum

Although most teachers see curriculum narrowly as simply yet another book that schools need to use; professionally curriculum is broader than that. And in fact, to fully grasp the meaning of curriculum, one need to understand the educational objectives of the country. This is because curriculum, in the broadest sense, is the official documentation and the means – roadmap – to attaining such ends – objectives of education in a country

Hence, we can define curriculum as follows:

Curriculum is a plan, a statement of purpose with a specification of content and methods; of a structured series of learning experience inbuilt with the capacity for evaluation drawn based on certain rules by members of a society through which schools make the learners in the society become what society expects them to become.

Curriculum as a plan or statement of purpose

A plan means premeditated course of future action to attain a set goal. This means curriculum is not accidental. Instead, curriculum is a deliberately well-arranged piece (s) of work which need to be done to attain certain purpose – statement of purpose.

I stated earlier that to fully understand what a curriculum means, one need to understand the purpose of education – or at least, school which uses it. I will discuss this briefly from the Nigerian perspectives.

Nigeria as a country see education not only as a key component of its economy but also as the very foundation. Nigeria’s founding fathers did not only fight for the independence of the nation; but also visualize the kind of country Nigeria will be. Consequently, shortly after independence in 1962; the Nigerian government launched the first National Development Plan.

What is a National Development Plan?

A National Development Plan (NDP) is an arrangement of actions, projects or strategies to be implemented on a long-term basis by the government of a country (and its various sectors/ministries) emanating from the identification of the current and foreseeable need of the country and a congruent definition of a desired destiny.

The First National Development Plan

The first National Development Plan was largely influenced by the British. This is so even though a Nigerian nationalist, Alhaji Shehu Shagari – the then Minister of Economic Development – prepared it. Shagari prepared it in collaboration with experts from the United Nations and the Ford Foundation. In addition to this, the preamble for the first development plan in Nigeria was formulated in 1945 – in accordance with Britain’s 1940 Colonial Development and Welfare Act.

Consequently, it is safe to say that the first National Development Plan was not totally a Nigerian initiative. In fact, some Unfortunately, the Nigerian civil war truncated the first National Development Plan.

The Truly Nigerian National Development Plan

After the Nigerian Civil war ended in 1970, the federal government of Nigeria embarked – or targeted – on serious national reconstruction and rehabilitation exercises. In addition to this, the country desired total emancipation from colonialism – especially in the education sector. Two remarkable events that initialized the reconstruction, rehabilitation and emancipation process were the national conference on economic development and reconstruction and the national curriculum conference.

The National Conference on Economic Development and Reconstruction (NCEDR) and the National Curriculum Conference (NCC)

While the National Conference on Economic Development and Reconstruction focused on the national reconstruction and rehabilitation exercises; the national curriculum conference focused on the national educational emancipation from colonialism – decolonization by identifying the educational needs of the country and the role of education in attaining the national objectives.

Consequently, while the National Conference on Economic Development and Reconstruction (NCEDR) with the subsequent Second National Development Plan laid the foundation for the kind of country we desire – by setting the national objectives; the national curriculum conference (NCC) also with the subsequent national Policy on Education laid foundation for the kind of education that the nation needs – by defining the structure/system of education, setting national educational aims and objectives and specifying the content and methods of a structured series of learning experience for attaining the aims and objectives.

These two major conferences – NCEDR and NCC – with their correspondingly resulting documents (so to say) – SNDP and NPE respectively – did not only become and still remains the nation’s reference point but also the standard by which improvements are made and evaluated. For example, all activities in the nation’s education sector is referenced and evaluated with respect to the National Policy on Education (NPE). Similarly, all government’s economic and development policies is made towards attaining the five objectives of the country as stated in the Second Development Plan (SDP).

Reason for Acceptance the NCEDR/SNDP and NCC/NPE

Perhaps, this is so because both conferences were born of the Nigerian dream – devoid (to a great extent) of imperialist’s ideologies. Many Nigerians from all walks of life attended the conferences. The SND and the NPE are more or less a documentation of Nigerians saying “This is what we want, this is what will be good for us, and this is what we are going to do”.

The National Objectives of Nigeria

The Second National Development Plan stated that the five national objectives of Nigeria as a nation are:

  • a free and democratic society;
  • a just and egalitarian society;
  • a united, strong and self-reliant nation;
  • a great and dynamic economy;
  • a land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens.

The National Educational Objectives of Nigeria

Similarly, the National Policy on Education more or less stated that the role education has to play in attaining the national objectives above are:

  • the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity;
  • the inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society;
  • the training of the mind in the understanding of the world around;
  • the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competences both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in and contributed to its society.

These four national educational objectives complimented the nine key areas of nation’s education earlier stated by the national curriculum conference – including the national philosophy of education and the objectives of the then three levels of education among others.

The Link Between Curriculum and the National (Educational) Objectives

From my explanations above, you can now understand better when I defined curriculum as a statement of purpose – or a roadmap to an end.

In European countries such as the UK and Australia, it is called the national curriculum framework. A major definition of national curriculum framework is that it states what is expected to be achieved at the end of a given period of implementation. This is what I refer to as statement of purpose – what the society wants or needs.

In the next section, I will discuss curriculum as a specification of content, method and learning experience.

Curriculum as specification of Content, Method and Learning Experience

The second part of the definition I gave is that curriculum is a specification of content and method of structured learning experience inbuilt with the capacity for evaluation.

What I meant by this is that curriculum is not only a statement of purpose or expectation. It does not only say “what we want to achieve”. It also covers “what do we teach” to enable us get “what we want to achieve” – that is the content.

Educationists mostly and preferably refer to curriculum content as learning experience. This is because learning experience is a more encompassing term.

Learning Experience

Learning Experience means all the things that learners learn whether at school, home or anywhere together with all the activities they engage from which they learn during a particular period/level of education. This by general implication means all that one does as a learner.  In essence, curriculum is a specification of what a learner has to (be taught) learn and recommended activities that will help the him/her learn.

But as I stated in the definition, curriculum does not contain random list of content and activities; but structured learning activities. Structured means the learning experience has been arranged in a particular order and according to certain rules – curriculum development theories.

Specification of Methods

In addition to specifying the learning experience, curriculum also contain recommended method of delivering the structured learning experience in ways as will lead to the attainment of the objectives it targets. Educationists call this teaching method or method of teaching. Very commonly too, curriculum does not just state the method of teaching but also the teachers’ activities.

Capacity for Evaluation

The last aspect of the definition of curriculum is that the statement of purpose, learning experience and method of teaching is inbuilt with capacity for evaluation. This means curriculum also specifies how to measure whether the objectives of the learning experience has been met.

With this forgoing explanations, I am convinced you now understand vividly the meaning of curriculum.

Components of Curriculum

Let me now end with the components of curriculum – a more or less summary of the definition of curriculum.

From the discussions above, we can deduce that there are five major components of any curriculum. These include:

  1. Learning objectives (Statement of purpose)
  2. Learning Experience – what to teach, learners’ & teachers’ activities
  3. Method of teaching
  4. Evaluation Guide

Types of Curriculum

Although, educationists in the field of curriculum development classify curriculum in the broadest sense into formal and informal; curriculum in a regular school setting is divided based on source and based on level.

Types of curriculum based on Levels

If one uses the term curriculum to mean national curriculum framework, then there is only one level of curriculum in Nigeria – the federal level. This curriculum is the national curriculum.

Nonetheless, the national curriculum is split into simpler units. These units are the kinds of curriculum based on levels.

The curricular based on levels of education are:
  1. The Early Childhood Care Education (ECCE) Curriculum
  2. The primary school curriculum
  3. The Secondary School Curriculum
  4. The NBTE curriculum (for Monotechnics and Polytechnics offering National and Higher National Diplomas)
  5. The NUC curriculum – for degree awarding tertiary institutions
  6. NCE curriculum
Subject-based National Curricular

Apart from these curricular for the different levels of education, the national curricular may also be broken down into subject-based. This is the publication standard of the NERDC 9-Years BEC curriculum for secondary schools. Examples of curricular in this category include:

  1. 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Basic Technology for JSS 1 – 3)
  2. 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Mathematics for JSS 1 – 3)
  3. 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Mathematics for SSS 1 – SSS 3)
  4. Phonics curriculum
  5. Diction curriculum

Types of curriculum based on Source

Nigeria has dedicated agencies for development curriculum for the different levels of education in the country. Since 1988, the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) develops the national curriculum for Nigerian schools.

Apart from the division of the national curriculum into levels as I have just discussed above, educators sometimes name curriculum that are available in schools based on sources – that is the developers of the curriculum.

In this regard, you should first understand, a curriculum is not necessarily national in nature. For example, drawing from the national curriculum; schools may create their own curriculum. For example, although there is the unified curriculum for Nigerian universities; most universities customize the curriculum to their needs. Hence, it is possible to see one or two discrepancies between BSc Computer Science curriculum at ABU and the same BSc Computer Science curriculum at DELSU. Nonetheless, the underlying national goal for the programme is preserved in both and core courses remain the same. In this case, one may refer to both curriculum as ABU BSc Computer Science curriculum and DELSU BSc Computer Science curriculum to show the disparity and origin.

Similarly, at the Pre-primary, Primary and Secondary level; schools which have the capacity can create their custom curriculum. In that sense, we may see Queen Science curriculum, Kings College Curriculum, etc. This is however, common among few “top-class” schools.

A more common and prevailing experience in Nigerian schools nowadays to acquiring international curricular. Hence, it is common to hear and see British curriculum, American curriculum, Australian curriculum well as any other countries curriculum in Nigerian schools. These type of curricular are named with respect to their origin. Hence, British curriculum means curriculum of the UK origin; American curriculum is the curriculum that comes from the US and so on.

Type of educational philosophy curriculum

The last kind of curriculum that is common among Nigerian schools is curriculum based on particular educational philosophy. The most common of this class is the Montessori curriculum that is has been making waves in the industry.

Which curriculum should you use?

If you have read this article from the beginning up to this point, then the answer to this question should not be farfetched to you. Curriculum is not a textbook that we can buy whichever one appeals to us.

More so, if you are familiar with curriculum development processes with its guiding principles and theories; you will also understand that it should not be globalized either – although we could and do have global educational standards and objectives/aspirations. This is for one because it is a document that uniquely identifies the educational needs of a locality and tries to proffer solution to it.

How to choose the right curriculum?

In essence, before choosing a curriculum, what and whose educational needs does the curriculum address? In answering this question, you should not that a good curriculum is seldom the product of one man or some unrecognized groups. The process of developing a wholesome curriculum involves the service experts cutting across fields. Hence, that it is written in the curriculum that it addresses a particular educational need for a particular set of people does not automatically make it really so.

Another important question to ask in choosing a curriculum for you school is whether you are within the brackets of the curriculum. After sincerely answering the first question above, are you among those whom the curriculum targets? Does the curriculum meet your educational needs?

The last factor to consider in choosing the right curriculum for you school is the question of implementation. I noted earlier that some key components of curriculum are method of teaching, learners’ activities and teachers’ activities. Do you have what it takes to implement the curriculum? Are the teaching methods accessible to your teachers? How about the teachers’ and learners’ activities, can you afford the instructional materials for the activities?

Common Misunderstanding

It became necessary for me to include the section above because of the increasing of number of British, Montessori and American curriculum-based schools in Nigeria. This trend was initiated by school owners who formally taught in international schools. They probably loved the way the international schools were structured. Therefore, they think they should implement the same in their schools even though they aren’t yet an international school.

Unfortunately, many ‘not too informed’ Nigerian parents believe the practise is a sign of higher standard; and thus patronize the British and American curriculum-based Nigerian schools.

This is wrong. And it is high time we educated ourselves. Foreign curriculum addresses foreign educational needs. Majority of the learners in international primary and secondary schools graduates to continue their next level of education abroad. They take international entry level examinations. And they have reasonable of international students. Hence, it is only right that this kind of school uses the foreign curriculum to build the necessary foundation for the learners.

However, if yours is not yet and international school – I do not mean schools that have international in their names – if you do not serve majority international audience, majority of the graduates of your school will go ahead to study in Nigerian schools in their next level of education, if your school participates in NECO and WAEC – then you are training for Nigeria, use Nigerian national curriculum. You should understand education is a cultural activity of the people that every cultural system has its own education process. The yardstick for measuring quality and standard varies from culture to culture (Amaele, 2017).

How Many Edition has the Nigerian National Curriculum and Which is the latest?

The online community of the Nigerian education sector is currently inundated with a lot of information and resources. Far too many people claim to have and sell different educational materials – from curriculum to syllabus, scheme of works to lesson notes and so on.

To convolute things further, since everyone wants to sell; all claim to possess official materials – materials in-line with the NERDC curriculum. A school owner called me to request for lesson notes that are in line with the new 2020 NERDC curriculum that someone sold to her.

In the following sections, I list all past editions of the Nigerian National curriculum and discuss the edition currently in use. Check back in a few minutes.

Meanwhile, check out some of our third term lesson notes that are based on the national curriculum here.


[qsm quiz=3]x

Bibliography

Below are the works I consulted in preparing the entire article:

Project Writers Ng. (2016, January 14). NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AND PLANNING FROM 1968 TILL DATE; THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Project Writers Ng: https://www.projectwriters.ng/national-development-plan-and-planning-from-1968-till-date-the-nigerian-experience/

Adeoye, E. A. (2017). CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT: THEORY & PRACTICE (A study Guide for PGD Ed) Students.

Ajayi, I. A. (n.d.). TOPICAL ISSUES IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION (A Study Guide for PhD in Educational Administration). University of Ado-Ekiti.

AKANBI, G. O., & ABIOLU, O. A. (2018). Nigeria’s 1969 Curriculum Conference: a practical approach to educational emancipation. Cadernos de História da Educação. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326884292_Nigeria’s_1969_Curriculum_Conference_a_practical_approach_to_educational_emancipation

Amaele, S. (2017). HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA. University of Ilorin.

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (3rd Edition). (2008). Cambridge University Press (Armada).

Danielson, C. (2002). Enhancing Student Achievement. Retrieved from Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/102109/chapters/School-Organization.aspx

Fafunwa, A. B. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria. London: George Allen & Uniwin.

Iheanacho, E. N. (2014). National Development Planning in Nigeria: An Endless. International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment Search for Appropriate Development Strategy.

Imam, H. (2012). Educational Policy in Nigeria from the Colonial Era to the Post-Independence Period. ITALIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION.

Musingafi, M. C., Mhute, I., & Kaseke, K. E. (2015). Planning to Teach: Interrogating the Link among the Curricula, the Syllabi, Schemes and Lesson Plans in the Teaching Process. Journal of Education and Practice.

NERDC. (2004). The National Policy on Education. Yaba, Lagos: NERDC. Retrieved from http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/AFR/Nigeria/TCH/National%20Policy%20on%20Education.pdf

Nwangu, D. I. (2009). ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION. Enugu State University of Science & Technology.

Omoifo, C. N. (2012). ADVANCED CURRICULUM THEORY (A Study Guide for . University of Benin.

Stephens, M. (2019, April 23). Does Nigeria Use British or American English? Retrieved from Naija Home Based: https://www.naijahomebased.com/does-nigeria-use-british-or-american-english/

Teniola, E. (2018, March 20). Our new national development plan. Retrieved from Vanguard: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/03/our-new-national-development-plan/

The Glossary of Education Reform. (2013, August 29). LEARNING EXPERIENCE. Retrieved from Glossary of Education Reform: https://www.edglossary.org/learning-experience/

Sustainable-School-Growth-Step-1: School-Re-Organization

Sustainable-School-Growth-step-1: in one sentence

This post with keywords: Sustainable-School-Growth-step-1-school-re-organization outlines the steps that school administrators and school owners may adopt to reorganize their school for sustainable growth. You will learn the meaning of school organization, the components of an organized school system as well as how to build a bulletproof system that protect the business while bringing about sustainable growth.

Introduction to Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1

This post, Sustainable-School-Growth-step-1-school-re-organization, is the first of a 8-step post. The complete series will help school administrators and school owners to build a formidable school that will expand exponentially.  Following our independent education seminar which was held at FCAPT, Kano on October 1, 2019; many teachers, school administrators and school owners have requested for the manuals.

This particular 8-step post is an adaption of the manual on the topic ‘Sustainable School Growth and Multiple Streams of Income for Teachers in the 21st Century Environment’.

Preamble to Sustainable-School-Growth-step-1-school-re-organization

That there is and will always be prospects in the education industry is a fact that needs no argument. There are prospects both for school owners and teachers. However, and just like any other industry, business in education is dynamic and follows certain principles. There are strategies to successful ends in education business. Unfortunately, not many school owners, administrators and teachers understand this dynamism and strategies for succeeding in education business. Hence, majority of education business stakeholders, especially upcoming ones, leave their success in the hands of uncertainty. Many have lost hope and quite a number would only say “I will do my best and leave the rest for God”.

Faith is good and I believe it is necessary for success. But I do not think there need be hopelessness and uncertainty in running education business. This is because there are empirical approaches to success in education businesses as in all else. In this post – Sustainable-School-Growth-step-1-school-re-organization – I hope to discuss how school owners and administrators can position school their schools for sustainable growth.

Pre-requisite Knowledge for Sustainable-School-Growth-step-1-school-re-organization

In this post, Sustainable-School-Growth-step-1-school-re-organization, I use keywords like school growth and sustainable school growth many times. I assume that you already know exactly what I imply by these terms. In an earlier post, I clearly defined school growth and sustainable school growth. In the post, I also explained why school administrators should pursue not just school growth but a sustainable school growth. If you have not read this already, click here and have a quick read.

What is School Reorganization?

In other that I may create a solid foundation for you to understand as much of this content as possible and for it to attain its objective – of helping you to make informed organizational decision that will lead to eventual growth – I will adopt the common classroom approach. I do this by breaking the term School Re-organization into three component units: School, Re and Organization. We shall first of all revise the elementary meaning of each as a reminder. You probably already know these elementary meanings. Hence, I state them here only as a reminder. You are perhaps well aware of the fact that your concept of a word or a thing determines your disposition towards it. And this in turn determines your effectiveness – using it to achieve the goal it is intended to achieve –  and efficiency – achieving the goal with less cost – with it.

Meaning Determines Effectiveness and Efficiency

Watch the clip below for instance. Mr. Bones, who assumes to be seeing bra for the first time initially asked “what is this?”. Thereafter, he answered himself by associating it with a previous meaning he knew of catapult. This made him to use the bra like a catapult!!

Evident from this analogy is the probability that the growth of a school may be stunted by the meanings which the school owner or administrator attaches to school and school organization.

We now come to the part where we discuss from the elementary meaning to the meaning of the words which is capable of inspiring growth. Before we proceed however, bear in mind that you have a role to play. The role of unlearning the previous meanings, if need be; and relearning the growth-imbued meaning. Note too that I am altering the dictionaries here. When I say growth-imbued meaning, I imply the meaning as in the context of the subject matter. So, the basic meaning of the terms that you learn from the dictionaries remains. You only have to remember that when you are talking from the context of school growth, you have to assume the growth-imbued meaning.

“Re”

The simplest of the three terms is “Re”. As I use it here, “Re” is a prefix – a letter or group of letters that we add to the beginning of a word to make a new word. The prefix “Re” means to “do again”. Hence, the word Re-organization means to organize again. This is basically the same as the meaning of the prefix “Re” in the dictionaries. Hence, there is no need to unlearn anything here.

School

Elementary Meaning and the problem

(Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (3rd Edition), 2008) defines school as a place where children go to be educated. This is not different from the meaning of school we know. But educationists and educators traditionally have additions to this meaning of school. While defining school in the official PED 412 course guide for level 4 education students of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), Dr Nwangu stated that “… [schools] are not profit oriented but service goal oriented as they work for the realization of common goals of society”. Similarly, Dr Ajayi of the Faculty of Education, University of Ado-Ekiti writing on Topical Issues in Educational Administration for students of Ph.D degree programme in Educational Administration noted the existence of similar mindset among the teaching profession – where teachers were poorly paid because the belief was that they rendered services to God and they had to make sacrifice and looked for the rewards in heaven. This same mindset in unconsciously hides in the mind and heart of every Nigerian educationist and educator who is yet to unlearn this traditional meaning.

The growth-imbued meaning

No! I do not mean to say that such sacrificial mindset is wrong, not at all!! In fact, I totally believe that we (educationist and educators) cannot be payed enough – to commensurate with the good we render. So, I basically still believe that there is a special portion of reward for those that will make heaven – if you believe in it. But let me state clearly that the relegating meaning of school does not support growth.  And if you must attain growth, you will have to unlearn and relearn the meaning of school.

Difference between Sacrificial and Relegating Mindset about/Meaning of school

Now you may be wondering whether there is a difference between sacrificial and relegating mindset about or meaning of school. Well, let me point this out: sacrificial mindset is that in which when you have; you give up what you are supposed to enjoy or what is valuable to you SO AS TO HELP OTHERS. On the contrary, relegating mindset is that in which when you have; you refuse or reject growth thereby cutting off what you and others are supposed to enjoy.

What is the growth-imbued meaning of school?

To prepare your mindset for the school reorganization tips, you should understand that a school is much a business as any other business outfit – such as the banking, transport and communication industries. This means the same growth strategies and principles that make businesses in these industries to grow will also make businesses in education industry to grow – if properly localized to the industry. By being properly localized, I mean that although growth principles are universal, the business environments are different. Hence, the application of such principles must be from the context of the current business environment. The how of the latest is what I discuss in the remaining part of this post.

For now, let it suffice that you understand that a school is a business venture comprising of a group of people working together to render professional services (involved in educating learners) that satisfy given societal needs so as to make profit.

School as a Business Venture

As a business venture, every school is born out of a new (business) idea. And bringing the idea to fruition involves some level of risk and uncertainties. The idea from which a school is birthed is sometimes the vision/mission of the school. Are you a school owner? Think of when you wanted to start your school, what were your dreams? The principal thing that made you to start the school, what problems did the school set out to solve?

Take Home Point

Note that your growth or the growth of your school, and by extension its profit; is directly proportional to the efficiency with which you are (or the school is) able to solve the problem for which you (it) are (is)the solution. You should also know that efficient solution does not just happen. No! Efficient solution originates from the subconscious to the conscious and then implemented. By implication, this means for you to efficiently solve the problem for which the school is a solution; you and the team must internalize the problem into your sub-consciousness. Napoleon Hill in the Law of Success religiously taught that the best way of internalizing a thought into the sub-consciousness is by affirmation or repeated instructions. Hill suggested three simple actions to this end: Writing, Memorizing and Repeating (WMR).

The above injunction is not only for school owners. As a school administrator, your first responsibility is to acquaint yourself with the vision and mission of the school – If the school you now run already has one. On the other hand, it your current school hasn’t any; your first job should be to give direction to the school by drafting the vision and mission of the school.

One popular notion is that a school must be “big” before it has vision and mission statements. Say that to the Nigerian Microfinance Bank that has its vision and mission stated before the bank began operation. Or all well-doing multi-level marketing companies where you have to be inducted into believing their vision and mission before your first assignment as a staff.

In a nutshell, any business outfit that heads for growth always has a vision and mission for a direction – be it a big business or a small one.

Meaning of Organization: School as an organization or an enterprise

The other key words in the growth-imbued meaning of school is that is a group of people working together. This is in other words to say that every school is an organization. School being an organization stretches the definition to mean that the group of people in a school work together in a structured way for a shared purpose. This means the same thing as being an enterprise. However, as an enterprise; a school is not only an assemblage of people but of other economic resources which it requires to effectively function. This basically include time, space and infrastructures.

Consequently, in your growth-imbued meaning of school, you should remember that you cannot achieve sustainable school growth alone. You need a team. Not just a group of people but a group in which each person, though playing from his/her wing of expertise, contributes to a well-arranged whole. What will make your growth sustainable is that it involves people. Not only people to work as a team, but people to consider themselves a part of the team. Individuals that will be proud to call the school their place of work. In this wise, you should also remember that the growth is for all. You are simply the leader.

Definition of School Organization

Now that we have adequately discussed each of the key components of school re-organization, let us now define school organization. Just as school, we may define school organization in many contexts. For instance, Charlotte Danielson of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) defined school organization in context of enhancing student achievements as how schools arrange the resources of time, space, and personnel for maximum effect on student learning.

Consequently, since we are discussing school growth, let us define school organization within the context of school growth as below.

This article will be updated shortly check out other articles and return after a while.

Nigerian Education Reformation: An Introduction

This post with keywords, Nigerian-education-reformation-introduction in brief

This post with keywords: Nigerian-education-reformation-introduction gives a general introduction to the trending reforms campaign going on in the Nigerian education sector. The post also lists and describes the reforms that education stakeholders are agitating for. You will also learn the why and how you can participate in the reform whether you are a student, teacher, school owner, government agent or a parent.

Introduction to this post with keywords: Nigerian-education-reformation-introduction

The CPE Advocacy

In December 2019, a Nigerian online group of teachers and parents under the name, Concerned Parents & Educators Network ( CPE), announced that the month of February, 2020 is Education Transformation Advocacy month for all her facebook group members.

The group, through the convener, Yinka Ogunde listed seven major items for which they are advocating:

  • Quality of Teachers
  • Dilapidated and totally out-dated school structures
  • Low budgetary allocation for Education
  • Drug Abuse, Examination Malpractice, Sexual Abuse in our school
  • Working curriculum
  • High number of out-of-school children
  • Standards and policies for effective education system

Questions

Are these the only problems in the Nigerian education system? No! The CPE group did not at any point limit the problems of the Nigerian education to the several areas for which it is agitating change. No one did. In fact, anybody with reasonable knowledge of the system will admit that the problems of the industry stretch far beyond the seven points of the agitation. Is there any exhaustive list? Can we further classify the myriad of problems to categories that is capable of being wholesomely tackled for a total overhaul of the system?

I bet to say YES! We can draft a comprehensive list of the problems in Nigerian education sector into categories that is capable of being wholesomely tackled for a total overhaul of the system. But such draft cannot be a brainstorming product of a single group of a generic nature. Facts and figures cannot be established through suggestions but by employing suitable and available mathematical and scientific research tools as well as those of the social sciences and humanities.

The Nigerian-Education-Reformation-introduction

In the regard of the forgoing, the LeadinGuides team have laid a good foundation for the course. Between 2014 and 2016, drawing upon suitable research tools that are available to typical Nigerian researchers with multiple limitations; the team put up a comprehensive list of the problems of the Nigerian education sector. They also made up the list into categories corresponding to each member of the education community as it pertains them. This is so that each category can take up their agitations independently even though simultaneous.

For such advocacy as will lead to an overhaul of the Nigerian education system cannot be done by any one group. Each group has its problems. And the problems of one group may be the solutions of another. This is what happens in any unbalanced set up. But that which we (concerned members of the Nigerian education sector) clamour for, is a balanced system – that in which everything is balanced; a system in which an injury to one is an injury to all. Not until this is achieved, the change we desire cannot be accomplished.

The Call

We must chant our songs with one voice. A voice pitched at equal note to create change rhymes and rhythms. As the indistinct voices of educators which have been calling for change in recent years coagulates into an efficacious echo; the other members must also swing to action. All sects must be proactive and rather aggressive in their campaigns just as the CPE group. If this is not done, even the achievements which the group shall attain in their campaigns shall not tarry long.

The culmination of the agitations and actions of all the sects is what members of the community termed the Nigerian Education Reformation. The reformation qualifies to be called revolution if not for the sense of violence the later tends to communicate at first impression.

Hence, the Definition of the Nigerian Education Reformation

In summary, we may define the Nigerian Education Reformation as the combination of the on-going aggressive individual agitations and campaigns of members of the Nigerian education sector against all educational malpractices and for a total overhaul of the Nigerian education system.

Let us now discuss the key phrases (underlined in the definition) in the definition

Who are the members of the Nigerian Education Sector?

Members of the education sector may be in other words known as stakeholders in education or simply education stakeholders.

An education stakeholder or a stakeholder in education is an individual or group who has a share (i.e. a role or roles) in the development and delivery of quality education and who also are affected by the result thereof.

This means anybody or group that can influence or is influenced by education is a stakeholder in education. And who can say that s/he neither influences nor is influenced by education? Hence, we are all stakeholders in education – typically starting from the government (its agencies, officials and staff), the schools (school owners, administrators and teachers), the home (parents and elder ones who play one or two roles in educating the younger ones) and the learners (at all levels).

What is an educational malpractice?

With regards to the Nigerian Educational Reformation, we define an educational malpractice is the sum total of all the wrong actions and inactions of education stakeholders which lead to reduction in the quality of education.

What does total overhaul of the Nigerian education system means?

Every and all agitations and advocacy of the Nigerian education reformation is to this end – to bring about a total overhaul of the Nigerian education system. This means to repair or improve the Nigerian education system so that every part of it works as it should.

It is undeniable that the Nigerian education system is sick and on the verge of breakdown. And the reformation is a natural way of rectification.

Now you may want to ask the following questions:

  1. What are the list of educational malpractices by the government, the school, the home and the learner?
  2. Which malpractices does the Nigerian Education Reformation addresses?
  3. Are you part of the reformers? What are your roles? How can you help?
  4. Is a total overhaul of the Nigerian Education System feasible? What proofs do we have?

The foregoing questions shall be address in subsequent articles. Nonetheless, a key question that many people ask before joining in the campaign is

Who is the initiator of the Nigerian education reformation?

To answer this question, one must first know origin or source of the idea of Nigerian Education Reformation campaign.

As to whence comes the idea or thoughts to act, Thomas Paine – who has been described as one of the great minds of the American Revolution Period – has the following to say:

“Any person, who has made observations on the state of progress of the human mind, by observing his own, cannot but have observed that there are two distinct classes of what are called Thoughts: those that we produce in ourselves by reflection and the act of thinking, and those that bolt into the mind of their own accord.” In correlation to this, Napoleon Hill opined that the later source of thoughts is a collection of all thinking ever thought by men. According to him, Nature keeps this collection invincibly in constant motion within a medium similar to ether – airwave. Napoleon called this collection the Nature’s Bible.

Source of the Nigerian Education Reformation Ideology

Let us give this theory some level of probability. Then any keen follower of the Nigerian Education Reformation will agree that the origin of the idea is none other than the Nature’s Bible – the coming together of all the change thoughts by individuals in the education industry over the years.

All concerned Nigerians have on several occasions thought about change in the education industry, and often too! When these thoughts come together, it forms the reformation mind-set. This has been picked up and implemented by several governments and individuals and groups in the past. But these did not avail much for the reason I have already stated – being more or less one-sided.

Now that we know or have theorized the source of the reformation idea, let us answer the main question

Who Initiated the Current Wave of Reformation?

Due to its multiple origin, none can claim to be the sole initiator of the ongoing reformation. It is happening spontaneously. The reformers in the south were initially unaware that some individuals are also replicating their actions in the east. The east reformers were initially unaware of the reformers in the north. They were connected only by the common origin of their ideologies – Mother Nature. Many authors, thinkers and philosophers have borne witness to human’s identity to nature. In one instance, Charles Cook observed that “[our] deepest roots are in nature.  No matter who [we] are, where [we] live, or what kind of life [we] lead, [we] remain irrevocably linked with the rest of creation.

Hope for the Nigerian Education Reformation

It is my opinion that this is the litmus test of the possible success of the reformation if all will work as they should. For it was Mother Nature who simultaneously and spontaneously placed the ideas and plans of reformation in minds of the individuals – championing and participating in it.

Ongoing Nigerian Education Reformation Campaigns

There are already many people on this train. And many more are joining. People who believe that change is possible. Different sets and individuals are reforming different aspects of the system. They are utilizing the social media to converge and form a formidable team.

Governments such as that of Lagos are drafting and implementing revolutionary educational policies and structures; we have school owners and administrators such as the CSNI reforming educational administration in Nigeria; there are veteran educationists and concerned parents such as the CPE who are fighting for the interests of teachers; and students are not left out.

The Education Sector is one that affects us all, first as an individual then as a nation. If it works, all other sectors work. You and I and everybody has a role to play in these agitations. So once again:

  1. What are the complete lists of educational malpractices by the government, the school, the home and the learner?
  2. Which malpractices does the Nigerian Education Reformation addresses?
  3. Are you part of the reformers? What are your roles? How can you help?

Check back later for the posts answering these questions. Meanwhile click here to check out our past Nigerian Education Reformation campaigns.

School Staff Job Description – General Duties of Teachers

This post with keywords – School-Staff-Job-Description-General-Duties-Teachers in one sentence

This post with keywords, School-Staff-Job-Description-General-Duties-Teachers, outlines the general responsibilities of school teachers.

Introduction to this post with keywords, School-Staff-Job-Description-General-Duties-Teachers

Today, the education industry is one of the most dynamic. Times are changing and things are changing along. The dynamism in the industry gives rise to the categorization of teachers. As a result, there are different kinds of teachers in the schools of today. This categorization is based on different factors. The most common factors that I use to classify teachers are by entry, financial status (how much money they make) and approach to work (or levels at work). Since this post is concerned basically with the categories of teachers by entry, I shall only identify the types of teachers based on entry.

Types of Teachers by Entry

The “types of teachers by entry” means the grouping of teachers based on how they became teachers – i.e. how they entered into the teaching profession. Based on this, I categorise teachers into three groups:

·         Professional Teachers

This refers to the teachers that received specialized or professional training in education with one or more teaching certifications. Hence, this category became teachers because it is their profession.

·         Natural Teachers

This refers to individuals that have a flair and most times passion for teaching, whether or not they are professionally trained. Some natural teachers may love teaching so much so that they wouldn’t trade the profession with other. They may also either be educationist or professionals in other fields but they prefer teaching to the profession of their training. Natural teachers may also be called born teachers. Under this category we also have legacy teachers – those that acquired teaching from their parents and guardians. Legacy teachers may not necessarily undergo any professional teachers training. However, by observing, engaging and involving in the teaching works of their parents/guardians, they naturally developed the teaching skills.

·         Circumstantial Teachers

This refers to individuals that become teachers as a result of certain circumstance (s). The most common reason people become circumstantial teacher is that they could not get their dream jobs (jobs in their profession) but they must survive. Another reason for circumstantial teachers is convenience – when teaching is a convenient job to support their other life engagements e.g. house wives.

Ideally, only professional teachers may teach. However, insufficient professional teachers are a historic problem in Nigerian education system. Hence, majority of the teachers in our schools even today are either circumstantial or natural teachers. Note though that circumstantial or natural teachers can become professional teachers. And we greatly encourage this.

Nonetheless, at the point of entry; most people believe their only responsibility as a teacher would be to teach – plan the lesson, go to class and deliver the lesson. Now that is not totally wrong because the word teacher comes from teach (LOL). However, there are some behind the scene tasks that a teacher must carry out to enable him/her to teach very well. Apart from this, majority of our schools nowadays are business outfits. As such, teachers as part and parcel of the business must perform some corporate duties to enable the school (business) make more profit and so that the teachers receive higher rewards.

Job Description/Duties of a Teacher

Consequently, the numerous responsibilities of a teacher are grouped into three:

  1. Academic duties
  2. Administrative duties
  3. Organizational/corporate duties

Unfortunately, many schools do not provide detailed description of each of these responsibilities in their offer/engagement letter nor in their handbook.

Effect of not providing detailed job description

John Maxwell noted that there are four basic reasons people do not perform the way they should. This include if they do not know:

  • what they are supposed to do;
  • how to do it;
  • why they should; and if
  • there are obstacles beyond their control

So when there is no proper job description, the employee will not know what to do in the first place say less of how and who s/he should do it. And the result of that is ineffectiveness and inefficiency.

So, who is this post for?

This post will be beneficial to school owners and administrators. They will be able to provide a more detailed job description for their newly engaged staff. They should note however that this is general job description. Roles and responsibilities are mostly relative. Such school owner and administrator that may use this should think of specific tasks that their staff ought to perform and include accordingly.

New Teachers will find this post of especial value. Mostly, new teachers assume that all there is to do as a teacher in school is teach. This will serve as direction to work. In schools that do not give comprehensive job description, doing as I have outlined here will set you well on the road to become an indispensable teacher.

This post shall be a great reminder to experienced teachers. And for those that have not desired without getting promotion/pay raise, this may serve as instrument of self-evaluation or guide to attaining it.


School-Staff-Job-Description-General-Duties-Teachers

Following are the general responsibilities of a teacher in   a school.

    1.     The Academic responsibilities of a school teacher are:

      1. Identifying the capabilities and needs of all learners in your class
      2. Preparing professional lesson plan and note – incorporating educational theories and industry-best practices
      3. Delivering well-planned lessons in a comprehensive way in such a way that every child is imparted and impacted
      4. Teaching according to the educational needs, abilities and achievement of the individual students and overall learners
      5. Assigning work, correcting and marking work carried out by his/her learners according to school’s homework and marking policies respectively
      6. Assessing, recording and reporting on the development, progress, attainment and behaviour of your students
      7. Communicating, consulting and co-operating with other members of the school staff, including those having posts of special responsibility and parents/guardians to ensure the best interest of students
      8. Ensuring high standards of professional practice and quality of teaching and learning of the subject/s
      9. Participating in In-Service education and training courses as well as in continuing professional development (CPD) opportunities, and taking part in action research exercises
      10. Maintaining good order and discipline (according to school disciplinary rules and procedures) amongst students under your care – in particular – and in the school – in general as well as safeguarding their health and safety at all times
      11. Maintaining tidy and orderly classroom
      12. Ensuring appropriate lesson timing – ensuring that teachers are on ground to start lessons on time and are terminated promptly
    2. The Administrative Responsibilities of a school teacher are:

      1. Keeping and maintaining important class-level statutory records viz. Lesson note, lesson plan, dairy, attendance register, scheme of work, e.t.c.
      2. Making entry and submitting records as required.
      3. Maintain confidentiality of all students/parents record and administrative issues
      4. Maintain and update all files record
      5. Organization and participating in extracurricular activities such as social activities, sporting activities, clubs and student organizations as directed
      6. Attending school meetings
      7. Reporting requested issues to the Head Teachers promptly either when requested or when necessary
    3. The organizational duties of a teacher are:

      1. Taking care of school properties
      2. Encourage parent and community involvement, obtain information for parents when requested, promptly return phone calls and answer emails
      3. Serving as a check and balance on all school policies and programmes to ensure it aligns to the school mission and vision.
      4. Suggesting to and advising school management, officer or boards on all matters of school growth, development and educational activities
      5. Participating in the planning (if required) and implementation of school marketing plans
    4. Any other responsibilities as may be decided by the school administrative team or representative from time to time.

    And there it is – the general duties of a school teacher. But don’t forget, any good employee is supposed to know the duties of both the next rank above him/her and all the duties of the ranks below him/her.


    This post with keywords – School-Staff-Job-Description-General-Duties-Teachers – provides detailed general responsibilities of a school teacher. The next post describes the duties of a head teacher.
    [qsm quiz=3]

The Effective-School-Staff-Meeting

in one sentence

This post, the effective-school-staff-meeting,  provides a comprehensive guide to school administrators, head teachers, principals, head of departments, committee chairs and school group leaders for convening and managing meaningful school staff meetings.

It will also be handy for the member of a school community, either students or teacher that may one day assume a leadership role in a school. The guide should provide observation or suggestion tips for such members of a school community in subsequent meetings. More so and even though the author uses words that may be peculiar to school environment, it is applicable to leaders of any organized group of people. Invariably it is for every one!

Introduction to the effective-school-staff-meeting

Good and important as school staff meeting could be, it is still one of the most frustrating moments for school staff or team members. It is not an uncommon experience for some staff or team members to wish not to attend a particular meeting neither is it rare to see absent-minded staff in meetings. Some of the staff just wishes the convener could just end the meeting few minutes after commencement. We’ve all been in such meetings at several times in the past.

This is probably so because many of the previously held meetings in the school are unproductive. In such unproductive meetings, there is too much waste of time. People just talk, talk and talk with little follow-up action. It features empty proposals and suggestions and towards the end, even if it is yet to reach the overstayed period, more than half the members may have become tired. Too often, members of staff are left with the question of whether the meeting is necessary at all.

Structure of the effective-school-staff-meeting

In order for this effective-school-staff-meeting guide to be most meaningful, we will start with the importance of school staff meeting, then some reasons school staff meeting is unproductive. Afterwards, we will look at the step by step guide a school staff meeting convener needs to adopt in organizing and managing more meaningful school staff meeting in future. If you are not a direct organizer of one, the information you get from here may either become your contribution in your next meeting or part of suggestion you could make to the meeting organizer in your school.

Reasons or Importance of School Staff Meeting

The importance of school staff meeting or meeting of team members cannot be overemphasized. Any school or organization that wants to grow must call for periodic meeting between her staff for the following reasons among others.

  • Giving out information in an efficient way – not office gossips
  • Making decisions pertaining to school policies, objectives of the school and the activities and programs as well as setting standards.
  • Brainstorming, sharing ideas and strategies, giving suggestions and presenting proposals on effective ways to implement plans, drawing and adopting action plans.
  • Solving problems that have a bearing on the growth of the school and her members
  • Motivating members or promoting team spirit in carrying out programs to realize the objectives of the school.

In a deliberate attempt to keep this post as short as possible, I choose not to elaborate on these points. Notwithstanding, you should go over the points once more and try to consider the scope of each. No doubt, you will agree that meeting is a key component of any progressive school or organization.

But why then is school staff meeting unproductive? What is/are the cause(s)? Let’s take a look at that.

Why most school staff meeting is unproductive

Ideally, it cannot be said that one reason is responsible for the failure of many school staff meetings. However, the multiple reasons school staff meeting fails is attributable to the inefficiency of two people – the organizers (i.e. school heads) and the participants (i.e. teachers).

How School Staff Meeting Conveners Make it Fail

In some schools, meeting conveners are the major cause of the failure of many meetings. They do this in two ways:

1.        Turning Meeting to Briefing

This is more common in big and average schools than in small schools. In fact, the higher up a school is in stratification, the higher is the level in which this happens.

By turning meeting to briefing I mean the act of not allowing EVERY participating member to make contribution freely. In such schools, the actual meeting is only held between the top officials – proprietor/proprietress, director, principals or head teachers, HODs etc.

These officials hold the meeting in two ways. They either meets before joining the rest of the teachers or they discuss while in the midst of the teachers i.e. in what is supposed to be a general meeting. Whatever, they (the officials) agree on, is then announced to the rest of the teachers (the teachers are briefed).

If the ‘executives meeting’ is held the former way, then they keep non-executive teachers waiting – I know of a very highly placed school where teachers wait for 2-3 hours before the arrival of the executives. If however, the later way of ‘executives meeting’ is adopted, then the rest of the teachers are not only made to feel stupid but also irrelevant.

Whichever way, the idea of holding a sub meeting of executives in general school staff meeting makes the general meeting un-meaningful, irrelevant and uninteresting. If everyone doesn’t have to be part of the discussion then everyone doesn’t have to be part of the meeting. I am sure they will be more grateful if you would just hold your executive meeting and then relate the executives’ resolution rater than keeping them waiting (looking stupid and irrelevant) while you meet.

2.        Not planning

This is the second way school staff meeting organizers makes meetings to fail. Even though some may have fixed meeting dates/days, many still fail to plan for the meeting and also to plan the meeting. Even if the essence of the meeting is to brief or announce executives’ resolution (s) to the teachers, there ought to be adequate planning. In the absence of planning, many things go wrong and participant loss interest in the meeting too soon for it to achieve anything worthwhile.

Later in this post, I will provide a step by step guide on how to plan for a meeting as well as the meeting itself. However, let’s first look at how participants makes school staff meetings fail.

How Meeting Participants Make School Staff Meeting Fail

As noted earlier, meeting is not one people’s affair. Instead, it is the business of two or more set of people. It is the dealing between the organizers and the attendees. As a result, the success and failure of such dealing depends on both parties. No matter how well the organizer (s) prepare(s) for meeting, it will still be a failure if the attendees fail to do their homework.

Summarily, there is only one way meeting attendees make meetings fail. This is by not planning for the meeting.

Not planning for the meeting

It is true that attendees usually do not plan a meeting. Also true is the fact that meeting organizers may be responsible for attendees’ act of not preparing for a meeting. Nonetheless, some attendees would just not prepare for a meeting – it is simply not their habit! Even if the organizers do all that is their role to do.

This singular act of not planning for school staff meeting by the attendees (teachers); leads to several odd behaviors that place the success of the meeting at stake. Some of these odd behaviors are:

1.        Arriving late at the meeting

How can they be punctual when they did not plan for the meeting? The kind of meeting attendee that would not prepare for a meeting usually rushes down when has commenced.

2.        Coming along with unfinished works

I have convened several school staff meetings in which some of my teachers come to the meeting with leftover of notes to mark. I bet they cannot effectively double themselves in this case.

3.        Being un-contributive

What meaningful thing can they contribute when they did not prepare for the meeting? Being unprepared also means they did not do underground work on the topic (s) of discussion (if at all they remember). It also implies that they did not read the minutes of the previous meeting or were they punctual enough to hear the secretary take it. All these compound into such an attendee being un-contributive at the meeting.

Similar to an attendee being un-contributive due to unpreparedness, is being unspoken due to timidity. I have also found out that some school staff meeting attendees is rather too timid for the status of a teacher. This timid set of attendees does not contribute to school staff meeting not because they lack what to say but because they are too apprehensive to say it. This form of being un-contributive too is no help to the success of school staff meetings.

4.        Initiating side talks

Yes, the unprepared attendees are often the ones to initiates side talks, gossips and murmurs. They may do this unintentionally – when they ask the punctual, attentive and active attendees to brief, remind or clarify a point. Also, if they are neither contributing nor following the discussion; then it will naturally turn out uninteresting to them. In response, they murmur. Finally, because they did not plan for the meeting, they are likely to fix another (external) appointment at a time too close to the meeting. Hence, they often obtain permission to leave before the close of the meeting – although some may be due to other official matters. If not permitted, they are first to complain of having other things to do or time.

And those are the reasons most school staff meeting as well as other meetings fail: when the organizers and attendees fail to do what they ought to do properly leading them to do what they ought not to do.

Now, how may one make effective-school-staff-meeting more meaningful?

The answer – one may make effective-school-staff-meeting more meaningful by planning both the meeting and for the meeting adequately.

Planning a meeting

Planning the meeting actually means planning the discussion. This implies what to discuss and the shape of the discussion. Consequently, the first three steps towards a successful school staff meeting are as given below.

1st Step:  List out the objectives of the meeting

Here, the organizer has to answer questions such as why do I have to call this meeting?

Is it for the attendants to deliberate on an issue or some issues? What are the issues? List them out.

Is it to give out information? Would this piece or pieces of information invoke participants’ reaction? Can the information be communicated by other means such as internal memo, text messages, emails etc. without harming its purpose? Write down the information. And if it does not require a meeting then you do not have to call a meeting.

Is the meeting to promote team spirit, motivate the staff or share new work strategies? Write this down also together with the topic as clear as possible.

Whatever the reason of the meeting is, it should be stated in such a way that participants will be able to know at a glance.

2nd Step: Prepare questions to pose on

For a discussion meeting, the organizers should draw up some open-ended questions based on each topic. These questions spur participation or contribution of participants. And at the meeting, a particular question may be directed at a particular member to ensure even ground of contribution. Issues upon which decisions have to be taken need to be thought of and written out earlier. This will help all participants understand the issues clearly and little time is wasted.

3rd Step: Set specific and clear agenda

The meeting agenda is the planned order of progression. What is the first thing to be done once all members are on seat and the next? The agenda should be clearly put out in a concise and numbered order. In drawing the agenda, one’s priority list is a key consideration. The most important items should be listed first with the least important at the end. It is also good to have the agenda clearly written on a board in the front part of the meeting hall or room.

Now that is it for planning a meeting. If you do all the things I mentioned in step 1through 3 accordingly, then you would have planned the meeting. However, all is not set for the meeting. You need to do a couple more things for the meeting to be hitch free. These things which are I discussed below should be done before the meeting commences.

Planning for the commencement of the meeting

4th Step:  Send meeting notification and distribute agenda

Participants have to be notified early about the meeting so that they can plan their schedules. Meeting notification should carry the objective (s) of the meeting and the agenda so that the participants come prepared. If there is anything that the participants have to read, attach it to the notification. Finally, the notification should remind participants to read the minutes of previous meeting and possibly bring them along.

5th Step:  Get ready any audio-visuals

Next in the line of action is to source and get all essential materials ready. A whiteboard together with a marker and a duster are essential. Other audio-visual aids such as projector, screen, charts and models should be sourced, be made ready and tested earlier.

6th Step: Prepare the place of meeting

The objectives of a meeting are sometimes defeated by the inappropriateness of the meeting place. Imagine the noisiness of a room with unbalanced seats that scratches on the surface of the floor. Or rather a dirty and poorly ventilated room where participants have to fight for comfort. Such arrangements occasionally detract the participants.

The meeting place should be clean, bright and well-ventilated. The seats should be arranged properly so that all participants can see and hear one another clearly. Should a microphone or P.A system be required, this has to be prepared and tested out before the commencement of the meeting.

Note the meeting place should NOT be prepared only at the last minute!

The Meeting: Steering towards target

With the meeting place in order, you are all set for the meeting to commence. Nevertheless, there is still tendency for things to go wild if no proper control is administered during the meeting.  I discussed some of the steering mechanisms or exercises below.

Start the meeting on time

Punctuality has to be stressed and observed not only by the participants but all parties. As noted under the fault of meeting organizers, sometimes the chairperson or other key member is late themselves.

Except if such executives are content with the present level of their school and seek no further growth; then they must take their staff opinions serious. And if they do, they would not keep the staff waiting in meetings so as to meet them at a good frame of mind, happy and ready to contribute freely.

Welcome address should encourage participation

Although how free the staff will feel to contribute at the meeting greatly depends on how the management relates with them under normal circumstances, the opening message to every member should be that of inspiration. The chairperson should motivate the participants to feel free to air their opinion in all matters that will be discussed.

Sometimes the chairperson has to assure the participant of his/her readiness to accept all contribution honestly. The atmosphere also has to be different from normal formal setup. Research reveals that more is achieved in an informal meeting setting than in formal ones.

Ensure minutes are taken

Minutes of meetings have to be clear, concise and accurate. They ought to be well-structured and arranged in proper order.

All decisions taken on issues need to be recorded without any ambiguity. Good minutes convey to members clear information, proposals, solutions to problems and decisions taken.

Limit time for each item

Sometimes meetings are overstayed because all the agenda items cannot be covered on time. Suitable time limits should be allocated for the various agenda items according to their importance. When time is running out for a particular item, the discussion on the item can be summarized to the details.

Stick to agenda

Even in a meeting of the most civilized and ordered people there are tendency to indulge in too much ramblings and discussion of irrelevant matters – deviation from the agenda. The chairperson has to ensure to keep track of the agenda and to control and bring back the meeting should it stray too far away.

Close meeting well

The chairperson has to ensure that the meeting finishes as scheduled and does not unnecessarily drag on. At the close, proposals and decisions are summarized, reminders on actions to be taken and by whom are assigned. Probably, the date and time of next meeting is also fixed. In conclusion, the chairperson expresses a word of thanks to the participants.

And this brings us to the end of the guide. Hopefully, it should lead you to a successful meeting.

Remember to ensure that the minute of the meeting is sent to every participant some time before the following meeting. This is to remind them of the actions to be taken by specified individuals as decided in the meeting. The absentees should also receive minute and important decisions taken should be explained to them.

Check out other school management issues

[qsm quiz=3]

Sustainable-School-Growth-Part-1:

Sustainable-School-Growth-Part-1: Steps to Sustainable school growth

Sustainable-School-Growth-Part-1: in one sentence

This post with keywords: Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1 outlines the steps that school administrators and school owners may adopt to achieve sustainable school growth.

Introduction to Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1

This post, Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1, is the first of a 10-series post. The complete series will help school administrators and school owners to build a formidable school that will expand exponentially.  Following our independent education seminar which was held at FCAPT, Kano on October 1, 2019; many teachers, school administrators and school owners have requested for the manuals.

This particular 10-series post is an adaption of the manual on the topic ‘Sustainable School Growth and Multiple Streams of Income for Teachers in the 21st Century Environment’.  If you wish to have the manual, send me a message through the contact page, email via [email protected] or WhatsApp on +2348067689217.

Preamble to Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1

That there is and will always be prospects in the education industry is a fact that needs no argument. There are prospects both for school owners and teachers. However and just like any other industry, business in education is dynamic and follows certain principles. There are strategies to successful ends in education business. Unfortunately, not many school owners, administrators and teachers understand this dynamism and strategies for succeeding in education business. Hence, majority of education business stakeholders, especially upcoming ones, leave their success in the hands of uncertainty. Many have lost hope and quite a number would only say “I will do my best and leave the rest for God”.

Faith is good and I believe it is necessary for success. But I do not think there need be hopelessness and uncertainty in running education business. This is because there are empirical approaches to success in education businesses as in all else. In this post – Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1 – I hope to outline the steps that school administrators and school owners may adopt to attain sustainable growth.

Pre-requisite Knowledge for Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1

In this post, Sustainable-School-Growth-part-1, I use keywords like school growth and sustainable school growth many times. I assume that you already know exactly what I imply by these terms. In an earlier post, I clearly defined school growth and sustainable school growth. In the post, I also explained why school administrators should pursue not just school growth but a sustainable school growth. If you have not read this already, click here and have a quick read.

Steps in Sustainable School Growth

I believe that you are now convinced of the effectiveness of the people-oriented growth strategy. Hence, let us look at the steps to sustainable school growth in this strategy. However, before that; it is pertinent I make you understand that I do not teach nor promise miracle growth. No! Miracles have no principles else it wouldn’t be miracle. Consequently, you should understand that sustainable school growth requires considerably effort and time. It is guided by laws and practices. I condensed the proven practices and laws – which I call principles – into ten composite components.   These are not simple suggestions but success stories of different administrators and school owners. Although it is not necessary for you to perform all of these principles in the order I list them, I prefer to call them steps to sustainable school growth.

The steps to sustainable school growth are:

  1. School re-organization
  2. Collaboration with parents
  3. Collaboration with Students
  4. Collaboration with Teachers
  5. Collaboration with Community
  6. Build Brands
  7. Increase infrastructure
  8. Expand Cash flow
  9. Financial management

Invariably, you should be familiar with some of the items of this list. Nonetheless, you must understand that each item of the list is composite. In subsequent posts, the remaining nine of the series, I shall discuss each of the list items in details. Check back for continuation of the post.

Contemporary Migration Patterns towards Wealthy Liberal Democracy like Europe and North America

The article with keywords: Migration-patterns-wealthy-liberal-democracy in one sentence

This article with the keywords, Migration-patterns-wealthy-liberal-democracy briefly discusses the reasons and seasons of migration towards Europe and North America and in the shortest term, advocates the need to regulate migration to benefit both the home and host countries being still within the scope of Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

Disclosure of this article with keywords:  Migration-patterns-wealthy-liberal-democracy

I wrote this article based on request. Hence, the length and breadth of the article was determined by the parameters that the requester provided. Specifically, the requester noted that there was no need for any kind of references including citations. Therefore, this article is void of same.

Disclaimer

Despite the lack of citations and references, this article contains empirical data from secondary sources. This is because the article is based on research from books and other websites or blogs along with the author’s prior knowledge/experience. Neither the author nor LeadinGuides claims ownership of neither the secondary data nor the cited works (though not referenced).

Contemporary Migration Patterns towards Wealthy Liberal Democracy like Europe and North America

With a GDP per capita of $57, 436, the United States of America is the wealthiest country in Northern America.  Canada is the runner up having a GDP per capita of $46, 437. In comparison, Luxembourg is the wealthiest European country as at 2018, trailed by Norway and Ireland each with GDP per capita of $104, 003; $69, 249 and $69, 231 respectively. Also top on the list of European fortunes are Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Belgium, United Kingdom and France.

Liberal Democracy

Each of the wealth capitals believes in, and adopts liberal democracy. Hence, all but Luxembourg which had implicit policy centred on accepting mainly white, Catholic, and European from Italy and Portugal, have open migration policy – US being the freest. Accordingly, these wealthy liberal democracies of the Northern America and Europe have had the largest number of migrants in the aforementioned years and in recent times. For example, majority of the number of international migrants in 2017, about 50 million representing over 19%, resided in the United States of America alone; Germany was among the second largest resident countries followed by the United Kingdom.

Migration route

Majority of American immigrants are of Asian and South American origin and European immigrants mostly are of African descent. Without doubt, there is in general term, an expansionary bias in the politics of migration in liberal democracy such that official policies tend to be more liberal than public opinion thereby enhancing the continuous growth and growth of  a region while the other swings in the pendulum of increase and decrease. Consequently, migration pattern towards wealthy democracy must be regulated, however little it may be necessary, not only towards benefitting the migrants and destination country but also the home for a holistic attainment of the objectives of liberal democracy– equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people.

Factors influencing Migrations

The push and pull factors

Migrations generally follow push and pull factors. Middle-of-the-road of the migration route depicted above is as a result of push factors – which may be economic such as unemployment; political such as civil war; social such as over population and lack of quality education; or natural such as drought and other natural disaster – driving migrants towards greener pastures with the corresponding pull factors in the foreign land. This means that anytime there is a mishap in Asia, Africa and South America, the wealthy democratic nations of Europe and North America should expect higher immigrants. This includes even political inefficiency of these regions.

Category of migrants and the big question

And as in most cases, the immigrants due to this reason are permanent migrants. Hence, though headlines and research papers indicate increasing value of remittance, the home country of the migrants usually losses the contributions they would have made to the development of their country – which should have benefitted more of their countrymen and aided in closing the inequality gap. And since there will always be push and pull factors, should this chain of imbalance loop forever?

Family migration

Another major common migration pattern towards Northern American and European   lands of affluence is the concept of family migration. In 2016, nearly a million migrants acquired European citizenship. This means these migrants become full Europeans with equal rights and privileges of the indigenous – erecting their permanent homes, building their European families. With European citizenship, members of family in their country of origin are permitted by law to join them thus engineering another round of migration. This also implies that more migrant citizenship equals more migration. For instance in 2016, family data reveals that due to the about 995, 000 that acquired European citizenship; more than 1.8 million new migrants moved to OECD (European) countries for family reasons – representing 1.6 million family formation and reunification and 270,000 accompanying family. Data also reveals that 38% of all permanent migration to OECD countries is family migration.

In conclusion

Invariably, it cannot be argued that migration has contributed and will continue to contribute to migrant’s home countries if reversed and through remittance. However, in furtherance of the objectives of liberal democracy for which the wealthy (destination) North American and European countries stand to represent, a change must be introduced – no matter how little it may be. We have observed and seen this unregulated migration since 1948 when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was made. We know and affirm that it has been a worthwhile mission. However, for the sake of better efficiency, for the sake of universal equality in the standard of living through uniform national growth of all nations; let there be a little regulation – that ensure migrants contribute to the growth of their host countries and are also reversed to contribute to the growth of their home countries – for the only constant thing is change and there is no place like home.

 

Read similar article: Comparative Study of EU and US border policies and protocols.

LeadinGuides on Sustainable School Growth: meaning & importance

This post with keywords: LeadinGuides-Sustainable-School-Growth-Meaning&Importance in one paragraph

This post with keywords: LeadinGuides-Sustainable-School-Growth-Meaning&Importance introduces you to the concept of school growth from an empirical perspective. The post discusses the meaning of school growth; then emphasizes on sustainable school growth, importance of school growth and outlines the steps to attain sustainable school growth.

What is school growth?

To successfully pursue school growth, you have to know what school growth means. This will help you to know when you attain success. Knowing the meaning of school growth will also enable you to measure the size of the growth – instead of speculating.

That being said, what is the meaning of school growth?

No one person can claim to be able to give authoritative definition of school growth. This is because what constitutes growth for one man may not be for another. Hence, to define it, we must first consider what different people may mean when they talk about school growth.

Generally, when an individual talks about school growth, he or she has one, more or all of the following

Elements of school growth in mind:

  1. Greater students’ performance
  2. Higher overall school’s population
  3. More school’s infrastructure such as bigger buildings than an earlier time
  4. Larger staff size
  5. Increase in the school’s popularity/fame and prestige
  6. Expansion in school finance – both income and expenditure

And what is more, we really cannot separate any of these things from another when we talk about wholesome school growth. This is because one leads to the other. However, while one – greater students’ performance – is by proper reasoning, a means; another – school’s prestige – is rather ambiguous for a plain definition of school growth.

Consequently, we can define school growth thus:

School growth is the overall increase in the number (population) of a school’s students and infrastructures which in turn leads to increase in the school’s finance (both income and expenditure) and employees.

From this definition, it is obvious that despite the other elements that comes to mind, only one is synonymous with school growth – that is increase in the number of a school’s students. Other than the government, it is in pursuit or after attaining this that we think or talk of the other elements. Therefore, when we talk about school growth and how to attain it, we mostly literarily mean enhancing the school population. Nonetheless, it is important to note that not all increase in school population equates to school growth – some are actually death sentence in disguise. This is where sustainable school growth comes in.

Sustainable School Growth

Now that we have discussed the meaning of school growth, let us see what sustainable school growth mean.

To begin with the word ‘sustainable’ means able to be maintained. Therefore, sustainable school growth refers to the school growth that you can sustain. There are growths that you cannot really sustain. Take for example, if you increase your school population by admitting candidates to classes they are qualified for, such students will naturally turn out not be able to meet up with the work demands of the class. And sooner or later, the parents of such students and other people will notice their backwardness. The result is that the parents and everyone else that notice this will blame and accuse your school of poor standard. With this dissatisfaction, parents will start pulling their children – with chattered foundation – to other (unfortunate) schools. Hence, the growth you once achieved will become reduction. Then we say it was an unsustainable growth you had.

Generally, unsustainable growth occurs when you do a few things wrong to make your school grow. This post details the steps to attain sustainable school growth. But before that, let us see why you need to pursue sustainable growth.

Importance of Sustainable Growth

Just as with anything else, there are alternatives to school growth – though not all options lead to sustainable growth. The steps I provide here in this post are people-oriented. In sustainable growth, when you grow, others grow. It is based on the same societal philosophy that brought about the boom in Web Technology industry. The people-oriented growth philosophy accounts for the successes of some of the world’s largest technology companies. It is not a new ideology. Companies, in and out of tech, have based their growth on the same philosophy. The education industry is one of people. Not until school owners and administrators are able to turn the people around their business – their staff, students, parents and the immediate community – into marketers and stir in them a sincere love for their business succeed, they will always take the longer route to success – a route whose end they may not get to.

Now why do I advise you to adopt the people-oriented growth approach that I discuss here? Why should you adopt it? Here are some of the reasons:

1.      Business Insurance

There is no better way of insuring your school than by registering it in the minds and hearts of you staff, students, parents and the community. Once you prove to them that you care for them as much as your business and the job and that you value every contribution of theirs; they will work to make your school a success. They will fight any opposition to your business like it was their personal property. The usual sabotage and negligence to duty will end. The majority of the staff will chastise the member that deliberately errs in this willing duty. Hence, the strategy fortifies your business.

2.      Fulfil Social Responsibility Expectation

This is another important reason for you to adopt the people-oriented growth strategy. No matter how small or big your business is, professional ethics expects you to do a few things for the benefit of the society at large – apart from the value your patrons derive from your business products. Adopting the people-oriented growth strategy does not only enable you to make your school grow. But it also conveys the impression that you are living up to your social responsibilities.

3.      Build Legacies

The pages of history are littered with many great men and women who are remembered for their roles in the attainment of a goal. All independent nations of the world, great and small are results of legacies – legacies of men and women that sacrificed immeasurable resources not for business gain but to gain the memories of posterity. Many HR premiers, philosophers and psychologists believe that the desire for the present and future generation to remember us after when we are long gone is inborn of all men. In fact, there are reasons to suggest that some of the renowned notorious criminals indulged in their evil act just only to attain this fit. If men will go as far as this to acquire legacy, why would you not adopt the strategy that will help you to both make your business grow and attain legacy? By adopting the people-oriented growth strategy, you will be helping the people to meet up with daily life needs and also to increase, to grow. And these people will not only be grateful to you for the moment, but for life time – you become path of their life stories.

4.      Change the society

Too often than not, we forget how our little daily efforts contribute to either make or mar the society we live in. Natural of all men, we are better at finding the faults of others – the leader, the governor and the president. By simply adopting the people-oriented growth strategy, you affect the disposition of the people around your business. There are schools that the people around only think of extortion when they come around it – irrespective of whether the school is growing or not. With this feeling, these people mingle with the society and sell their disposition to it. Before long, everyone in that society knows but only one way of growing – by extorting others. How would you like to contribute your quota to make the society believe in the power of social interdependence, collaboration and interactivity? When you adopt people-oriented growth strategy, you help in re-engineering the society in combating moral decadence.

5.      Win the right to the law of compensation

We may safely argue all else but the fact that the world is built on the foundation of universal laws. One of such fundamental laws is the law of compensation. Emerson postulated this law to explain that nature will reward you for every act you perform. It explains that nature is a fair judge and a third-party to every agreement and transaction that occur in the universe. Thence, we can safely say that no man can completely cheat another. This is because the man that cheats his neighbour today will be paid in disaster sooner or later. To win the right to the law of compensation is to be able to lay claim it working in your favour. When you adopt the people-oriented growth strategy and do well to others, nature works in your favour. Even if a few people – who shall benefit in the process – fail to do the right thing, nature has its way of insuring you against loss in the long run, though you may feel the immediate impact of their betrayal. For this law to be regarded as universal, it means it has been proven to be true in all matters. The law also works in reverse explanation. Those who succeed through deceit always have one or more pain to take pills for, exhaustive bills to take care of and general lack of peace of mind.

Conclusion

Are you convinced yet? Have you already decided to adopt the people-oriented school growth strategy? I outline the steps to sustainable school growth in my article.  This post is only a prelude to the Independent Education Seminar. The seminar will hold this Independence Day – 1st October 2019 – at Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology (FCAPT), Kano. At the business, guest speakers both from Dangote School of Business and the School of General and Entrepreneurship Studies of Bayero University Kano will be providing insight into the principle of school growth and give practical guidelines to help participating school owners succeed in the business while creating value at the same time.

While we prepare for the seminar, watch visit later for the strategic steps to sustainable school growth in Nigeria.

Classroom Story: People we should consult before using drugs

A child who is feeling sick (slight headache), asked the wrong person for information on drug use. And the child got wrong information, took the wrong medication. Now we don’t know what will become of him.

This narration is to be used in the class along with the Civic Education lesson note on: People we should consult before using drugs. It is a week 5 topic for Grade 3 pupils in Nigeria.

 

Scene 1:

This is Ahmed (in the video or picture). He is playing with his friends at his home compound.

Scene 2:

Ahmed is feeling dizzy. He is got a headache! (See the video or picture). What is he going to do?

Scene 3:

He calls his best friend who is about the same age as Ahmed (watch in video or see poster). He complains to the friend. The friend suggested that Ahmed needs medication for headache.

Scene 4:

Ahmed remembers that they’ve got first aid box at home. He also remembers that there are drugs in the box. So, he excuses his friend and goes for the drug (shown in the video or poster).

Scene 5:

(Searching the box) There it is, Ahmed was right! There are indeed different drugs in the box! But which one is for headache? (He contemplates in the video or poster). He has found it! He remembered the color of the pack. But again, how many should he take? (Ahmed contemplates again). He couldn’t decide so he goes back to his friend. Perhaps his friend has an idea (Shown in the video or poster, Ahmed walks back).

Scene 6:

(Now with his friend, Ahmed asks him) “Best friend, I found the drug for headache but I’m not sure how many I should take. Last time, my mum gave my big brother 2 so I think 1 will be OK. Do you have an idea?” His friend has no idea but he wants to help Ahmed so he suggested 1 and a half. Ahmed thinks that is a perfect suggestion.

Although they are not sure and are afraid of what might happen, Ahmed took 1 and a half. Oh wait… It wasn’t written on the pack that the drug was for headache, could Ahmed have taken the wrong pack? Now Ahmed and his friend can’t play anymore. Do you know why? No! Not because of Ahmed’s headache, they are afraid. What if the drug isn’t for headache? Could the drug have expired? Ahmed and his friend know that expired drug is harmful. They should have asked an adult!

After the narration, the teacher asks the pupils whether they think the child’s health will get better or not and why they think so.

After receiving enough of the pupils’ opinion, the teacher explains that drugs are not and should not be taking based on conjectures (assumptions such as it might work). Making example of the video clip (narration), the teacher asks what if the drug is not for kids, what will happen to the kid – Bad things!

Teacher proceed, that to prevent bad things to happen to us from drug abuse, only drugs given to us by trusted people, people who are sure of the drugs must be taken. S/he then asks pupils to mention some of such trusted persons, tells them that they shall learn more of such persons in the lesson and writes/projects the topic on the board/digital screen before moving on to the next step.

How to Choose Final Year Project Topics

In one Line:

This article with keyword: How-choose-Final-Year-Project-Topic s comprehensively discusses the steps involved in choosing final year project topic in Computer Science and Information Technology.

Introduction

This is the third article of the five-series comprehensive guide on how to write final year project topic proposal in Computer Science and Information Technology for final year undergraduate students.

Because I made references to the first and second introductory articles, I advise that you click here to first of all read the part 1 and then here for part 2 before you continue with this. However you can still read and understand this particular article alone.

The article is based on research from books along with self-experimentation and experience. The book I consulted in this particular article is:

Hassani, H. (2012). How to do the Final Year Projects A practical Guideline for Computer Science and IT students.

Notwithstanding, I recommend you click here to check the books out.

The first step in writing a final year project proposal is choosing of the project topic or topics as the case may be. There has to be at least a topic to propose before writing the proposal.


Choose of Project Topic is not only a step in writing final project proposal. It is also the first step in the overall project involvements. And just as the foundation of a building, the success and failure of the entire project to a great extent depends on the topic the student selects. Let’s therefore look at the steps involved in choosing project.

Quickly just before we discuss the steps in choosing project topic(s), let us see the various sources of project topics.

Sources of Project Topics

There are generally about three sources of final year project topics. These include:

1.      School/Departmental Publications

This is when the school or department publishes a list of project topics at the beginning of every semester from which the final year students for that year chooses from. The method and manner in which schools or department publishes the topic differs from school to school. While some schools publish the list of project topic only, others publish the list of topics with little explanation of the problem area.

From the list, final year students choose the project topic that interests them. This source of project topic however has a couple of drawbacks. For instance, more than one student may be interested in the same project topic. Usually in such case, if group projects are allowed such students are made to carry out the project as group work – you can fathom the inconvenience if one of such students did not plan working with others. If on the other side the school or department does not allow group projects, one of the students (usually the later one) will be forced to pick another topic.

Another drawback of school or departmental project topic publication is the inadequacy of the list – or when the topics do not go round for every student. Yet another is that the students may not have enough insight into the topics and therefore may face several unforeseen irregularities that may mar the entire work.

These and other reasons made many students not to bank on project topics from the school or department. Many schools and department also no longer see publishing project topics a necessity.

2.      Project Supervisor Suggestions

This is when individual project supervisors publish the list of project topics which he or she wants the final year students under him or her to work on. Supervisors’ list of project topics usually comes with two conditions. First, the supervisor may mandate the students to pick one topic from his/her list. Alternatively, the supervisor may allow the students freedom to propose topic(s) of their choice – but subject to approval.

Note that some schools and departments publish supervisors list alongside the supervisors’ list of final year project topics.

This source of final year project topics also has similar drawbacks as the school and departmental publications. In addition, some academics (faculties), proponents of students’ choice of final year project topic, argue that given students final year project topics takes away the avenue for the students to demonstrate their critical thinking and problem-identification abilities. However, opponent (of students’ choice of final year project topics) academics or faculties counter that limiting students’ choice to a list of given problem builds their ability to adapt, concentrate and tackle any given problem.

3.      Students Proposal

Now this is the last source of final year project topics – that which comes from the students. Regardless of the other sources of final year project topics discussed earlier, almost all schools allow final year students to suggest or propose their own final year project topics. However, whether the supervisor, project coordinator or school/departmental panel depends on the criteria they consider in their proposal acceptance process.

Generally, these criteria are what I stated as objective of final year project proposal earlier in the second part of this series.

Step By Step Guide To Choosing Final Year Project Topics

Alright, now that we have seen the various sources of final year project topics; let’s see the step by step guide to choosing final year project topics.

There are basically three steps to choosing final year project topic. These include:

  1. Self-Awareness Study
  2. Observation and Research
  3. Selection

Self-Awareness Study

Whether picking branded clothes from the shelves or sowing tailored ones, one must know his or her measurement to get the best fit. In much the same way, the first step in choosing a final year project topic is to better discover self.

Self-discovery, it is said, is best accomplished in solitude. Hence, the student need to look inwardly to identify the person s/he is, what skills s/he has and the career path s/he intends to take. These realizations will not only help the student to choose a topic that s/he will be interested to work on but will also be delighted doing so because it will also means advancement in an intended directions.

Use these questions to discover yourself, in terms of academics and not in the general sense of the term.

  1. Who are you? Describe yourself in terms of your emotions or temperaments. What industry are you passionate about – is it education, health, sports, culture, religion, tourism, politics, entertainment, life style/fashion or what? This industry refers to what you love talking about when you are not on your work. Or the area from whose discussion or issues interests you. For example, some techies love talking about education. Although they may not be in education, they seem to be readily engrossed on education matters whenever it crosses their path.
  2. Write your ambition. Who do you want to be? What career path do you desire taking after graduation – android app development, web programming, windows application or what? The career path should be more than a mere want. It should be a strong desire. And you should be convinced to already possess foundation skills for such career.
  3. What is your current skill level? What technologies are you already proficient at or which technologies can you easily upscale to master level? This should be technologies you use to implement a given project to completion.

With these pieces of information down, the student should now be able to choose relevant project topic. The student uses these pieces of information to limit or streamline his or her choices only to topics that will interest him/her.

With that up-sleeve, let us now move on to Observation and Research

The second step in choosing a final year project topic is observation and research. The student, after self-discovery, observes or looks around the industry of his or her passion (as discussed above) and the various activities that is carried out in the industry. Afterwards try answering the following questions:

  1. What tasks tend to pose challenge to pupil in the industry, what problem? You can easily get the answer to the question using the key characteristics of computer – speed, accuracy and efficiency.

Look for activities that are seemingly slow – activities that cause delay on delivery.

Also, look for activities that are prone to error – activities that workers seem to make a lot of mistakes.

Finally, look for activities that workers/stakeholders are not doing right at all. That is, workers are not doing what they are supposed to do.

Try to get as many of this kind of activity as possible.

  1. Find out, what are the processes involved in these activities? Write the processes clearly in steps and in orderly manner. Also find out the reason for the delay, error and inefficiency in the system. Finally, gather suggestions to solving the problems of the system from the key players.
  2. Research and ascertain which of these activities can be automated? Which one do you think can be improved upon ‘using computer’? Write out the automatable activities from the in-automatable activities. Then strike out the later and use the former to proceed with the next steps.
  3. Finally, research – usually by discussing with colleagues – i.e. fellow Computer/IT professionals – to list out the technical tools and skills required for each of the automatable activities.
  4. Finally, creatively title each of the topics. Remember to give enticing, professional and descriptive titles. The title is the first thing people get to know about your project. And it determines whether they will be pick interest in the project to find out more about it or not.

With these, you should have enough topics to choose from. Then we move to the next step of deciding which final year project topic to select.

Note that the next (selection) section is also relevant to final year students who wish to pick from the other two sources of final year project topic that I discussed earlier.

Selection of Final Year Project Topic

Now that the final year student has a couple of final year project topics from the previous activities, it is time to demonstrate the power of choice.

Prior to outlining the steps to choose project topic, it is pertinent to note that you should not select a topic based on the topic alone. Instead, your choice should be informed and logical.

Now, let us see the steps to choose final year project topic from a list of topics. This list may be that which the students generated through the steps that I discussed earlier. Or the list may be given by your final year project supervisor. Finally, the list may be from departmental publication.

Wherever the source of the list of final year project topics, there are the same steps to select suitable one(s). I outline the steps below. Note that there are three key criteria to base the choice of final year project topics. These are:

  • The interestingness of the topic to the student,
  • The student’s background knowledge of the topic, and
  • The technical skills required for the accomplishment of the topic which the student possess.

If you follow my guide on choosing final year project topic from the beginning, all these three variables should be available to you for all the topics in your list. You should get the interestingness of the topic as well as the background knowledge from questions 1 and 2 under self-awareness while the technical skills required for the accomplishment of the topic which the student possess can be gotten from comparing question three under the same self-awareness and number 4 tips under Observation and Research. We will now assign numerical value to each of the variables and determine how you can select the most suitable topics for you. Follow these steps to arrive at this.

  1. Make the list of available topics and the variables into a table in the format below.
Variables

 

 

Project Topics

Interestingness

of topic

Background

Knowledge

Technical skills requirementTotal score
100%100%100%
Topic 1    
Topic 2    
Topic 3    
Topic 4    
Topic 5    

 

  1. Assuming a scale of 1 to 100% for each variable, grade the topics under each column
  2. Find the cumulative score of each topic and record under total score
  3. Select the first three topics for your proposal

This should leave you with three good topics for your final year project. Remember that the final year project is crucial to your successful graduation. Hence, do not rush things. Do it diligently and do it right. More so, do not lie to yourself, after the final selection; ask yourself if truly the topics interest you and if you can accomplish it within the available timeframe.

More importantly, this is not the end. You cannot just select the topics and start working on it – no! You still have to defend the topic you have selected and convince your final year project supervisor, coordinator or panel that the topics meet the basic requirement and that you will be able to accomplish the task.

This can be accomplished in two steps, a convincing proposal and a killing presentation (if applicable in your case). A number of schools or supervisors require students to write and submit a formal proposal for their topics and also make presentation on it to the department’s academic judge – the lecturers of which your supervisor is probably a member of.

This leads us to our next guide – how to make a draft and organize the proposal.

Conclusion

This is comprehensive guide on how to write final year project proposal in Computer Science and Information Technology at the undergraduate level. In order to make the guide and easy for our readers, the guide is broken down into a five-series post. This is the third of the series. If you haven’t already, click here to quick-check the first or click here to read the second. Also, you may click here to see the entire thread. Don’t miss out the next post, join our newsletter by submitting your email via the box at the right sidebar (if you are using tablet, laptop or desktop) or below (if you are using other mobile phones) of this page.

Finally, if you see this post worthwhile, do not forget to share with others – tap the facebook and twitter icons below.

Meaning, Objectives and Importance of Final Year Project

In one Line:

This post with keywords: Meaning-objectives-importance-final-year-project-proposal clearly defines what final year project is, what it sets to achieve and the importance of learning final year project proposal.

Introduction

This article is the second of a five-series article of providing practical guide on how to write final year project proposal for Computer Science and Information Technology students.

Although this article is relatively independent and can be understood alone, you will get better insight after reading the first part. Click here to have a quick look.

So Let’s Begin, What is Final Year Project Proposal?

Meaning of final year projects proposal

A final year project is a document that students write during the academic year and submit at the end of spring semester (Qin, 2017). Spring is between March to June and September to December. Since academic calendar of tertiary institutions in Nigeria is not stable and subject to change, it is safer to say final year project proposal is a document that final year students write and submit at the first or second semester of the final year of an undergraduate programme.

Objectives of Final Year Project Proposal

Now what are the objectives of final year project proposals? What does it aims to achieve?

The project proposal typically contains outlines of the basic plan of how students expect to accomplish their final year project or its objectives thereof. It is a document that is meant to persuade the project supervisor, coordinator or panels of two things viz.:

  • That the work is worthwhile or a real contribution to a (unit or sect of) society such as organization, industry or people. Real contribution here implies that the outcome of the project is a solution to real life problem.
  • That the solution requires the application of technical or professional (computer) skills which the students had learned throughout the programme.

In other words, final year proposal tends to prove that the student intends and is capable to use what he or she has learned to solve societal problem.

So why is it important to learn How to Write Final Year Project Proposal?

How to write a final year project proposal is essential for every undergraduate because final year project proposal in computer Science and Information Technology has particular formal structures. There are formats that the student must employ and there are things that s/he must include. If these things are missing, then the project supervisor, coordinator or panel may reject the project which the student intended to do. This will mean that such student will be forced to undertake a project for which he or she has not adequately prepared or premeditated. And this could reduce the student’s chances of getting the best grade possible in the course.

Finalizing…

As stated earlier, this article finalizes the ground-setting for the practical guide on how to write a final year project proposal. The remaining three articles in the final year project proposal thread will thrash the subject comprehensively but concisely.

Don’t miss a post, join our VIP newsletter and we will deliver our relevant articles, promos, offers and bonanza directly to your mail box.

Works Cited

Qin, T. (2017, February 22). How to Write a Final Year Project Proposal. Retrieved March 2019, from Do MY ESSAY : https://www.domyessay.net/blog/how-to-write-a-final-year-project-proposal/

We also ask for your support

LeadinGuides is a group with a special mandate – to better the Nigerian society through quality education. Our services are rendered with the spirit of a new Nigeria. We want to reach as many Nigerians as possible. Help us extend the spirit of a new Nigeria by supporting us in these ways which will not cost you money but only a few seconds and one or two clicks.

  • By sharing the post – You never can say who among your friends on social media might benefit from this. So by sharing, you will not only help us serve more people but you will also be saving someone with valuable information. To share the post, click on either the facebook or twitter icons under the post and follow the prompt.
  • Drop a Comment – Never read without saying a word. Your commendations, criticisms and suggestions will help us serve you better. Also, your contribution may be the information that someone needed. So endeavour to drop a comment in the comment box.
  • Join Our Mailing List – We want to continually serve you. However, since we may miss our publication dates; you will help us get our content to your mail box directly. By joining the mailing list also, you become our VIP – you will get updates on our works, discounts and bonanza. To join our newsletter, drop you email on the box at the sidebar.

How to Write Final Year Project Proposal in Computer Science and Information Technology

In one line

This article with keywords: How-Write-final-Year-Project-Proposal-computer-science-Information-Technology provides final year undergraduate students of Computer Science or Information Technology with an authoritative but concise way of writing project proposals.

Introduction

In Nigeria, just as in other parts of the world, Final Year projects are considered as one of the core modules or courses for computer science and information technology students at the undergraduate levels (Hassani, 2012). The project itself is a practical software development or research work (as may be the case in university) in which final year students integrate and apply the learning outcomes from the programme in tackling real-life problem.

At the National Diploma (ND) level, Computer Science students offer the course as COM 229 and it has a total of 4 Credit units. Also at the Higher National Diploma (HND) level, it comes under the code of COM 429 with a total of 6 credit units. Similar heavy weight is assigned to final year projects even at the Bachelor’s Degree level in the universities. However, the course coding and credit unit allocation may differ across universities. For course coding, while some universities use the CSC initials and the numerical level description, some use CIT and others prefer COSC. As at the time of writing this article, the National Open University of Nigeria uses CIT 449 for the compulsory course of 6 credit units – Final Year Project.

However the differences in course-coding and credit allocation for Final Year projects across the tertiary institutions offering an undergraduate diploma in Computer Science or Information Technology, its appearance across the curricular resonate the belief in the importance Final Year Project as part and parcel of developing the necessary work and character skills for a career in the field. More so, the heavy credit unit consolidate that belief.

In addition to proving the work-readiness of the students in the field, aims to allow students to cumulatively demonstrate the knowledge and skills acquired from other modules or courses undertaken throughout the undergraduate program. Hence, it is an assessment tool for academics. This perhaps is the reason for paying so much attention for the course.

A course with so much credit unit such as this can either boost or greatly trim down the graduating point average of the students. And although the graduating point average is not usually the true test of proficiency, it is an indication that speaks in the absence of the owner. Many employers, especially government agencies, base their judgement on this. Low points could also hinder or slow one’s career in the field.

By and large, one of the best ways to a remarkable final year project is a very good proposal. Not many students are aware of this fact. And for some who does, drafting such proposal usually prove challenging. This is even more so for students who did think of it beforehand until the project supervisor or coordinator announces for submission.

The aim of this article is to provide the leading guides on the subject that will lead students into success.

However, in order to make the guide an easy read; the entire guide is divided into five series. Click here to continue with the second series.

Meanwhile, Here is a List of Works Cited

Hassani, H. (2012). How to do the Final Year Projects A practical Guideline for Computer Science and IT students.

You might want to check the book out on Konga.com 

Please, Support Us

We always take our time to write the best content possible. However, we could not have done this continuously without your support. Therefore we ask for your continued support as we hope to keep publishing only quality posts.

You can support us in two ways:

  • By sharing the post – You never can say who among your friends on social media might benefit from this. So by sharing, you will not only help us serve more people but you will also be saving someone with valuable information. To share the post, click on either the facebook or twitter icons under the post and follow the prompt.
  • Drop a Comment – Never read without saying a word. Your commendations, criticisms and suggestions will help us serve you better. Also, your contribution may be the information that someone needed. So endeavor to drop a comment in the comment box. 
  • Join Our Mailing List – We want to continually serve you. However, since we may miss our publication dates; you will help us get our content to your mail box directly. By joining the mailing list also, you become our VIP – you will get updates on our works, discounts and bonanza. To join our newsletter, drop you email on the box at the sidebar.

Thank you for supporting us. And don’t forget to continue with the guide by clicking here.

LESSON NOTE INTRODUCTION – THE STORY OF DOUBLE ATTITUDE TO WORK

PROLOGUE

This is a narration of two childhood friends who grew up together, went to the same school, had the same aspiration and got the same job of their dreams in the same company. However, at the place of work, while one receives accolades, the other receives serial query. The names of the two friends are Igbeji and Omajaga. This narration is meant to be made by Grade 5 teacher as introduction to week 5 lessons on Civic Education: Attitude to Work

NARRATION

The teacher gives the narration as each major scene occurs on the video clip or as the teacher unfolds the poster/chart.

Scene 1:

This is Igbeji and his friend Omajaga (both yet kids). They are best friends.  They always play and move together too.

Scene 2:

Igbeji and Omajaga express their ambitions. They had agreed earlier to write the ambition on paper. Coincidentally, they both wrote the same thing! This made their friendship stronger. Henceforth, they do almost everything together.

Scene 3:

It’s their graduation! They have finished the secondary school. They also like to study in the same university – the Federal University of Health Sciences, Otukpo. Will there secure the admission?

Scene 4:

Here they are preparing (reading) for UTME examination.

Scene 5:

They have studied hard and are prepared for the examination.

Scene 6:

They are now writing the UTME. Will they make up to the university cut-off mark? They await their results curiously.

Scene 7:

And… yes! They made it! Next is their Post-UTME assessment/screening. They still hope to be successful as well.

Scene 8:

There are celebrating their admission. They were offered admission into their dream course!

Scene 9:

They have done well all through their studies and now they are graduating as the Best Graduating students of the university. So far (only few days after their graduation party), three companies have sent them job offers. They have to decide which to go.

Scene 10:

Once again, they coincidentally made the same choice – the same company, independently. They are going to be in the same company!

Scene 11:

It is their first day at work, and having heard that they were the best graduating student; old staff of the company is expecting a lot from them – everyone respects them. Will they be able to deliver as such?

Scene 12:

It’s their 4th month in the company. While Igbeji maintains the tempo as of the first day he began the work; Omajaga thinks there is no need to do so because attention, suspense but respect has dropped. As a result, the later (Omajaga) now resumes late to work. Similarly, Omajaga feels lazy to work most of the time and sometimes he absents from work only for his friend to cover him. Occasionally, he leaves the office before closing time and even sleeps on duty at times. The company board of directors has queried him a number of times but mostly, he only apologizes without changing.

Scene 13:

It’s the company’s award ceremony! Everyone is expectant. One of the friends has been awarded and promoted which they celebrated together, awaiting the award and promotion of the other. Unfortunately, instead of award and promotion, the other friend is publicly queried and demoted with a condition that if he improves over the next one month, he would be promoted, otherwise he would be fired.

Scene 14:

The demoted friend, who is now worried, asks his promoted friend to tell him how to improve so as to be promoted. He doesn’t want to be fired, that is an awful way to leave a place of work– in shame and disgrace. It will be hard to get employment elsewhere that way.

Teacher then pause the video or cuts the narration here and kindle a class discussion on the video/narration:

  • Which of the two friends was promoted, which was demoted?
  • What they think made the company to promote one of the friends but demote the other: Do they (the company or directors) hate the demoted friend? Or did the promoted bribe the directors to promote him?

After receiving differing answers from pupils, it is expected that the class will agree on a common reason: The one that receives promotion works better (because he has better attitude to work) while the one that was demoted contributes lesser to the organization (also because he has bad attitude to work). Afterwards, the teacher proceeds to step 2.

Differences between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note

In one line: This post with keywords: Differences-lesson-plan-lesson-note differentiates between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note in a very simple and easy to understand way.

Introduction to the Difference between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note

Since I published How to write standard Lesson Notes in Nigeria, I have received lots of emails. While the emails are a mix of commendations and appreciations, quite a number are questions and suggestions. And one of the most commonly asked questions is the difference Lesson Plan and Lesson Note. Foremost, I thank you, the readers and especially those that emailed or commented on the earlier posts.

Below is the answer to this particular question – the difference between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note. As usual, I took my time to make it as comprehensive as possible while still being kept concise. I hope it meets your need once again.

To start with, what is the meaning of both Lesson Plan and Lesson Note?

Lesson Plan and Lesson Note are of the closest relatives after the like of Muhammadu Buhari and Aisha Buhari (husband and wife) only that their surname comes first unlike the Buhari’s.

The major difference in the meaning of the two terms lays their second names – plan and note. Consequently, let’s begin with the meaning of both terms – what is a plan and what is a note as used in this context? – trying to put two kernels in mouth at once huh?

What is (Lesson) Plan?

(Wiktionary) in one definition states that a plan is a drawing showing technical details … with unwanted details omitted, and often using symbols rather than detailed  drawing. Similarly in the second part, (Wiktionary) defines a plan as a set of intended actions, usually mutually related, through which one expects to achieve a goal.

These two definitions of plan are not different from those of other dictionaries including Webster, Cambridge and Oxford. All of the definitions contain the meaning of a plan both as a drawing and as intended course of action to an end.

Hence, taken together, a plan (in the context of lesson) is a drawing of the steps/actions through which a teacher expects to deliver a lesson in order to attain the objectives of the lesson. Also being a technical document, a Lesson Plan does not contain unwanted details even though such may be important.

What is Lesson Note?

On the other hand, a note as used in the context of Lesson Note is a brief piece of writing intended to assist the memory (Oxford Dictionary). In this sense, a note is also an explanation or an extra piece of information that is given at the bottom, at the back of a book, e.t.c. (Cambridge Dictionary).

From the definition, it is obvious that Lesson Note is the explanation of one, some or all of the steps outlined in a Lesson Plan.

Drawing the Differences between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note

1.     Semantically

The difference in the meanings of Lesson Plan and Lesson Note is that while Lesson Plan contains the breakdown of the lesson in steps after a careful study of the topic, Lesson Note is mostly the explanation of the step (s) after critical thinking.

Take for instance, the first term and Week 1 Lesson Note on Basic Science for Primary 2. The third step in delivering the lesson is listing things in a classroom. Then the note is: “Having explained the meaning of classroom, the teacher asks the pupils to look around the class and mention the things they could see”. Afterwards, if there are not enough things in the class, the teacher displays the video/pictures of classrooms again and asks the pupils to identify the objects they could see in it. The teacher writes each object on the board as it is mentioned.

From this instance, you should note that ordinarily, how the teacher goes about listing the things in a classroom is not necessarily a content of the Lesson Plan, save perhaps for the actual list although it is important for the teacher.

Lesson Note may also refer to the explanatory note which is given to students to copy into their notes so as to help them remember what the teacher taught them – i.e. the board summary. In this sense, you often should find students saying, “I’ve copied the note” or something similar with reference to note.

Similarly, Lesson Note may mean the reminder by a teacher (the author of the Lesson Plan) to guide a substitute teacher on what s/he is to do or cover. Or it may mean an assessment information after delivery (evaluation) to remind a teacher (who delivered the lesson) the areas to revisit or improve upon subsequently. Isn’t this point clear enough? I hope it is.

But… is that all the difference between Lesson Plan and Lesson Note?

Of course not, there is still a little more to it. One of such is:

2.     Technicality

Generally, Lesson Plan is more technical than Lesson Note. A well-written Lesson Plan incorporates educational theories. More so, Lesson Plan follows principles in instructional design. This is to say that to an extent, only one who understands the technicality of a lesson is able to write a very good Lesson Plan – although any willing person can learn such technical details easily. Finally on the technicality of Lesson Plan apart from Lesson Note, Lesson Plan must contain some key components – click here to see the key components of standard Lesson Plan.

All these are quite unlike Lesson Note. Lesson Note does not necessarily incorporate any educational theory neither does it follow any instructional design principle. It is an ordinary note that can be understood by any person. More so, Lesson Note does not contain any standard component.

3.     Format of Writing

Being a technical document, Lesson Plan is formal – an office requirement. And as with most office documents, Lesson Plan follows a particular format. This format is relative to the school. In other words, the format of Lesson Plan varies from school to school and one location to another. In fact, the format of Lesson Plan may depend on the subject. While some schools do not recommend a particular format, others prefer Lesson Plan in a tabular form and a few, the conventional essay format.

In contrast, Lesson Note is usually in essay format except when written alongside, and as explanation of the presentation steps of Lesson Plan.

4.     Formality

Lesson Plan is always a formal document. It is a requirement for teachers to write Lesson Plans as preparation for classes.  Generally, schools also require their teachers to submit such plan periodically – some weekly while others Termly i.e. prior to the commencement of the term.

On the contrary, Lesson Note being only a reminder to the teacher; is usually not required to be submitted to the school authority. This is of course not when Lesson Note is used in reference to the explanatory note which is given to students  – to copy into their notes. In this sense, subject teachers normally call for students’ notes for marking.

In summary, the differences between lesson plan and lesson note are:

  • A Lesson plan is a drawing of the steps/actions through which a teacher expects to deliver a lesson in order to attain the objectives of the lesson without unwanted details while lesson note is the detailed explanation of the steps/actions or a reminder of what a teacher should do.
  • Lesson plans incorporates educational theories and follows instructional design principles but lesson note does follow instructional design principles though the explanation of the steps may incorporate one or more educational theories.
  • Lesson plan has standard components but lesson note does not except when written together with lesson plan.
  • Lesson plan have more than one format but lesson note is usually in essay format.
  • Lesson plan is an official school record so it is submitted for periodic markings but lesson note is normally not submitted except when written together with lesson plan.

So, there you have it – the differences between lesson plan and lesson note.

But, why is lesson plan usually confused for lesson note or vice versa?

Well, the simple answer to this question is stated as follow. Somehow, some teachers and schools prefer to combine both in a single book while writing. Hence, the book comes to be called either of the terms interchangeably.

Were you a class captain in your school days? Do you remember your teacher telling you to copy the note from here to here but not to copy what’s up and below? Yes, that’s because such teacher combined the plan with the note.

Nonetheless, nowadays most schools and teachers are going back to strictly writing lesson plan – without extra details. This necessitates differentiating between the terms.

Last line:

This post tried to differentiate between lesson plan and lesson note. I hope it meets your need. If you think it worthwhile, please do share the post with someone who may find it helpful.

Finally, our weekly lesson guides for teachers are more appropriately lesson note because it combines lesson plan with explanatory notes. We do not expect you to download and submit the same thing bu

PLASTIC POLLUTION: ANOTHER THREAT TO THE MOTHER EARTH

PLASTIC POLLUTION: ANOTHER THREAT TO THE MOTHER EARTH

Human ingenuity has continued to change the annals of human history. Since the era of the Stone Age, human knowledge has substantially grown in leaps and bounds (beyond imaginable boundaries) such that what was hitherto considered inconceivable is today an event to reckon with. Judging from this perspective, it can be fairly concluded, that man has explored nature to such an extent that nature is subjected to his whims and caprices. This assertion aligns with the disposition of Vidal de la Blache, a French Geographer when centuries ago he advanced the concept of determinism. The concept demonstrates that everywhere exist possibilities; and man, as a master of these possibilities, is the judge of their use, thus man becomes the master of its destiny. True to this statement, it would be moderate to maintain that man remains an eternal Judge of the mother earth. The question that comes to mind however, is whether man has been a fair Judge in his court – environment.

Environmental pollution is not a new theme of discussion both in the academia and at the informal learning terrain as it is commonly a subject of household discussion and as long as man dwells within the planet earth, it would continued to be engaged and as consistently as possible about environmental matters as such issues are nearer to us than we ever imagine. Today, every man has an idea of what it means when discussing a polluted environment, such discussion revolves around, water pollution, soil pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, and what a view. Added to these forms of pollution is another nature threatening development – regarded as plastic pollution. The other forms of pollution as mentioned has been with humanity from Adam with varying degree of impacts especially with increasing human population coupled with increased quest for materialism. The new form of pollution is beginning to raise its ugly head against the mother earth, thus, a source of concern to all, regardless of sentiments.

What then, is plastic pollution and how is it threatening human existence?

Plastic pollution is the building up of plastic materials or objects ranging from plastic bottles, bottle caps, plastic bags, plastic trays, plastic containers, food packaging film and much more in the earth’s environment. Such accumulation concentrates on land and water bodies and adversely affects the soil, underground water, wildlife, wildlife habitat and humans.

Plastic pollution is categorized based on their sizes including micro, meso, or macro pollutants. Plastics are generally affordable and highly resistant to degradation (it is said that it takes about a century for an average plastic to degrade). These dual advantages give credence to the benefits which plastic enjoys over other pollutants which invariably have led to its high production.  It is estimated that about 300 million tonnes of plastic waste are generated every year (UN Environment Report 2018). Disposed plastics eventually find their way into the water bodies – the streams, rivers and ocean. Plastic waste is now so common in the natural environment that scientists have observed, though with dismay, that it could serve as a geological indicator of the Anthropocene era.

Composition of plastics

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET): found in water bottles, dispensing containers and biscuit trays.

High—density polyethylene (HDPE): found in shampoo bottles, milk bottles, freezer bags and ice cream containers.

Low—density polyethylene (LDPE): found in Bags, trays, containers and food packaging film. Polypropylene (PP): found in Potato chip bags, microwave dishes, ice cream tubs and bottle caps.

Polystyrene (PS): found in Cutlery, plastic plates and plastic cups.

Expanded polystyrene (EPS): found in Protective packaging, hot drink cups, etc.

 

Effects of plastic Pollutants on the environment   

The effects of plastic pollution are far reaching as its repercussions are becoming increasingly dotted on the human landscape.  It renders the soil infertile, making them agriculturally unproductive as it reduces the rate of aeration and infiltration into the soil especially the non biodegradable plastics. The most affected ecosystem as observed today in this regard is the aquatic system, which is made up of 70% of the earth’s landmass. The UN Report (2018) asserts that ten (10) water bodies including Niger, Indus, Nile, Amur, Mekong, Zhujiang, etc. are responsible for 90% of the sources of plastic pollutants which eventually ends up in our ocean where higher proportion of our aquatic organism especially fish species make their living. These organisms can become entangled (inability to move freely within the water environment) in circular plastic packaging materials, synthetic fishing nets and ropes, etc. and these are factors which have been responsible for the deaths of many marine organisms, such as fish, seals, turtles, and birds. Plastic pollutants also have the potential to poison animals, which subsequently affects human food supplies through the food web. Plastic pollution has been described as being highly detrimental to marine mammals, such as sea turtles, which have been found to contain large proportions of plastics in their stomach. When this occurs, the animal typically starves, because the plastic blocks the animal’s digestive tract. When fish feed on these plastics, they eventually end up on man’s table in the hotels, restaurants, and in the household, thus transferring the poison to man. Plastic bags can also clog sewers and provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes and pests, consequently increasing the transmission of vector-borne diseases like malaria. The foregoing underscores the dangers that stand before the destiny of men.

As observed, the mother earth has been placed in the care of man, how has man fared in this regard is the fundamental question that curious minds seek answer. Just like every living organism reacts when pushed to the wall (the level at which its resilience is being overstretched) so also the mother earth does – the mother earth is considered as a living system. An environmentalist once averred: “when man offends God, he forgives because He is known as a merciful God. When man offends man, sometimes man can decides to forgive, at other times he retaliates. Nature however, operates a distinct version, as it pays man in the same coin by which it was treated; it is similar to what is regarded as the “law of Karma”. Karma is known for its non-partisan and objectivity in transacting business with man and nature. Its transaction is devoid of cronyism, ethnicity, and the man-know-man syndrome that is prevalent in our world.

Time is running out and an urgent call is made to the consciousness of man to wake up to the responsibility of upholding the trust that divinity has entrusted to him. Worthy to mention that, it is not out of place for man to be confronted with new and sometimes daunting challenges as society continually evolves, what is out of place however, is to lack the necessary commitment and wherewithal to addressing these concerns.

The first step in the right direction therefore, is to address the question of production from the source, that is, the production points. Meaningful efforts channeled in this direction are certain to yield substantial results, thus, relevant environmental agencies are to see to it that manufacturers adopt alternative and environmentally friendly approach. In line with this, recycling should be given prominence by encouraging households and individuals to avoid indiscriminate disposal and ensure that disposable plastics are re-used and recycled. To ensure compliance and sustainability in this regard, adherers should be compensated by giving tax holiday to companies and monetary exchange for individuals and families who make “plastics return” to the companies.

Secondly, individuals should begin to take personal responsibilities towards environmental issues, by developing the mindset that we have no other place to live or survive except the one which we currently occupy – the earth. Such changes include rejecting plastics at the hotels, restaurants, provision stores, events or occasions and other places that plastics glare at us. This paradigm shift would not only ensure environmental posterity, but it will create a place worthy for all to live.

The third position has to do with enlightenment of the populace (about the dangers inherent in the consumption of non biodegradable plastics and the need to adopt better and alternative usage). This should be carried out by employing available means of mass media communication (verbal and non-verbal) to reaching out to the populace. In addition to this, campaign should also focus on addressing the unceasing quest for materialism in the society. This is to bring home the very fact that a society that is not informed is deformed.

Fourthly, countries of the world are linked together more than ever in an ecosystem; generally referred to as global village. It is a clarion call therefore, for global community particularly the environmental organizations such as United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),Earth System Governance Project (ESGP), Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), etc. to increase their tempo in ensuring legislation compliance and sanctions to erring countries. The place of such global efforts cannot be overstretched in making the earth a safer place.

In conclusion, we have evolved as a society into a time where activities of individuals, groups or society cannot be overlooked; it beckons on all concerned stakeholders therefore, (individuals, groups, society and organizations) to ensure that we are not consumed in the spirit of determinism.

 

 

 

FLOODING: A RECURRENT MENACE WITHOUT A CONCRETE PANACEA

Every nations of the world whether regarded as first or third world countries are confronted with arrays of problems, ranging from social, economic, natural, moral and what a view. Many individuals have had to pay with their sacred life especially because they lack the coping strategies or because of weak infrastructural base to help in such demanding conditions. Others are eventually subjected to life trauma because their livelihood grows wings before their very eyes having nothing to hold on to after such unforgettable experience.

Flooding can be said to fall under a “mixed category”. It is term mixed because the conditions that enhance or retard flood scenario can either be natural or what others referred to as nature at work and it could also be artificial (anthropogenic) or what is generally regarded as man-made as a result of the activities of man.

From time immemorial, right from the bible days, excess water (flood) has constituted a menace that every human being never wanted to have a share of. We were told by the Christian book of life (the Bible), that when God was angry with humanity in the days of Noah, he used water as a way of punishment to wipe out that generation. Since that historical event till present, water has continued to be either a blessing or a curse. When it is “down poured” in the right proportion, the rain can be scored or adjudged by man as a blessing as it did not only help man to grow his crops but also provides a means of livelihood for those engaged in fishing and the Fadama crop growers when the floodplain is suitable for cultivation much after the flood recedes. Individual’s however, begins to have divergent perspective about water when it is down-poured in excess invariably resulting to flooding and what is supposed be seemingly a blessing becomes a fury, a cause for concerns, thus rendering the Expensive Shit album, released in 1975, by late Afro-Beat King, Fela Anikulapo-Kuti, that water had no enemy somewhat invalid.

Flooding has constituted a nightmare especially to those living at river banks or at coastal areas. Unlike other natural disaster which takes fortune to combat like earthquake and tsunami as it is presently taking away the happiness of the Indonesian where it has claimed over 2,085 lives at the time of writing this article – October, 2018. Flood however, is predictable, and efforts have consistently being made by relevant agencies across board to ensure that they dish out necessary information to concerned stakeholders – coastal dwellers, government and non-governmental agencies among others. However, it seemed flood has defiled all efforts put in place by relevant stakeholders as observations continue to show that it is gaining an edge that is, having an upper hand. Nigeria has had its own share of flooding experiences just like other countries across globe such as India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, China, among others and Nigeria is among the fifteen countries in the world which accounts for 80% to flood vulnerability.

In the year 2012, flood took a new outlook and different dimension and it brought to Nigeria and its inhabitants lessons they would not forget in a hurry. Lives were lost, properties worth millions of naira destroyed and many livelihoods were swept off. Ever since this period, the menace of flood has been consistent with varying degrees of destruction and has continued with its ravaging “sword” ready to slay the undiscerning minds and cause irreparable damage. The 2018 flooding episode almost had similar scale of severity upon Nigerians but for the timely intervention by the Federal government who declared it a state of emergency.

The question that curious minds are quick to ask, is whether flood is a rocket science and while has it defiled all efforts, despite reasonable research and concerted efforts. The writer aligns his sentiment with those along this line of reasoning. Across length and breath, spanning north, south, east and west, unpalatable stories and scenes are seen by all and sundry and the cries of the devastated are heard even by the deaf.

The solution(s) to these perennial muddle from analysts’ perspectives seem more reactive rather than proactive. Nigeria have been widely acknowledged as a people who create “reactive solutions” – solving problems after the damaging effects rather than articulating comprehensive  proactive measures or advancing “proactive solution” to forestall or avert the “known evil”.

Nigeria is endowed with two major rivers – the Niger and Benue with several tributaries from diverse water bodies; the Niger is regarded as the third-longest river in Africa, exceeded only by the Nile and the Congo. This understanding portends that the Niger harbors vast amount of water as a basin (if it overflows flood is inevitable), and it should therefore be a ringing bell to any serious government that truly cares about the welfare of its citizen. The Minister of Water Resource, Suleiman Adamu, gave a better outlook about this scenario. He explained that: “going by the 2018 predictions, water levels on the River Niger and Benue among other major river systems would rise and remain high during the rainy season. He raised concern that some dams in the country are getting silted up, with the storage capacity also reducing. He said this would cause a lot of the water to be spilled through the waterways”. The words of the Minister are not just instructive but reveal a simple and an effective solution to some of the evils that flood can pose. From the Minister’s submission that some dams are getting silted up, again one would be    desirous to ask, when a dam is silted, what is the right thing to do?

A former Nigerian leader, President Musa Yar’adua would have delivered this mandate when he flagged –off the dredging of the Niger during his administration, years after his demise, many still regarded him as a missed messiah in Nigeria’s historical annals. Many have argued including highly placed academia and experts from various segments that flooding is a necessary evil and therefore cannot be prevented, and so we have to annually live with this necessary evil. But even when one is to consent with this line of reasoning, does it also mean that as a nation we must sit and fold our hands until we are being consumed by this necessary evil?

In societies where issues are put in right perspective,  peoples’ welfare are given topmost priority, months before disaster sets in, infrastructural facilities – physical, economic, social etc are put in place (as a shock absorber) to reduce the risk even if it cannot be averted, this is in view to enhancing the peoples’ coping strategies. Going by this arrangement, the havoc that such disaster is expected to wreck upon its citizen is drastically curtailed. Can’t we then have similar arrangement in our clime, where instead of disbursing millions of naira (where callous millionaires are made) to cater for flood victims by setting up internally displaced camps (IDPs camps) across schools, churches and mosques taking care of their feedings, security, sanitation and health, thus, rendering people refugee in their own land.

Does it take a national budget to dredge the Niger which holds enormous water capacity such that when it swells up and overflows its boundary, disaster is bound to happen. Can’t we build up the initiative of emptying the dams during the dry season for irrigation purposes (which is another way of ensuring food production throughout the year) with the expectation that the rains would soon be on its way. These are questions that beg for answers.

Although, many have advocated adjustments in lifestyle as a way of curbing the menace of flood such as avoiding indiscriminate dumping of refuse on water channels such as gutters and drainages’, not building on water channels or close to water bodies, moving upland or into the hinterlands, etc are some of the reasons advanced by this school of thought. While one considers their argument to be relevant, one can strongly contest that these are not enough reasons to intensify the fury of flood, if from the foregoing; robust preparations are put in place. It is widely acknowledged that human beings are the most inordinate set of animals to control, such that even when warnings are issued from NIMET and other government agencies for people to relocate from vulnerable terrain, the question they ask is: where should I evacuate to? Knowing the caliber of people being led should therefore inspire the government of the need to continually think out of the box in solving the problems of its people, and flood is such an in-submissive warrior until it is tamed from the root.

While one appreciate frantic efforts by the government of the day, one can only demand that investment should be channeled at the appropriate sectors including ministry of environment, National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA), etc at the right time to ensure that the fury of flood, if not completely averted, “its slaying sword” would be turned blunt and many especially the “poor amongst us” are not left at the mercy of nature.

Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class management,

Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class management,

PROLOGUE

This document/article titled, Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class Management is a paper presentation by Mrs. Charity Abuadiye from Yandutse College on the 5th November, 2016 at Sensitization/Teacherpreneurship Seminar for teachers at Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology organized by LeadinGuides Educational Technology (http://www.LeadinGuides.Com) in partnership with Learnfast Academy.

There are many overwhelming duties of teachers. This is why some people believe they cannot be teachers. One of such overwhelming duty is Attendance Register; some (new) teachers feel there is no need for the attendance register because there is often “no time for it” and it is not included in the timetable. It is often seen as a little work that can be done “some other time” after the major work has been done. In the end, they end up not entering the register for that day, and sometimes, for two or three days!

Well, the attendance register is important as we will learn from our speaker soon.  The lapses that exist in prompt keeping of the register accrue from the problem of classroom and time management. When we fall behind our schedules, some things will definitely be left undone. And if a teacher cannot manage and direct his/her class to attain the lesson objective at the shortest time possible, s/he will definitely fall behind time.  Mrs. Charity will in this following discussion share her wealth of experience – how she has jugged things all along her teaching profession.

 

 

 

The Author

Mrs. Charity is a veteran teacher. She has long years of teaching experience at small, medium and large schools. She was one time a staff of St. Thomas Royal School, Airport Road Kano and Rainbow schools, Nassarawa G.R.A Kano. Added to classroom teaching, she has also acted in different capacities. She is currently of staff of Yandutse College

 

The Seminar

The program is aimed at enhancing or improving the overall work performance of teachers by acquainting them with professional standards. That is, teaching them how to do the right things (effectiveness) in the right way (efficiency).

 

It is a known fact that there are four common reasons why people do not perform the way they should:

  • They do not know what they are supposed to do;
  • They do not know how to do it;
  • They do not know why they should; and
  • There are obstacles beyond their control

John Maxwell identified the first three reasons to be associated with starting a job correctly while the fourth is associated with problems at work, at home, and in life in general. Consequently, the seminar is directed at equipping the trainees with the What, How and Why of teaching and tips on how to handle emotional problems at the place of work (their schools).

TRAINING OUTLINE

The training has four training modules. Each module is meant to address a particular issue.

  • Standard practices in teaching – this module focuses on some primary tasks of a teacher in relation to general teaching methods and statutory records kept by teachers. The module include: Lesson Plan Preparation, Classroom Management, and the use of Scheme of Work, Report of Work (Diary) and Attendance Register.
  • Teachers and ICT – this module acquaints teachers with available technological teaching aids (educational technologies), the method and the skills required of a teacher to effectively utilize these technologies. Participants will be offered discount in Computer Training Institutes across the state.
  • Teacher Entrepreneurship – this module empowers teachers with entrepreneurial methods which may be adopted to enhance their work performance. Teachers’ entrepreneurship (teacherpreneurship) is of great benefit to the teacher, the school and the pupils/students.
  • Developing Self confidence and Teachers Emotional Composure – invariably, one of the hardly-to-get quality among beginning teachers is self confidence and necessary ‘teachers’ emotional composure. Nonetheless, teachers ought to possess and be capable  of  meeting the  emotional,  physical, intellectual and social needs of the student/pupils

 

 

 

Mrs. Charity was invited to speak on what and how of part one of module one which include Class management, Staff Time Book, School timetable and Attendance Register. Mr. Samuel Utuedeye of Sankoree International School presented the part two of the module one which comprises Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson Plan preparation. Click here to view the part two.

The seminar was primarily for (beginning) teachers who have not undergone a professional teachers’ training. They include secondary school leavers and graduates in fields other than education who has just been employed as a teacher in a school, seeking employment as a teacher or have interest in teaching. However, experienced teachers, school administrators and school proprietors were at the seminar. Consequently, the paper only served to spur and as reference for discussion. Similarly, the items of the title are not discussed in-depth in this paper. It is however adequate to serve its primary objective – to inform new teachers of their existence and encourage the use. The How-To was the center of discussion during the seminar.

 

 

TIMEBOOK

A time book is a mostly primeval accounting record that registers the hours worked by employees in a certain organization in a certain period. These records usually contain names of employees, type of work, hours worked and sometimes wage paid. This time book was used by the book keeper to determine the wages to be paid.

SCHOOL TIME TABLE

A school timetable is a table for coordinating these four elements. Pupils, teachers, rooms, time slot (period) is a frame work to run the school properly. A time table is a powerful administrative tool.

TYPES OF SCHOOL TIMETABLE

 

A good timetable must be complete and comprehensive in every way.

There are seven types of school timetable:

  • Master timetable
  • Class-wise timetable
  • Teacher-wise timetable
  • Vacant-period timetable
  • Game timetable
  • Co-curricular timetable
  • Homework timetable

CLASS ATTENDANCE REGISTER

A register is an official list of people who are present at an institution such as a school. It is mark morning and afternoon. Boys with blue ink while girls with red ink in the entering of names.

DESCRIPTION OF A REGISTER

Total attendance for term is the total for boys and girls present in term.

  • TOTAL TIMES SCHOOL WAS OPEN IN A TERM: A week is 10, so if school opens for 12 weeks that means 120 or there about.
  • AVERAGE ATTENDANCE OF BOYS AND GIRLS: Add total of boys and girls to get the total attendance for the term
  • WEEK ENDING: At the top of the register, you write the date week end e.g. 4/11/16
  • PERCENTAGE: The percentage of classes attended (calculated using present/total x 100)

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

Management connotes being in charge. It suggests the act of controlling, directing, supervising e.t.c. There is therefore no need to argue about the need for management for the classroom teacher. This is because, the classroom teacher does all theses and in his managerial role in the classroom. Besides, in line with the assertions of Coombs (1968) in Ejiogu (1990), “…any productive system, whatever its aims and technology, requires management. It must have leadership and direction, supervision and coordination, constant evaluation and adjustment”. Ejiogu goes on to suggest a cycle in which the functions of the management are exercised as: decision making, programming, communicating, controlling and reappraising. All these, a good teacher take in his stride as part of classroom management. We have five categories of classroom disturbing behaviour as shown in the list below:

  • Physical Aggression – Pushing others, pulling at them, trickling, scuffing, bullying, dominating others (by words), arguing, and interrupting.
  • Peer Affinity – Making exaggerated of affected gestures, moving without permission, wandering around.
  • Attention Seeking – Making unnecessary noise (for example hitting pencil on desk, dropping books e.t.c.)
  • Challenge of Authority – Talking aloud (contrary to class usage), creating a disturbance, disobeying authority (for example, refusing to move when told, chewing gum e.t.c.).
  • Critical Dissension – Making critic or complaints that are unjust or not constructive, laughing so as to disturb others.

HOW THEN DOES HE PURSUE THIS VIGOROUS TASK OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT FOR EFFECTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE LEARNING?

LEADERSHIP

Leadership could be seen as the ability to direct the actions of others for the achievement of a common goal. The common goal of the teacher and his students is effective teaching/learning outcome. It is the desire of every teacher that his students should learn well and excel. However, it is a different thing to succeed in leading these students to accomplish this. It is common knowledge that children obey most, one whom they admire and respect. In his leadership role therefore the teacher need to carve out for himself an admirable personality which will command the respect of his students. This requires that he should be at home with his subject-matter, have good command of the language of communication, be neat and smart always, be morally upright, be calm, organized and always living up to what he teaches. The teacher as a leader should show sufficient interest and concern in the affairs of the students under him, give them opportunities to participate in the governance of the class.

PLANNING

The quality of any programme is often reflected in the quality of its planning. The teacher, therefore, plans for what he would teach on a particular day and at what particular time. He determines in advance how he is going to teach it and what materials would be required. The teacher plans for the classroom activities to teach on a particular date and time using the objective and goal.

ORGANIZATION

Management involves the utilization of available resources in the achievement of formulated objectives. The teacher arranges the students in the class to suit the different needs of the children. The smaller and shorter children may need to sit in the front of the class to be able to see the teacher. The ones with sight and auditory defects may also need to be near the teacher. The general arrangements will such that would be neat, orderly without being intimidating. However, “…no classroom arrangement is perfectly satisfactory for all activities and all class”.

DIRECTING

It is the duty of the teacher to direct the class activities directly or indirectly.

SUPERVISION

Delegation of duty does not mean relegation. Supervision involves observation and guidance. The teacher supervises even his delegated duties. HE supervises all the activities of his students both inside and outside the classroom environment. He supervises their group discussion classes; experimental lessons, assignment s, (and depending on the class) even their note copying and break periods. He supervises their out-of-class activities like excursion trips, sports and games (again depending on the class) even their reading and eating habits and how they generally spend their time.

EVALUATION

Another managerial duty of teacher is to evaluate his students, and ensure that all the activities so performed have, yielded the desired result.

CONTROLLING

The word control most times conveys rulership, authority, restrain, e.t.c. In classroom management, it could be accepted as being used to restrain some of the excessive behaviour of the students, but not in the form of rulership strictly speaking. As earlier indicated, the best form of control is good relationship and a respectable personality. This is because children generally do not like to offend anyone they love/admire. The respectable and admirable personality, therefore, form the foundation for good class control. The pattern of direct equally differs from teacher, students and even familiarity with the students. As noted under leadership, the teacher while maintaining a friendly relationship with the students should not be too friendly as to be taken for granted. If he is new in the class, it is advisable to temper control with caution as he gradually comes to know the individual personality traits, and they too, get to know him better.

 

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies is a limited-liability company (LLC) located in Sabon Fegi, Badawa Layout Kano.

If you have any question or comment concerning any of our products and services or this paper or any other, kindly forward it to: [email protected] or any of these mobile numbers: 08067689217, 07018660605, 07056053189, and 09091781523

PROLOGUE

This document/article titled, Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class Management is a paper presentation by Mrs. Charity Abuadiye from Yandutse College on the 5th November, 2016 at Sensitization/Teacherpreneurship Seminar for teachers at Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology organized by LeadinGuides Educational Technology (http://www.LeadinGuides.Com) in partnership with Learnfast Academy.

There are many overwhelming duties of teachers. This is why some people believe they cannot be teachers. One of such overwhelming duty is Attendance Register; some (new) teachers feel there is no need for the attendance register because there is often “no time for it” and it is not included in the timetable. It is often seen as a little work that can be done “some other time” after the major work has been done. In the end, they end up not entering the register for that day, and sometimes, for two or three days!

Well, the attendance register is important as we will learn from our speaker soon.  The lapses that exist in prompt keeping of the register accrue from the problem of classroom and time management. When we fall behind our schedules, some things will definitely be left undone. And if a teacher cannot manage and direct his/her class to attain the lesson objective at the shortest time possible, s/he will definitely fall behind time.  Mrs. Charity will in this following discussion share her wealth of experience – how she has jugged things all along her teaching profession.

 

 

 

The Author

Mrs. Charity is a veteran teacher. She has long years of teaching experience at small, medium and large schools. She was one time a staff of St. Thomas Royal School, Airport Road Kano and Rainbow schools, Nassarawa G.R.A Kano. Added to classroom teaching, she has also acted in different capacities. She is currently of staff of Yandutse College

 

The Seminar

The program is aimed at enhancing or improving the overall work performance of teachers by acquainting them with professional standards. That is, teaching them how to do the right things (effectiveness) in the right way (efficiency).

 

It is a known fact that there are four common reasons why people do not perform the way they should:

  • They do not know what they are supposed to do;
  • They do not know how to do it;
  • They do not know why they should; and
  • There are obstacles beyond their control

John Maxwell identified the first three reasons to be associated with starting a job correctly while the fourth is associated with problems at work, at home, and in life in general. Consequently, the seminar is directed at equipping the trainees with the What, How and Why of teaching and tips on how to handle emotional problems at the place of work (their schools).

TRAINING OUTLINE

The training has four training modules. Each module is meant to address a particular issue.

  • Standard practices in teaching – this module focuses on some primary tasks of a teacher in relation to general teaching methods and statutory records kept by teachers. The module include: Lesson Plan Preparation, Classroom Management, and the use of Scheme of Work, Report of Work (Diary) and Attendance Register.
  • Teachers and ICT – this module acquaints teachers with available technological teaching aids (educational technologies), the method and the skills required of a teacher to effectively utilize these technologies. Participants will be offered discount in Computer Training Institutes across the state.
  • Teacher Entrepreneurship – this module empowers teachers with entrepreneurial methods which may be adopted to enhance their work performance. Teachers’ entrepreneurship (teacherpreneurship) is of great benefit to the teacher, the school and the pupils/students.
  • Developing Self confidence and Teachers Emotional Composure – invariably, one of the hardly-to-get quality among beginning teachers is self confidence and necessary ‘teachers’ emotional composure. Nonetheless, teachers ought to possess and be capable  of  meeting the  emotional,  physical, intellectual and social needs of the student/pupils

 

 

 

Mrs. Charity was invited to speak on what and how of part one of module one which include Class management, Staff Time Book, School timetable and Attendance Register. Mr. Samuel Utuedeye of Sankoree International School presented the part two of the module one which comprises Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson Plan preparation. Click here to view the part two.

The seminar was primarily for (beginning) teachers who have not undergone a professional teachers’ training. They include secondary school leavers and graduates in fields other than education who has just been employed as a teacher in a school, seeking employment as a teacher or have interest in teaching. However, experienced teachers, school administrators and school proprietors were at the seminar. Consequently, the paper only served to spur and as reference for discussion. Similarly, the items of the title are not discussed in-depth in this paper. It is however adequate to serve its primary objective – to inform new teachers of their existence and encourage the use. The How-To was the center of discussion during the seminar.

 

 

TIMEBOOK

A time book is a mostly primeval accounting record that registers the hours worked by employees in a certain organization in a certain period. These records usually contain names of employees, type of work, hours worked and sometimes wage paid. This time book was used by the book keeper to determine the wages to be paid.

SCHOOL TIME TABLE

A school timetable is a table for coordinating these four elements. Pupils, teachers, rooms, time slot (period) is a frame work to run the school properly. A time table is a powerful administrative tool.

TYPES OF SCHOOL TIMETABLE

 

A good timetable must be complete and comprehensive in every way.

There are seven types of school timetable:

  • Master timetable
  • Class-wise timetable
  • Teacher-wise timetable
  • Vacant-period timetable
  • Game timetable
  • Co-curricular timetable
  • Homework timetable

CLASS ATTENDANCE REGISTER

A register is an official list of people who are present at an institution such as a school. It is mark morning and afternoon. Boys with blue ink while girls with red ink in the entering of names.

DESCRIPTION OF A REGISTER

Total attendance for term is the total for boys and girls present in term.

  • TOTAL TIMES SCHOOL WAS OPEN IN A TERM: A week is 10, so if school opens for 12 weeks that means 120 or there about.
  • AVERAGE ATTENDANCE OF BOYS AND GIRLS: Add total of boys and girls to get the total attendance for the term
  • WEEK ENDING: At the top of the register, you write the date week end e.g. 4/11/16
  • PERCENTAGE: The percentage of classes attended (calculated using present/total x 100)

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

Management connotes being in charge. It suggests the act of controlling, directing, supervising e.t.c. There is therefore no need to argue about the need for management for the classroom teacher. This is because, the classroom teacher does all theses and in his managerial role in the classroom. Besides, in line with the assertions of Coombs (1968) in Ejiogu (1990), “…any productive system, whatever its aims and technology, requires management. It must have leadership and direction, supervision and coordination, constant evaluation and adjustment”. Ejiogu goes on to suggest a cycle in which the functions of the management are exercised as: decision making, programming, communicating, controlling and reappraising. All these, a good teacher take in his stride as part of classroom management. We have five categories of classroom disturbing behaviour as shown in the list below:

  • Physical Aggression – Pushing others, pulling at them, trickling, scuffing, bullying, dominating others (by words), arguing, and interrupting.
  • Peer Affinity – Making exaggerated of affected gestures, moving without permission, wandering around.
  • Attention Seeking – Making unnecessary noise (for example hitting pencil on desk, dropping books e.t.c.)
  • Challenge of Authority – Talking aloud (contrary to class usage), creating a disturbance, disobeying authority (for example, refusing to move when told, chewing gum e.t.c.).
  • Critical Dissension – Making critic or complaints that are unjust or not constructive, laughing so as to disturb others.

HOW THEN DOES HE PURSUE THIS VIGOROUS TASK OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT FOR EFFECTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE LEARNING?

LEADERSHIP

Leadership could be seen as the ability to direct the actions of others for the achievement of a common goal. The common goal of the teacher and his students is effective teaching/learning outcome. It is the desire of every teacher that his students should learn well and excel. However, it is a different thing to succeed in leading these students to accomplish this. It is common knowledge that children obey most, one whom they admire and respect. In his leadership role therefore the teacher need to carve out for himself an admirable personality which will command the respect of his students. This requires that he should be at home with his subject-matter, have good command of the language of communication, be neat and smart always, be morally upright, be calm, organized and always living up to what he teaches. The teacher as a leader should show sufficient interest and concern in the affairs of the students under him, give them opportunities to participate in the governance of the class.

PLANNING

The quality of any programme is often reflected in the quality of its planning. The teacher, therefore, plans for what he would teach on a particular day and at what particular time. He determines in advance how he is going to teach it and what materials would be required. The teacher plans for the classroom activities to teach on a particular date and time using the objective and goal.

ORGANIZATION

Management involves the utilization of available resources in the achievement of formulated objectives. The teacher arranges the students in the class to suit the different needs of the children. The smaller and shorter children may need to sit in the front of the class to be able to see the teacher. The ones with sight and auditory defects may also need to be near the teacher. The general arrangements will such that would be neat, orderly without being intimidating. However, “…no classroom arrangement is perfectly satisfactory for all activities and all class”.

DIRECTING

It is the duty of the teacher to direct the class activities directly or indirectly.

SUPERVISION

Delegation of duty does not mean relegation. Supervision involves observation and guidance. The teacher supervises even his delegated duties. HE supervises all the activities of his students both inside and outside the classroom environment. He supervises their group discussion classes; experimental lessons, assignment s, (and depending on the class) even their note copying and break periods. He supervises their out-of-class activities like excursion trips, sports and games (again depending on the class) even their reading and eating habits and how they generally spend their time.

EVALUATION

Another managerial duty of teacher is to evaluate his students, and ensure that all the activities so performed have, yielded the desired result.

CONTROLLING

The word control most times conveys rulership, authority, restrain, e.t.c. In classroom management, it could be accepted as being used to restrain some of the excessive behaviour of the students, but not in the form of rulership strictly speaking. As earlier indicated, the best form of control is good relationship and a respectable personality. This is because children generally do not like to offend anyone they love/admire. The respectable and admirable personality, therefore, form the foundation for good class control. The pattern of direct equally differs from teacher, students and even familiarity with the students. As noted under leadership, the teacher while maintaining a friendly relationship with the students should not be too friendly as to be taken for granted. If he is new in the class, it is advisable to temper control with caution as he gradually comes to know the individual personality traits, and they too, get to know him better.

 

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies is a limited-liability company (LLC) located in Sabon Fegi, Badawa Layout Kano.

If you have any question or comment concerning any of our products and services or this paper or any other, kindly forward it to: [email protected] or any of these mobile numbers: 08067689217, 07018660605, 07056053189, and 09091781523

PROLOGUE

This document/article titled, Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class Management is a paper presentation by Mrs. Charity Abuadiye from Yandutse College on the 5th November, 2016 at Sensitization/Teacherpreneurship Seminar for teachers at Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology organized by LeadinGuides Educational Technology (http://www.LeadinGuides.Com) in partnership with Learnfast Academy.

There are many overwhelming duties of teachers. This is why some people believe they cannot be teachers. One of such overwhelming duty is Attendance Register; some (new) teachers feel there is no need for the attendance register because there is often “no time for it” and it is not included in the timetable. It is often seen as a little work that can be done “some other time” after the major work has been done. In the end, they end up not entering the register for that day, and sometimes, for two or three days!

Well, the attendance register is important as we will learn from our speaker soon.  The lapses that exist in prompt keeping of the register accrue from the problem of classroom and time management. When we fall behind our schedules, some things will definitely be left undone. And if a teacher cannot manage and direct his/her class to attain the lesson objective at the shortest time possible, s/he will definitely fall behind time.  Mrs. Charity will in this following discussion share her wealth of experience – how she has jugged things all along her teaching profession.

The Author

Mrs. Charity is a veteran teacher. She has long years of teaching experience at small, medium and large schools. She was one time a staff of St. Thomas Royal School, Airport Road Kano and Rainbow schools, Nassarawa G.R.A Kano. Added to classroom teaching, she has also acted in different capacities. She is currently of staff of Yandutse College

 

The Seminar

The program is aimed at enhancing or improving the overall work performance of teachers by acquainting them with professional standards. That is, teaching them how to do the right things (effectiveness) in the right way (efficiency).

 

It is a known fact that there are four common reasons why people do not perform the way they should:

  • They do not know what they are supposed to do;
  • They do not know how to do it;
  • They do not know why they should; and
  • There are obstacles beyond their control

John Maxwell identified the first three reasons to be associated with starting a job correctly while the fourth is associated with problems at work, at home, and in life in general. Consequently, the seminar is directed at equipping the trainees with the What, How and Why of teaching and tips on how to handle emotional problems at the place of work (their schools).

TRAINING OUTLINE

The training has four training modules. Each module is meant to address a particular issue.

  • Standard practices in teaching – this module focuses on some primary tasks of a teacher in relation to general teaching methods and statutory records kept by teachers. The module include: Lesson Plan Preparation, Classroom Management, and the use of Scheme of Work, Report of Work (Diary) and Attendance Register.
  • Teachers and ICT – this module acquaints teachers with available technological teaching aids (educational technologies), the method and the skills required of a teacher to effectively utilize these technologies. Participants will be offered discount in Computer Training Institutes across the state.
  • Teacher Entrepreneurship – this module empowers teachers with entrepreneurial methods which may be adopted to enhance their work performance. Teachers’ entrepreneurship (teacherpreneurship) is of great benefit to the teacher, the school and the pupils/students.
  • Developing Self confidence and Teachers Emotional Composure – invariably, one of the hardly-to-get quality among beginning teachers is self confidence and necessary ‘teachers’ emotional composure. Nonetheless, teachers ought to possess and be capable  of  meeting the  emotional,  physical, intellectual and social needs of the student/pupils

 

 

 

Mrs. Charity was invited to speak on what and how of part one of module one which include Class management, Staff Time Book, School timetable and Attendance Register. Mr. Samuel Utuedeye of Sankoree International School presented the part two of the module one which comprises Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson Plan preparation. Click here to view the part two.

The seminar was primarily for (beginning) teachers who have not undergone a professional teachers’ training. They include secondary school leavers and graduates in fields other than education who has just been employed as a teacher in a school, seeking employment as a teacher or have interest in teaching. However, experienced teachers, school administrators and school proprietors were at the seminar. Consequently, the paper only served to spur and as reference for discussion. Similarly, the items of the title are not discussed in-depth in this paper. It is however adequate to serve its primary objective – to inform new teachers of their existence and encourage the use. The How-To was the center of discussion during the seminar.

 

 

TIMEBOOK

A time book is a mostly primeval accounting record that registers the hours worked by employees in a certain organization in a certain period. These records usually contain names of employees, type of work, hours worked and sometimes wage paid. This time book was used by the book keeper to determine the wages to be paid.

SCHOOL TIME TABLE

A school timetable is a table for coordinating these four elements. Pupils, teachers, rooms, time slot (period) is a frame work to run the school properly. A time table is a powerful administrative tool.

TYPES OF SCHOOL TIMETABLE

 

A good timetable must be complete and comprehensive in every way.

There are seven types of school timetable:

  • Master timetable
  • Class-wise timetable
  • Teacher-wise timetable
  • Vacant-period timetable
  • Game timetable
  • Co-curricular timetable
  • Homework timetable

CLASS ATTENDANCE REGISTER

A register is an official list of people who are present at an institution such as a school. It is mark morning and afternoon. Boys with blue ink while girls with red ink in the entering of names.

DESCRIPTION OF A REGISTER

Total attendance for term is the total for boys and girls present in term.

  • TOTAL TIMES SCHOOL WAS OPEN IN A TERM: A week is 10, so if school opens for 12 weeks that means 120 or there about.
  • AVERAGE ATTENDANCE OF BOYS AND GIRLS: Add total of boys and girls to get the total attendance for the term
  • WEEK ENDING: At the top of the register, you write the date week end e.g. 4/11/16
  • PERCENTAGE: The percentage of classes attended (calculated using present/total x 100)

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

Management connotes being in charge. It suggests the act of controlling, directing, supervising e.t.c. There is therefore no need to argue about the need for management for the classroom teacher. This is because, the classroom teacher does all theses and in his managerial role in the classroom. Besides, in line with the assertions of Coombs (1968) in Ejiogu (1990), “…any productive system, whatever its aims and technology, requires management. It must have leadership and direction, supervision and coordination, constant evaluation and adjustment”. Ejiogu goes on to suggest a cycle in which the functions of the management are exercised as: decision making, programming, communicating, controlling and reappraising. All these, a good teacher take in his stride as part of classroom management. We have five categories of classroom disturbing behaviour as shown in the list below:

  • Physical Aggression – Pushing others, pulling at them, trickling, scuffing, bullying, dominating others (by words), arguing, and interrupting.
  • Peer Affinity – Making exaggerated of affected gestures, moving without permission, wandering around.
  • Attention Seeking – Making unnecessary noise (for example hitting pencil on desk, dropping books e.t.c.)
  • Challenge of Authority – Talking aloud (contrary to class usage), creating a disturbance, disobeying authority (for example, refusing to move when told, chewing gum e.t.c.).
  • Critical Dissension – Making critic or complaints that are unjust or not constructive, laughing so as to disturb others.

HOW THEN DOES HE PURSUE THIS VIGOROUS TASK OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT FOR EFFECTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE LEARNING?

LEADERSHIP

Leadership could be seen as the ability to direct the actions of others for the achievement of a common goal. The common goal of the teacher and his students is effective teaching/learning outcome. It is the desire of every teacher that his students should learn well and excel. However, it is a different thing to succeed in leading these students to accomplish this. It is common knowledge that children obey most, one whom they admire and respect. In his leadership role therefore the teacher need to carve out for himself an admirable personality which will command the respect of his students. This requires that he should be at home with his subject-matter, have good command of the language of communication, be neat and smart always, be morally upright, be calm, organized and always living up to what he teaches. The teacher as a leader should show sufficient interest and concern in the affairs of the students under him, give them opportunities to participate in the governance of the class.

PLANNING

The quality of any programme is often reflected in the quality of its planning. The teacher, therefore, plans for what he would teach on a particular day and at what particular time. He determines in advance how he is going to teach it and what materials would be required. The teacher plans for the classroom activities to teach on a particular date and time using the objective and goal.

ORGANIZATION

Management involves the utilization of available resources in the achievement of formulated objectives. The teacher arranges the students in the class to suit the different needs of the children. The smaller and shorter children may need to sit in the front of the class to be able to see the teacher. The ones with sight and auditory defects may also need to be near the teacher. The general arrangements will such that would be neat, orderly without being intimidating. However, “…no classroom arrangement is perfectly satisfactory for all activities and all class”.

DIRECTING

It is the duty of the teacher to direct the class activities directly or indirectly.

SUPERVISION

Delegation of duty does not mean relegation. Supervision involves observation and guidance. The teacher supervises even his delegated duties. HE supervises all the activities of his students both inside and outside the classroom environment. He supervises their group discussion classes; experimental lessons, assignment s, (and depending on the class) even their note copying and break periods. He supervises their out-of-class activities like excursion trips, sports and games (again depending on the class) even their reading and eating habits and how they generally spend their time.

EVALUATION

Another managerial duty of teacher is to evaluate his students, and ensure that all the activities so performed have, yielded the desired result.

CONTROLLING

The word control most times conveys rulership, authority, restrain, e.t.c. In classroom management, it could be accepted as being used to restrain some of the excessive behaviour of the students, but not in the form of rulership strictly speaking. As earlier indicated, the best form of control is good relationship and a respectable personality. This is because children generally do not like to offend anyone they love/admire. The respectable and admirable personality, therefore, form the foundation for good class control. The pattern of direct equally differs from teacher, students and even familiarity with the students. As noted under leadership, the teacher while maintaining a friendly relationship with the students should not be too friendly as to be taken for granted. If he is new in the class, it is advisable to temper control with caution as he gradually comes to know the individual personality traits, and they too, get to know him better.

 

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies is a limited-liability company (LLC) located in Sabon Fegi, Badawa Layout Kano.

If you have any question or comment concerning any of our products and services or this paper or any other, kindly forward it to: [email protected] or any of these mobile numbers: 08067689217, 07018660605, 07056053189, and 09091781523

SCHEME OF WORK, DIARY & LESSON PLAN/NOTES

SCHEME OF WORK, DIARY & LESSON PLAN/NOTES

PROLOGUE

This document/article titled, Staff Time Book, School Timetable, Class Attendance Register & Class Management is a paper presentation by Mrs. Charity Abuadiye from Yandutse College on the 5th November, 2016 at Sensitization/Teacherpreneurship Seminar for teachers at Federal College of Agricultural Produce Technology organized by LeadinGuides Educational Technology (http://www.LeadinGuides.Com) in partnership with Learnfast Academy.

Scheme of Work, Diary, lesson plan/note preparation

It is a general conception that teachers are meant to teach and to teach alone. As students, we are quick to pass judgment on a particular lesson, class or lecture –“that class was interesting, boring e.t.c.”, “I like or hate that topic” we will say. We didn’t actually border whether the teacher does anything behind the hood or whether s/he is guided by set policies. Consequently, for those of us that didn’t go to teachers college or received any teachers training, the subject of Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson plan preparation is a new study for us.

For those of us that are as thus said, some have learnt the act of Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson Plan Preparation by observation and practice while some still struggle to master it.

For the two set however, the intrigues of using these records is still unveiled to us. Hence, the need for our first topic of discussion: Scheme of Work, Diary, and lesson plan/note preparation. Experience, it is said to be the best teacher. The facilitator of this discussion will be sharing what experience has taught him with respect to the topic of discussion.

 

 

The Author

Mr. Samuel is a veteran teacher. He has long years of teaching and administrative experience. He has authored many books. At the time of seminar, Mr. Sam is an administrator at Sankoree International School, Kano.

The Seminar

The program is aimed at enhancing or improving the overall work performance of teachers by acquainting them with professional standards. That is, teaching them how to do the right things (effectiveness) in the right way (efficiency).

 

It is a known fact that there are four common reasons why people do not perform the way they should:

  • They do not know what they are supposed to do;
  • They do not know how to do it;
  • They do not know why they should; and
  • There are obstacles beyond their control

John Maxwell identified the first three reasons to be associated with starting a job correctly while the fourth is associated with problems at work, at home, and in life in general. Consequently, the seminar is directed at equipping the trainees with the What, How and Why of teaching and tips on how to handle emotional problems at the place of work (their schools).

TRAINING OUTLINE

The training has four training modules. Each module is meant to address a particular issue.

  • Standard practices in teaching – this module focuses on some primary tasks of a teacher in relation to general teaching methods and statutory records kept by teachers. The module include: Lesson Plan Preparation, Classroom Management, and the use of Scheme of Work, Report of Work (Diary) and Attendance Register.
  • Teachers and ICT – this module acquaints teachers with available technological teaching aids (educational technologies), the method and the skills required of a teacher to effectively utilize these technologies. Participants will be offered discount in Computer Training Institutes across the state.
  • Teacher Entrepreneurship – this module empowers teachers with entrepreneurial methods which may be adopted to enhance their work performance. Teachers’ entrepreneurship (teacherpreneurship) is of great benefit to the teacher, the school and the pupils/students.
  • Developing Self confidence and Teachers Emotional Composure – invariably, one of the hardly-to-get quality among beginning teachers is self confidence and necessary ‘teachers’ emotional composure. Nonetheless, teachers ought to possess and be capable  of  meeting the  emotional,  physical, intellectual and social needs of the student/pupils

 

 

 

Mr. Samuel was invited to speak on what and how of part one of module one which include Class management, Scheme of Work, Diary, lesson plan/note preparation. Mrs. Charity Abuadiye of Yandutse College presented the part one of the module one which comprises Scheme of Work, Diary and Lesson Plan preparation. Click here to view the part one.

The seminar was primarily for (beginning) teachers who have not undergone a professional teachers’ training. They include secondary school leavers and graduates in fields other than education who has just been employed as a teacher in a school, seeking employment as a teacher or have interest in teaching. However, experienced teachers, school administrators and school proprietors were at the seminar. Consequently, the paper only served to spur and as reference for discussion. Similarly, the items of the title are not discussed in-depth in this paper. It is however adequate to serve its primary objective – to inform new teachers of their existence and encourage the use. The How-To was the center of discussion during the seminar.

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

The process/training to become a teacher is a great task and essential. No education system is complete until and unless the teachers in the system are adequate in numbers, qualification and moral standard. An educationist far rant once said, “A teacher cannot enlighten his pupils if he himself is ignorant”. He can lift them no higher than himself. It is important therefore that good deal of emphasis be given during training to make the pupils,  well-informed teachers after colleges and throughout his/her career. He/she should always be learning and improving him/herself.

Now teaching according to one of the many definitions is “imparting knowledge” or “training in a skill” or “giving instruction”. It is also an intentional or planned activity designed to induce learning. The question then is who a teacher? The primary function of a teacher is the transfer o knowledge to learner. However, how he/she does it is a matter of importance to educationist.

 

The topic of today’s seminar is basically on 3 major themes:

  1. Scheme of work
  2. Diary
  3. Lesson plan/notes

SCHEME OF WORK

Well we cannot talk about scheme of work without mentioning the syllabus because the scheme of work is drawn from the syllabus. They are preparation for effective classroom teaching which involves effective and sound preparation or proper planning of whatever the teacher plans to teach. Syllabus is an outline for summary of a course of study i.e. topics to be taught in s specific class in a particular subject.

The scheme of work is drawn from the syllabus. It contains the arrangement of all the topics to be taught in sequence i.e. the breaking down of syllabus. They are usually broken or planned on termly bases which are further broken down to weekly coverage. It is arranged in such sequence that the topics are pre-requisite knowledge for the next one to it. However, some schools do not follow it. Therefore scheme of work is simply drawn up in subject to be taught, topic/sun-topics for each term.

LESSON PLAN/NOTE PREPARATION

Unit Plan/Lesson Plan/Notes – the difference between lesson plan and lesson note is: lesson plan is a sketch while lesson note is more detailed. The unit plan involves each broad topic in the scheme of work. The unit plan is further broken down in smaller (teachable) unit.

Components of lesson plan

  • Basic or General Information – g. Subject, Number of pupils/students, age, and topic.
  • Aims and Objectives – which could be either :
    • Instructional – this are not measurable but attainable
    • Behavioral – objectives that are measurable, attainable and specific.
  • Entry Behavior – knowledge that is based on something taught in previous lesson or an experience the pupils had heard either in other subject or at home.
  • Instructional Aid/Teaching Aids – to enhance learning, notebook and textbook could be and other teaching aids that will be used should be listed. These could be:
    • Visual aids – materials that can be seen e.g. chart, pictures, e.t.c.
    • Oral aids – they only hear e.g. audio
    • Audio visual – video, TV
    • Real – excursion or model of object e.g. aeroplane
  • Procedure/Presentation – the way we introduce the lesson e.g.
    • Introduction – asking questions

Note – samples of these questions must be part of the lesson plan/note

  • Questions must be based on the present or previous lesson
  • By a story i.e. an incidence that had occur to draw their attention
  • Presentation – always done step-by-step. This is to share/give the minute (time) allocation. And also to differentiate between teacher activity and pupil activity
  • Evaluation – To ascertain whether the lesson had been successful or not. Reference must be made to your objective or must tally with the objectives; it could be oral or written questions.
  • Conclusion/Summary – going over the lesson again in order to summarize what the teacher has taught his pupils which are usually the key points of the lesson. This ensures that pupils do not forget what they had been taught.

Note:

  • Some examples of verbs in stating the objectives include: identify, read, write, describe, draw, list, label, shade, differentiate, to point and colour, to arrange, explain, join, fill, count/calculate, compare, build, fix, e.t.c.
  • Verbs that cannot be used are to know, observe, appreciate, admire, appease, acknowledge, understand, like, imagine, predict, assimilate, encourage, decide, reason, fell, to believe, to adopt, to infer, e.t.c.

DIARY

Dairy is a part of record keeping in schools by subject teacher or class teacher. It is a record book which must always be kept up-to-date for each arm of the class. The diary contain such items as shown below

 

The scheme of work is drawn up subjects to be taught, topics/sub-topics for each term. Weekly records of work come up at the end of each week. This helps any new teacher to know how much of the scheme of work had been covered. More so, it helps the new teacher to determine where to start even sets tests/examinations.

LeadinGuides Educational Technologies

 

If you have any question or comment concerning any of our products and services or this paper or any other, kindly forward it to: [email protected] or any of these mobile numbers: 08067689217, 07018660605, 07056053189, and 09091781523

 

Explanation of Standard Lesson Plan / Note Writing in Nigeria

Explanation standard lesson plan / note writing

This post is a continuation of the introduction to standard lesson plan / note writing in Nigeria. If you are yet to, click here to read the first part.

Part 2: The Actual Writing

Now that you are familiar with the meaning, types and components of a standard lesson note or plan, let’s get down to the actual writing. Get your note and writing materials let’s start:

  • Name of Teacher – In the blank new page you want to write the note, the first item you should write is the name of the teacher (your own name). It is possible that you may be transferred from the class for which you want to write the note now. In such case, it is important that the note bear your name. This makes it easy for whoever will be taking your place to contact you for question should s/he need to ask one.
  • Name of School – next is the name of the school. This is for identification. Note however that sometimes, all the lesson notes written by a particular teacher may be written in single exercise book. Since the exercise book already bears the name of the teacher, this item may be omitted when writing the note.
  • Date – This is the date the lesson is scheduled to be delivered. You can get the date from the time-table. Look up which day of the week your subject is allocated and then what date that is on the calendar.
  • Period – this refers to the period of the day the lesson is to be delivered. On the date of your subject above (and every other day), there definitely are other subjects. Each subject is allotted a fixed length of time (usually between 35 – 45 minutes) called a period. The periods are in turn given a position like first, second, third and so on. So, the period refers to the position of your subject for that day. A subject may be assigned two periods.
  • Duration – at this stage, specify the length of time the lesson will last. For example, if a period in your school is 40 minutes and your subject is assigned two periods, then the duration is 1 hour 20minutes.
  • Age – here, specify the age of the pupils/students. It may be 10 – 12 years.
  • Class – specify the class the note is for. Is it Nursery 1 Gold, JSS 2a or SSS 3e?
  • Class composition – This include the size of the class, the ability of the class and other class information. Some teachers do not include this in their note. But I believe it is necessary. Another teacher using your note will instantly know what to adjust if there’s been any major change in the class. Besides, it is key information any teacher needs before beginning a lesson.

Here, specify the size – the number of students in the class; ability – whether the class has been grouped according to their abilities (fast, average and slow learners) or mixed; and characteristics – whether it is a noisy or quiet class.

  • Subject – Write the subject to be taught.
  • Topic – Which topic under the subject is the note about? For a broad topic, you may include subtopic under the main topic.
  • Reference materials – A good lesson plan is a product of one form of research or the other. Under this item, write the textbooks, websites or any other material from which you draw the content of the lesson plan.
  • Instructional materials – this include the resources that both teachers and students need for maximum impartation to be made. These resources may include one or more of textbook (s), handout, art works, and scientific instruments e.t.c.
  • Objectives – This is what the students are expected to learn after completing the lesson.  As a teacher, after a close inspection of the syllabus should be able to deduce the goal of each week’s lesson. The objectives you set should be directed towards teaching a particular learning skill, simple and aligned to whatever syllabus your school uses. The objective should not be unrealistic – too broad as not to be able to be achieved within the time allocated. The objectives should be in such a way as to be reflected in other parts of the note. I discussed how to set lesson objectives in this article.
  • Previous knowledge – Teaching has been defined as a systematic process of transmitting knowledge, attitudes and skills in accordance with professional principles. By extension, learning is also done in a systematic way. This fact, supported by Piaget’s principle, must be remembered by teachers. Some new knowledge requires a kind of prerequisites knowledge or another. For example, a person who does not understand methods of differentiation will not understand application of differentiation also.

Under this item, state any previous knowledge the students possessed in relation to the topic under discussion.  For children to learn, you must make an effort to link the new body of knowledge to their previous experience.

  • Method of Teaching – A teaching method is specific instructional process which differs from any other by the diversities of specialized activities. (Afolabi, S.S, & Adesope, 2010)

There are many teaching methods. Some of these are Lecture or the chalk and talk method, Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI), Discussion method and Field trips method (Excursion).

Under this item, state the teaching method(s) is applicable to the topic under discussion. This is conventionally the chalk and talk method. It may be a combination of any two or more methods as well.

  • Teacher’s Activities – This section details what the teacher must do before, during and after the lesson for maximal output. It may be as simple as teaching a prerequisite topic. It may be activities that stimulate students’ background knowledge of the topic, revision of previous lesson and explaining key terms to arouse students’ interest. It may be a particular class management activity.

Whatever special activity (ies) that is required, specify it here.

  • Learners’ Activities – In this section, you should specify whether any special activity is required of the students to enhance impartation. This may be students’ answer to questions, experiment and report, discussion and assignment.
  • Presentation – this stage details, in order of progression, the steps or procedure you will follow to deliver the lesson adequate enough to achieve the objectives. It is the actual teaching itself. This stage begins with introduction as step 1 and then other steps the teacher adopts to teach. It is usually done as:
  • Evaluation – at this stage, you should write the techniques you will employ to tests students’ understanding of the lesson. Conventionally, evaluation is done by asking questions from the students based on the topic treated, conducting quizzes and giving class and home works (assignment).
  • Summary – Here the lesson has been taught. You simply give a short review of the entire lesson. Noting all important points that form the new knowledge acquired.
  • Assignment – This step gives details of assignments given to the students during the lesson and evaluation. If you are giving the assignments  from a textbook, reference the book, chapter and page (s). Provide spaces for recording the date the assignment was given and date submitted.
  • Conclusion – Here, write how you will end the topic. The conclusion of a lesson is usually by marking, recording and returning the students’ notes. Make necessary corrections and link the conclusion with the next topic. Before these activities, you may further give a brief revision of the entire lesson.

Finally, if you have followed the post up until now, congratulation! That’s all about writing a good lesson plan. It is an in-depth and comprehensive guide. Nevertheless, if there’s any item you think I left out or did not cover; feel free to drop as a comment below

STANDARD LESSON PLAN OR NOTE WRITING IN NIGERIA – Introduction and Components

In this post, I discussed the best approach you need to take to write a perfect lesson plan as a teacher. If you read this post to the end, you will learn what a lesson plan means, the procedure and elements of a good lesson plan.  I give a step-by-step approach you need to follow to achieve a good lesson note. You need to know that the content of this post is not a mere one-man suggestions or thoughts. The method I present here has been proven to be most effective approach used by veteran teachers. To make sure the approach is as accurate as it should be; I asked some of the best teachers I’ve known, consulted dozens of books and articles; and fused it with my experience over the years. If you are experienced teacher and thinks I left something out, please drop it by commenting below. This could be valuable to new teachers.

What is Lesson Plan or Lesson Note?

Lesson plan or Lesson note is what the name suggests: a set of related steps that a teacher intends to adopt in delivering a lesson to achieve the goal (s) of that lesson for a given week (s).

“Do you know how to write lesson note?” was one of the questions I was asked during my first interview. At the time I just graduated from secondary (high) school. So, I had neither teaching experience nor do I know anything about teaching. I know nothing else a teacher does in the school but teaching! And after a long time, I discovered that even today circumstantial teachers (people that become teachers to keep life going) still find themselves in same problem. However, mine didn’t stop at the term. When I eventually learned what lesson note meant, I wasn’t sure how to write one. If you are like I was, or plan to take a teaching job; then read on. This post will also be valuable to in-practice teachers; if not in addition of knowledge then in remembrance.

NOTE: In an attempt not to make this Standard Lesson Plan / Note Writing guide a heavy ready for you, I broke the entire guide into two parts. This part (1) covers the introduction and components of a standard lesson note while the second part, covers details of the steps. Click here to check out the second part after reading this and also see some of our lesson notes here.

Types of Lesson Notes

  • New Lesson Notes – this is a type that is developed from the scratch by the teacher. All ideas are original and exclusively his. This is the type that is required of young teachers in the majority of schools. Consequently, this post is based on how to write a new lesson note from ground up. All other lesson notes are done in almost same way. So, this covers all.
  • Review Lesson Note – this is written when an existing note needs to be updated with new method or ideas. The initial note may be written by you or another teacher. It is usually necessary if the teacher discover new (and more effective) teaching methods. This may be a simple addition or removal of presentation step. It is also required when there is a new discovery in the field, a change in the school syllabus or textbooks.
  • Skill practicing Lesson Notes – this is a lesson note that details the step taken to teach the learner a particular skill
  • Continued Lesson Note – this is when a teacher is required to continue note from where s/he or another teacher stopped. It may be a continuation of a week’s topic which needs to be broadened. Or a new week’s topic in the same subject. It may also be to continue note on a subject for the same class in a new term.

But I Really Need to Write Lesson Note?

Yes, you badly do need to write lesson note! One of the veteran teachers I discussed with while preparing this post put the need in the next sentence. “Note of lesson to a teacher is like a hoe or cutlass to a farmer. It is absolutely compulsory”. It is one of the duties of any teacher. Although you may have observed that some teachers in your school no longer make use of their lesson note. This may be due to other engagements which take up the time to write one. It could also be that they have taken that subject for years and have become familiar with the steps that work out well for them. However, both are only excuses which do not make the practice acceptable. Lesson note helps you to ‘guide you to become a better teacher’ and nothing is too good to be improved. Even if you have that type of teachers in your school, you still need to write a lesson note. Your head teacher will ask you for it anyway and besides, excellence is doing what others can’t do. Lesson note makes you effective and efficient. Some reasons why you need to write lesson note are:

  • To avoid uncertainty and errors – it enables you to prepare before the class. You see, when teaching topics you didn’t prepare for, there will be some things you are not sure of. Lesson notes reduce this uncertainty and chances of teaching the students the wrong things. It helps you to at any point in time; know which step you are now, and the next step to take.
  • To set boundaries – it limits you to the subject matter and prevent the temptation of drifting from it
  • To avoid omission and repetition – see a teacher who is repeating a sentence over and over again, then you have seen a teacher who isn’t prepare for the class.
  • To choose instructional materials – while preparing the note for a particular you will readily discover the materials you need to deliver the topic maximally.
  • To give direction – it helps you to follow the syllabus as you should
  • For proxy – lesson note makes easy for another teacher to cover (stand-in) for you when you are necessarily absent.
  • As a proof – your lesson notes is a proof that you are actually teaching. It shows that you have made effort to give the learners the best you can. That’s a plus for you!

What is the Steps Involved in Writing Lesson Plan?

In summary, I prefer to say the only two steps taken in writing a good lesson plan is “Think and Write”. Yes, that is the summary. But what do you have to think and write? I’ll explain.

You see, lesson notes are written in order of standard steps. These steps form the components of any lesson note. Nevertheless, not all lesson notes are the same. In fact, the way you write lesson plan may differ from subject to subject. Below are the components that form a standard lesson note. These components are also the steps involved in writing lesson notes. Follow the components/steps carefully to write yours. Feel free to drop a question at the comment box below should you have any question or observation.

Components of a good lesson plan

Although lesson notes are not all the same, the standard elements of a good lesson notes are:

  • Name of Teacher
  • Name of School
  • Date
  • Period
  • Duration
  • Age
  • Class
  • Class Composition (size, ability and characteristics)
  • Subject
  • Topic
  • Reference Materials
  • Instructional Materials
  • Entry Behaviour
  • Objectives
  • Previous Knowledge
  • Method of Teaching
  • Teacher’s Activities
  • Learners’ Activities
  • Presentation(in steps)
  • Evaluation
  • Summary;
  • Assignment; and
  • Conclusion

The elements also represent the progressive steps taken in writing a good lesson note.

How to Teach a Shy Child: 10 Magic Guides

sHow Teach Shy Child

 What is Shyness?

Shyness is a trait, in which a child (or an adult) feels apprehension, awkward and tense during social encounters, especially with unfamiliar people.

How to Recognize a Shy Child: Symptoms

In the classroom, shy child tends to exhibit the following:

  • Dodging your gaze – though this alone does not make a child shy, it is a pointer. Generally and as in African culture, a child that directly gazes at an adult in the eyes is considered to be disrespectful. Consequently, tendencies are that majority of the children have learned avoid gaze. Look out for one or more of the other signs below.
  • Avoiding being noticed – a child that is shy would not want you to notice his/her presence so as not to be asked. As a result, s/he will always be quiet throughout.
  • Trembling or shaking (including shaky voice) – a shy child would usually not want to participate in class activities like answering questions. And should they eventually do, their voice and body would be shaky. They may speak softly and indistinctively.
  • Sweating or hot flashes – When speaking becomes inevitable, they will begin to sweat
  • Feeling dizzy or faint – a child that is shy will assume a sleepy look when encountered with social situation s/he doesn’t like.
  • Follow directions but don’t respond verbally to them – they are very attentive. Hence, though they may not speak; they follow orders diligently and carry out assigned task almost perfectly.
  • Watch but don’t join other children in fun activities – when in outdoor activity, say sport; shy children often watch the other children in admiration but will not join
  • Volunteers and Acts Last – shy children are usually the last to volunteer or to do something. They watch other children go first before they join if they choose to.

Causes of Shyness

Trying to teach a child that is shy is like providing solution to a mathematics question. During mathematics classes, I usually taught that the first step in solving any question is to understand the question.

Similarly, to effectively handle a shy pupil, you must understand the causes of shyness.

The different causes of shyness can be classified as either inborn or social.

  • Inborn cause of shyness (child’s temperament) – when the child may have the inborn shy character
  • Social causes of shyness – when the child became shy as a result of bad past social experience and social issues such as
    • dysfunctional family – inconsistent parenting, family conflict, harsh criticism, or a dominating sibling ,
    • inferiority complex – arising from the feeling that they are not as good, as intelligent, as attractive, etc. as other children

 

Is Shyness in Child a Good or Bad Thing?

Contrary to general conception that being shy is a negative trait, Dr Sears argued that shyness is a blessing.  Some experts however attribute possible negative social behaviours to shyness.

Good Side of Shyness

Some of the good things about a child that is shy include:

  • Solid self-concept – shy children, though do not speak, tends believe in themselves. They are always making comparison and judgment within. The resultant thought is usually, “even though I may not talk, I think I’m able to do that”.
  • Inner peace – quiet children have such peace within as the noisy ones don’t have.
  • Innovative – some shy children are deep-thinkers. They don’t act anyhow but cautiously. They  are creative as well and will usually out-do their extroverted counterpart in an individual assessment.
  • Self-protection – The cautious act of shy children is a way of protecting them against strangers.

 

Negative Side of Shyness

More often than not, children whose shyness is caused by bad social experiences such as family dysfunction and inferiority complex suffer from the following aftermath of shyness.

  • Total withdrawal – while some shy child children withdraw only at the initial stage of making contact with a stranger, others will withdraw perpetually. Even after being with the teacher for a long time, some will continue to be shy.
  • Quick to anger – because they are withdrawn from the teacher, any attempt the teacher makes to involve them in the class will be attended with anger (and eventual cry).
  • Lack of Association – as a result of their total withdrawal and aggressiveness, other pupils as see them as unfriendly or disinterested. They will therefore not associate with them.
  • General impediment to social and academic development – the resultant effect of lack of association is a poor academic and social development.

 

What to do as a Teacher: the Magic Guidelines

Whatever reason made a child to be shy, a teacher must ‘fix’ it. That’s the expectation of the parents. Funny enough, parents consider the teacher of their kids to be a mini-god. They believe the teacher is able to change the worst-behaved child into a person of charming character.

With this overwhelming expectation in mind, the following guidelines should work the magic. As with the rest of my posts; the guidelines below represent the views of several experts in the field of behavioral psychology, early child education, child development and veteran teachers.

  1. Know more about the child – this is the very first thing you should do. Knowing more about the child entails more than the general information you receive of every child. It involves knowing the source of the shyness, what the child likes and his/her usual habit in the class. These pieces of information can be collected by speaking with the parents, observing the child and asking him or her. It is important to note that between two and four years of age, children go through a second phase of stranger anxiety, as they become afraid of people they don’t know. This opinion is held by the Dr Sears (a group of four medical doctors).
  2. Establish a positive relationship with the parent – The development of social skills depends on trust and safety (Romano, Papa, & Saulle, 2013). This means that a shy child will open up only when they trust and feel safe with you. But how can you build trust with a kid who is afraid of you? One of such ways is building a positive relationship with the parent. Engage the parent in a short discussion daily as they come to drop or pick the child. The discussion should be done in the presence of the child. As the child sees how free the parent is with you, s/he will begin to trust and feel safe with you. You should be friendly to the children as well.
  3. Rapport with the child – with the information you gather from observation and discussion with the parent, engage the child in conversation. Ask him/her about his/her likes and the things s/he usually does or play with in the class. If the child likes chocolate, discuss chocolate – ask whether the mummy makes chocolate, who buys it for him/her e.t.c. If the child usually brings kwose (bean cake) to school, ask him/her whether the mummy bakes kwose, what is used to bake it or where they usually buy it from.
  4. Parallel-play with the child – this is a valuable tip to go by when the child do not like to talk. Instead of outright discussion of what s/he plays with in the class, get the same things and do the same thing s/he does just beside him/her. You then initiate simple conversation with the child.
  5. Pair the shy child with a friendly, more outgoing child for specific types of play or work – In a class; while some kids are shy and timid, others are very confident, bold and caring. I’ve seen one or two of such type of kids. During launch time, they don’t eat as much – they just love sharing! And when outside for break, you see them organizing other children for a play. They are always happy.

When a child that is shy is paired with an outgoing one, the later seems to know how to make the former join in the play.

  1. Give the child a specific job – here, you should be careful least you assign the shy child a task that attract attention. If you ask the child in class, take it as just a test. Don’t wait and expect the child to answer so as not to be disappointed. Be systematic about it. The task should be an ordinary one. It should be a job that could be done without been noticed. It could be holding or bringing something for you. Or let’s say in a game which requires the score to be recorded; you could give him/her the task of writing the scores. A bad idea would be asking the child to read for the class as all attention will be fixed on him/her. As the child continues with the ordinary assignments, s/he will gradually learn to overcome sitting by him/herself.
  2. Commend the child for EVERY effort – This works like magic! For every effort the child made either to overcome shyness or in doing the assigned task, commend. If the shyness is as a result of the feeling of being inferior too others, s/he will begin to develop self-confidence.
  3. Partner with the parents– like is has always been said, child’s development is a cooperation between the parents and teacher. Never has it been one alone. Talk to the parents as often as possible. Find out if the child is adjusting or has been attempting to adjust at home. Be open-minded. Seek the parent’s opinion and implement good suggestions.
  4. Advise the parent on how they could help. I gathered some pieces of advice that you should give under the Role of Parents
  5. Don’t do what you should not do – below, I have gathered some tips (mostly from suggestions based on a BAM Radio program, Teaching and Caring for Shy, Socially Sensitive Children by Dr. Jacquelyn Mize –  Professor, Human Development and Family Studies at Auburn University and Dean Marjorie Kostelnik – College of Education and Human Sciences, University of Nebraska.; then from Deborah J. Stewart, M.Ed in her 2012 article, How to get shy or withdrawn children involved in the classroom experience; and finally, an article by Raising Children Network, Shyness and children).

The Role of Parents to Teach Shy Child

  1. Bring the child to school early – “It’s much easier for a shy child to meet other guests one at a time, rather than when everything’s in full swing,” Ken Rubin, Ph.D., professor of human development and director of the Center for Children, Relationships, and Culture at the University of Maryland, in College Park. By bringing the child early to school, you afford his/her the chance to watch other children come in one after another. By the time the class is full, s/he would have decided who to play with.
  2. Parents Should Encourage the child to ask questions – there’s no better assurance of security than that given by the parent. Consequently, the more often the parent encourages the child to ask the teacher; the safer the child will assume the teacher to be.
  3. Give the child the chance to speak – Some parents are over-comforting of their shy child. They wouldn’t want the child to face challenges. They will abruptly answer for him/her and say “s/he is shy”. While this may be a natural expression of love, advise the parents to let the child speak for him/herself. For example, when someone asks him/her for his/her name; the parent shouldn’t answer for the child even though s/he may be struggling to answer. He will eventually answer. When that happens for a couple of times, the child will learn how to answer seamlessly. This is a major step in overcoming the shy behaviour as the child will believe that the parent is confident about his/her ability to handle social situation of that sort.
  4. Commend the child for EVERY effort – Just as the teacher, the parent should also appreciate the child when an effort is made. For example, if a child replied to someone’s question; let him/her know that you are so pleased with that. That, with the parent’s encouragement; will make the child to make further effort.
  5. Don’t call them ‘shy’ – The over-comforting kind of parents usually tends to add the clause – “S/he is shy” after speaking/answering for their children. All the experts’ papers and articles I went through while putting this post together strongly urge that parents shouldn’t call or say a shy child is shy. This is majorly because, if a parent keep saying a child is shy; s/he will consider shyness as an ailment. Such child will therefore come to believe that an expert is required to cure the ailment thereby stalling personal effort to overcome the situation. Instead, experts suggested that parents should picture shyness in a positive light to the child. For example, instead of saying “s/he doesn’t want to speak because s/he is shy” whenever the child refused to answer a question; the parent could say “S/he is thinking about her answer right now”. This suggestion was particularly made by Deborah J. Stewart, M.Ed.

 

What a teacher should not do

As discussed in number 10 to teach a shy child, there are things the teacher shouldn’t do. These include:

  • Labeling the child as shy
  • Assigning the child a major task that attracts the attention of many people
  • Asking the child to ask to join other children in a play/game
  • Forcing the child to speak
  • Waiting on or expecting the child to answer question in the class.

 

Conclusion

As stated in LeadinGuides legal terms, this post is based on my personal research from books and web resources together with what I learned through experimentation and experience. Were external works is included, I provide link to the source. Should you notice any information which is not cited, please indicate it in the comment box below.

Also, remember to comment below. It shows you grabbed something from it. However, if after a read you could not take anything out of it; comment anyway. Tell the author to improve the write up.

And finally, if you think this post is worthwhile, remember that friends who need it might not have seen it. So, share!

How to Support Your Child before School Age for High Academic Performance: #2 Emotional Support

School child’s emotional support

A….nd you are here! The second post in the series of How to support a child before school age for high academic and life performance. Just in case you haven’t read the first, click here to read it so as to have freer flow with this post – although this alone is still understandable.

Introduction

Consistent research on brain science has indicated that developing brain is not neatly divided into separate areas governing learning, thinking and emotions. Instead, it is found that the developing brain- such as pre-schoolers’ – is a highly interconnected organ with different regions influencing, and being affected by the others. In other words, the part of a child’s brain that is responsible for learning influences and is influenced by other parts of the brain such as the parts responsible for the child’s emotions.

Hence, any child who must succeed with excellence in any academic pursuits and life in general; must also have a good emotional foundation. And this is as a responsibility for parents as the provision of nutritious food, shelter and clothing.

Definition of terms

Emotions as here used, refers to the strong feelings that result from reactions to one’s circumstances, mood or relationship with others.

Stress, or circumstances that influences our emotions, is a part of the natural design of life – every day experiences. This is true for all forms of life – humans or lesser beings such as animals and plants. And we learn to manage stress from the first moment of our being until the final whistle is blown.

Children are not left out in the battle with stress. Children are able to manage some stress like the fear of syringe during immunization or sibling’s teasing. However, other form of stress is rather traumatic and difficult for them to handle. Some of such over whelming stress includes physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, parents who have substance abuse problem and chronic poverty. Such experiences are called “toxic stress” problems. Those experiences exceed children’s capacity for coping.

Children usually rely on the assistance of trusted adults; not only to help them cope with everyday stresses but also to develop emotional qualities that enable them to be competent learners. Such qualities include self – awareness, and self confidence; self regulation (of attention, felling, impulses, and thinking); social and emotional understanding, empathy and caring for others: and initiative as enthusiastic, active learners.

Interviews with preschool and kindergarten teachers indicate that “children who have the greatest difficulties in learning are hindered by lack of these qualities more than by the inability to identify letters and numbers” (Source: California Department of Education. (2010). California Preschool Curriculum Framework, Volume 1,. California: California Department of Education).

And although these qualities are among the cardinal point of any preschool or family care programs, the foundation of each are laid at home- by providing emotional support.

Ways of providing Emotional Support

There are basically six things parents can do to provide necessary emotional support for their children. These include:

  • Avoiding or Reducing toxic stress
  • Providing unconditional love
  • Building the child’s self confidence and self esteemed
  • Engaging the child in play
  • Providing security and safety
  • Giving appropriate guidance and discipline

                i.      How to avoid or reduce toxic stress for children

As explained earlier, toxic stress are traumatic experiences which are difficult for children to handle but which, if left unmanaged, can lead to physical and mental problems – impede child’s overall positive development. Examples of toxic stress are physical abuse (such as physical assault and sexual abuse), witnessing domestic violence, parents who have substance abuse, chronic poverty, etc.

The first part of a child to be affected by toxic stress is his or her emotion. Hence the first emotional support parents can give to their children is to avoid such toxic stress, or eliminate it completely.

Avoiding physical stresses on children

Physical abuse manifests in various forms including:

  • Provocation – through insults and use of mean words or verbal threats.
  • Intimidation – making children fear by making a fist, pushing, stalking
  • Brutality – pinching, knocking, flogging, striking, slapping hitting, pulling, etc

Too often than not, physical abuse occurs not with the intent to hurt a child but as a form of discipline. Hence, the abuser may lack knowledge of the effects of such act on the child. This however, does not make the effect any less.

Physically abused children finds it difficult relating to their peers and adults in future. It makes them perpetually vigilant and mistrustful. And they may be overly domineering and aggressive in their attempts to predict over people’s behaviour. They may also have problems with academic achievement, physical development and coordination, developing friendship and relationship aggression and anger management, anxiety and low self esteem.

To avoid physical abuse, parents should ensure that they guard themselves against the acts. More so, if a child is enrolled for a family child care other than a professional preschool program such as hiring a nanny, ensure that such person is enlightened about these acts and if possible, the effects.

Avoiding provocation or verbal aggression

It is but natural for parents to be angry when their children misbehave, frequently and repeatedly. Parents are moved (by the natural inclination of man to protect what he loves from attack) to correct such misbehaviour. For rightly considered, any act of misbehaviour that is left to tarry is an attack on the child and his/her future.

Nonetheless, this desire to ward-off such attack from children; or perhaps the unconscious and free-flowing thought/feeling of losing the child to the danger of misbehaviour induces parents to act un-meditatively – mostly with “counter-attacks” expressed in form of insult or physical hitting or spanking. Although, parents most times do not mean to hurt the child, the very act of “counter-attacking” children’s misbehaviour with insults and physical beating generally tend to backfire and is therefore WRONG! Let’s now discuss each separately – what it really is, the effect and how to avoid both.

Insult and physical abuse as a disciplinary tool

Meaning and forms of insult

Insult as used here denotes any form of utterance (of a parent) that offends a child’s emotion or which causes provocation. Insult can take many forms. These include:

  • Name calling: “Are you stupid, mad or foolish?” “You are very stupid!” “You are too lazy”
  • Shame: “You embarrass me…you are such a disappointment“ “I’m disappointed in you”
  • Comparisons: “I wish you were more like Child-B, he is so much smarter than you are“, “Can’t you see other children?”, “Your mates are this or that but you are the opposite”
  • Teasing in public: “Oh he is at the bottom of his class“, “He don’t like going to school”
  • Rejection: “Keep quiet and run away from here! “ “Shut up!”, “I don’t want to hear a word from you”
  • Extreme or negative criticisms: “You are good for nothing. Why can’t you make me proud in even one thing“
Effects of insult on children
  • Lowered self-esteem: Every time a parent insults his child – on a one-on-one basis or worse in public – such parent reduces the child’s self-worth little by little. This is true even if it’s only one of the parents (either only mother or father) that insult the child.  Always tell a child that s/he is lazy, soon the child will come to believe that it is the truth and the next time the child is told to do something elsewhere such as at school, s/he will say “I can’t, I am lazy”. Always tell a child that s/he is stupid (which means senseless or not intelligent), and let it sink into the child’s unconsciousness, then if a smart child is asked to do something in the child’s class, the child will be ringing intrinsically what you always say, “you can’t do that, you are stupid; remember?”; Always tell a child s/he embarrasses or disappoints you and the child will try as much as s/he can never to do that outside the walls of your home, which means the child will not do anything new; Always tells a child s/he is not like Musa, the smartest boy in his class, or tell everyone that the child knows nothing – he’s always at the bottom of the class and that child will give up trying.
  • Disobedience: Most parents do not want to cause intentional harm to their kids. The insult, in most cases, is a momentary outburst rooted in parental stress and anger. You think that yelling or insulting them would discipline them. But this is often not the case. The design of human mind is oriented towards defence. Each and every time we are faced with confrontation of any kind, we are swayed by some kind of internal force to act in the opposite. This is the instance of disciplining a child through insults and physical use of force. For the insults, blows and strokes, pulling and pushing are but confrontation of some sorts; which the child is moved to act in opposition to. This opposition may be in form of physical protest such as if you slap a child and s/he hits you back; or the child may protest by repeating the act for which s/he is being punished for.
  • More aggressive or depressive behaviour: Insulting can have long term repercussions. It can either make your child very aggressive as he/she grows up – as they grow up thinking it is OK to verbally abuse and insult someone – or they can go into a depression or become suicidal due to lack of self-worth. In some cases, insult becomes part of the child’s regular vocabulary. Hence, though they may not mean to insult their peers; they end up doing so – to which if such friend complains, they protest because they see no reason why their friend should be angry at their “seeming joke” of insults.
  • Troubled Relationship with Parents: Respect is a two-way street. The parent that insults his/her child should be prepared of the child’s distrust as the child grows. Though the parent’s reason(s) for use of insult may not be outright evil, the child most times does not see it from that perspective – no one ever thinks love from another who insults him/her at every mistake. The gall of parent-child relationship, if initiated, may extend up to adulthood. Too often than not, have we had a parent or two complain that one of his/her children loves the partner more. Although many factors may be responsible for this difference in affection to both parents, it cannot be completely ruled out that the parent relationship with the child, from the child’s earliest years, is contributor. Finally, a parent that constantly insults his/her child predisposes the child to abuse by strangers. This is so because child abusers usually come to children as friends. These enemies in disguise would normally offer temporary comfort only to take advantage of the child’s trust later on.

Irrespective of the form an insult takes, it has devastating effects on the child. Despite this fact, it is a common experience of an average Nigerian child. In fact, there is hardly a Nigerian adult that did not experience any of the above listed forms of insult as a child. This however does not make this act right.

Having looked at the negative effects of insult on children, any parent that really wants to provide the needed support for the child must abstain or avoid the use of insult as a disciplinary tool.

If this act is already in existence, parents must make deliberate effort towards total elimination. You must understand that although physical abuse, as a disciplinary tool may remedy the error at the present time it causes more damage in later years. Suggestions on alternative discipline approach to insult and use of physical force are provided in later sections.

Sexual Abuse

A physical abuse, worthy of special mention is sexual abuse. This is necessary due to how prevalent it has become in our present time and the wide range of long – lasting (if not permanent) negative effects it has on children.

So, let’s pause and have a little talk on Child Sexual Abuse. Click here to go to the discussion.
[mailchimp_subscriber_popup baseUrl=’mc.us18.list-manage.com’ uuid=’44e438a5d2e99281623a26d5f’ lid=’fe8a653351′ usePlainJson=’true’ isDebug=’false’]

HOW TO SUPPORT YOUR CHILD BEFORE SCHOOL AGE FOR HIGH ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: #1 DIETARY SUPPORT

supporting-school-child-high-academic-performance

supporting-school-child-high-academic-performance

Introduction

The education of a child starts from the first day s/he is born and hears the first sound. Every time someone, especially the parents and family members/friends speaks to the child, sing to him/her and responds to the sound the child makes, such person strengthens the child’s understanding.

With the continuous guide from the home, the child can be set on an excellent foundation for a delightful educational experience in later years. Unfortunately, not many Nigerian parents know this.

Consequently, most parents wait until the child is of school age. It is until then that they start paying attention to the child’s education. They demonstrate this by getting them into school. Regrettably, not many children is usually able to recuperate from the deficiency in their before school age foundation.

Objective of this post in one sentence

This post provides guides on how to support children by laying good foundation for them before they attain school age.

Who is the post for?

The post would be invaluable to parents, especially young parents that desire to place their child on a trajectory to successful educational and life experience. From the information contained herein, educators, especially those that work with children at the early years, would be able to give orientation to the parents of their child on how to support or compliment their effort at school. After reading the post, older children can also engage their parents on discussing this aspect of child and education.

So, what are the ways of supporting a child before school age?

There is more than one thing a parent needs to do to support a child before school age. However, the many things can be grouped into four broad categories:

  • Basic Needs support
  • Emotional Support
  • Social Support
  • Academic support

In the following sections (or in this and subsequent posts), I explain each of these things. As you read, get a pen and paper by your side and keep your mind open to ideas that would flow to you from outside the post.

1.  Basic Needs Support (here limited to) Dietary support

Just so I could maintain some level of moderation, I limit the discussion on Basic Needs Support to only one of the basic needs – Nutrition or dietary.

It is perhaps a natural responsibility of parents or the home to provide simple and healthy food for their children. Although many Nigerian parents meet the nutritional needs of their babies under the age of one, some rather starts to care less as the baby develops capabilities to eat the “general food” that adults take. At the early age, even after the age of one; the food children eat is important. Also, children in their before school age “are critical for brain development, and what they eat affects focus and cognitive skills” (Krueger, 2015). Consequently, it is advisable that parents continue to feed their under school age children with food that enhances brain development. The food may not be prepared specially for the child but added to the family meals. Some list of such food includes:

  • Eggs,
  • Green vegetables,
  • Fish,
  • Nuts and seeds,
  • Fruits,
  • Cereals, etc.

Source: Krueger, A. (2015, May 12). 7 Brain Foods for Kids. Retrieved April 19, 2018, from WebMD.

Another word or two on dietary support

Still on dietary support, the parent may support the child develop social traits through family meals.  In this context it is good to ask “when was the last time the family ate together?” Although strange to the African family set up, the “civilized” practice of each family member eating alone is becoming quite prevalent among the Nigerian homes. In such “civilized” families, everyone at home has their plates and cutlery. So once it is meal time, everyone individually go and get his/her food. Even in such families, it is advisable that once in a while or as often as possible, they eat together. Such occasion (of eating together) gives the child the opportunity to learn table manners from the adults at the table because children like to imitate adults. Eating together also fosters language development and conversational skills. Finally, eating together encourages the child to try out food varieties. Children can be very selective when it comes to food. But when they see adults eating something different, they will (out of the natural tendency to imitate) want to try out new varieties which build their nutritional composition.

Finally, be aware that children are always children. So, when you want to teach or help them some develop all this social habits through family meals or when eating together; do it gently. That means you must find a way of teaching them without offending them. This does not need much emphasis because most parents (remembering my mom) do not discipline children while on table.


If you have read this far it means that you are really interested in providing every needed support for your child or children. I am sure you got a few things from the post. Note however, that this is not all that one needs to provide EVERY necessary support to a child for high life performance. But for convenience and comfort of the readers, the entire discussion is divided into series of post of which this is the first part. Click here to see the second part or here for the entire thread

Summary

Just to summarize what was discussed in this part:

  • The food that children eat when they are still very young (before they starts school) matters a lot because at that age, their brain is developing.
  • Young children need food that help their brain to develop very well.
  • Some of such foods are egg, green vegetables, fish, nuts and seeds, fruits, cereals, and others.
  • The young children need these kinds of food not only when they are below one year but for as long as they are still children.
  • Apart from providing these kinds of food, another way a parent can provide dietary support is by teaching the child rudiments of eating etiquette.
  • When teaching children, we have to be gentle so as not to offend them.

The next part is more exciting as it discusses one of the most crucial part of human life – the emotions. Almost every other aspects depend on the emotional state of a child. Click here to continue the discussion on how to support a child before school age for high academic and life performance.

Last line: do not forget to drop your opinions in the comment box below and if you think this post is worth it, share with your friends. You might want to join our mailing list (if you haven’t) so we could get you updated on new posts – please enter your email in the below and click on subscribe.