LESSON NOTE JSS 2 FIRST TERM COMPUTER STUDIES WEEK 1

Introduction to Lesson Note JSS 2 First Term Computer Studies Week 1

I wrote this Lesson Note JSS 2 First Term Computer Studies Week 1 based on the newly revised Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (UBE Edition). Particularly, I used the New Junior Secondary School Teaching Schemes of Work. The various state ministry of education and the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed the teaching schemes between 2014 and 2016. Click here to download the most recent schemes of work for Pre-primary through Senior Secondary Schools. These schemes are the same for the 36 states of the federation and the FCT. Hence, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National Curriculum.

Complete Lesson Objectives

As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson notes, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the subject-specific modern teaching style in the FTS manual.

 Unlike most lesson notes which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor. This is to ensure a balanced learning experience for the learners.

Leading Guide to Adapting this Lesson Note

I wrote this lesson note in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this note for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to get our Lesson Plan Template. The layout of the template makes it easy for teachers to write a professional lesson plan and easily.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, click here to quickly read myarticle on their differences.

Lesson Note JSS 2 First Term Computer Studies Week 1

Term: First

Week: 1

Subject: Basic Science and Technology (BST) – Computer Studies/Information Technology

Topic: Definition of Operating System

OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

  • Cognitive:
    • Define system software
    • State the categories of system software
    • Define Operating System (OS)
  • Psychomotor:
    • Draw PC system layer to illustrate computer system design
  • Affective
    • Appreciate the need for coordination/management

Previous Knowledge

From the previous term in JSS 1, the students should be able to define computer software and mention the types of computer software.

Instructional & Reference Materials

  1. Chalk/marker and chalkboard/whiteboard
  2. Projector/smart screen
  3. Diagram of PC system layers
  4. Categorization of computer (system) software chart
  5. Model or chart of computer motherboard, ROM chip, RAM, Adapter card, flash disk, floppy disk, CD/DVD ROM, Hard disk
  6. Chart of the components of computer system
  7. Computer system with a new peripheral whose driver has not been installed
  8. Education Resource Centre (ERC). (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre.
  9. Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department (KERD).
  10. Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
  11. Folorunso, O., Aduroja O, & Elueze I. (2012). Melrose Computer Studies for Junior Secondary Schools 1. Sango-Ota, Ogun State: Melrose Books & Publishing Limited.
  12. Otuka, J., Akande, A., & Iginla, S. (2013). New Computer Studies. Ikeja, Lagos: Learn Africa.

PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson note JSS 2 First Term Computer Studies Week 1 as in the following steps:

Introduction

The teacher uses one of the ways to capture and retain learners’ attention to introduce the topic. Here are some suggestions:

Display the least common among the instructional materials in (c) above. Then ask the students to identify it. They should also guess what they think you will use it for in the class.

At the end of the students’ attempts, explain that they will be able to use computer better if they know more of its parts. You may add that none may become a true expert of s/he does not have as much technical knowledge as possible.

Afterwards, you reveal that as they advance their level of expertise with computer – by the reason of their Computer Studies, they shall identify all of the components the teacher has displayed. Forth, the teacher writes/projects the topic on the board/screen; then s/he gives an overview of the lesson objectives.

Display the chart and ask if any student is able to interpret it.

At the end of the students’ attempts, the teacher explains that they had learned the meaning and types of computer software in their previous class (JSS1); and that the chart is a representation of advanced knowledge of computer software. The teacher further explains that they shall use the chart to better understand computer software. Hence, s/he concludes that by the end of the lesson; they should have attained the targets in the lesson objectives.

Ø  Oppose the motion that organizations need management to function properly. Then let the students argue with reasons.

At the end of the ensuing discussion, the teacher explains that the inventors of computer system modelled it after real organizations – comprising of different entities working together to achieve assigned tasks. Therefore, computer requires manager just like organizations.

In conclusion, the teacher reveals that they shall in the week’s lesson learn the component of the computer system that serves as the manager – as well as how it goes about its managerial duties. Thence, the teacher gives overview of the lesson objectives.

Revision

Before the teacher continues with the lesson, s/he revises the meaning and computer system. And also, the meaning and types of computer software. I present summary of these as follows. I precede each point of note with task(s) & question (s) which the teacher may use to engage the students.

Computer as a System

Discussion: Why do we refer to computer as system?

Explanation:

We often refer to computer as a system. This is because it has many parts that work together to successfully perform an operation – such as playing video which requires the screen, keyboard or mouse, media player (video-playing software) and speakers.

Generally, system means a set of connected things that work together to accomplish a task.

Teacher should give examples of system: fan – made up of blades, switch, wire, stand, etc.; car – made up of tires, seats, steering, gear, brake, throttle, etc.

Demand students to give more examples of systems and the parts.

Components of computer system

After identifying computer as a system, the teacher lists the components of computer system.

First, s/he asks the students to mention the many parts of computer that work together for the computer to successfully perform an operation. The students may mention parts like the keyboard, monitor, mouse, system unit, etc.

Thereafter, s/he explains that we categorize the many parts of computer that work together for the computer to successfully perform operations into three broad groups. Then, the teacher displays chart of the component of computer system and explains that the three key components include:

  1. Hardware
  2. Software
  3. Peopleware

Succeeding this, the teacher reminds the students that they had learned the basic things about these components in their junior classes – starting from primary school.

S/he furthers that as they go to higher classes, they learn about these components even in more details. Then, s/he concludes the reminder that they started with computer software in the previous class – when they learned the meaning and types of computer software.

Meaning of Computer Software

Proceeding, the teacher asks if any student is able to remind the class the meaning of computer software.

Following the resultant discussion, the teacher writes/projects the definition of computer software; then s/he explains to the students:

Computer software is a set of complete instructions that tells computer what to do and how to do it.

Explanations:

A set – means many related set of instructions; not just one. The instructions include command/order and procedure. Each complete set of instructions is called Computer Program. This means software a set of computer programs that perform some operations. For example, assuming there is a computer (robot) that is able to cook noodles; then the noodles preparation software will contain the following instructions:

  1. Robot switch on
  2. Robot stand
  3. Walk to the kitchen
  4. Pick a pot
  5. Fetch 1 cup of water
  6. Pour the 1 cup of water into the pot
  7. Switch on the stove
  8. Put the pot on the stove
  9. Let it warm
  10. Pick a sachet of noodles
  11. Open up the sachet
  12. Put the noodle inside the pot and cover it
  13. Throw the leather pack away
  14. Check if the pot of noodle is boiling
  15. If yes, cut the spice
    1. Pour the spice inside the pot of noodle
    2. Cover it and wait for 2 minutes
    3. Switch off the stove
    4. Pick a plate
    5. Turn the noodles into the plate
    6. Take it to the dining table
    7. Keep is it on the table
    8. Go back to your resting place
    9. Robot switch off
  16. If no, cover the pot
  17. Wait for 2 minutes then jump to step 14

Note: There will be program for telling the robot how to stand. Another complete set of instructions will tell the robot how to walk; then pick object such as pot and sachet of noodle, throw leather pack away, check if something is boiling; etc. This is because ordinarily, robot is not human that can think. So, programmers have to explicitly tell robot how to perform every operation they want it to perform.

More than that

The above example shows the least clue of how computer software looks like. There is complete set of instructions for every operation that a given computer or computer device is able to perform. There is a complete set of instructions for playing music; playing video; snapping picture; recording audio/video; every game; playing radio; sending message; etc. Similarly, every computing device has complete instructions for all the operations it is able to perform. For example, a game console has complete set of instructions for all the operations you can perform with it – such as moving players; shooting; selecting; etc. Keyboard has complete set of instructions for every operation that one is able to perform with it – typing; scrolling; navigating; etc.

Where is computer software stored? Can we see and change computer software?

We call those that write instructions for computer as computer programmers. Although computer programmers write computer software using letters, numbers and symbols that we can see; it is not possible to touch the individual letters, numbers and symbols with our hands.

When the programmer has finished writing the instructions and has packaged it for use; it is also not possible to read them with physical eyes except when we open it on a computer. However, even when we open software instructions with computer; only a computer programmer can change it. This is because programmers do not write software instructions in plain human language. Instead, they use special computer language which we call programming language. For this reason, we also call software instructions as codes and

Where Software is stored in Computer

With the above explanation, the teacher shows the students the computer system s/he has. Then reminds them the operations s/he is able to perform with the computer. After that, the teacher also reminds the students that s/he is able to perform the operations because the software – or complete set of instructions – is already stored in the computer.

Subsequently, the teacher asks the students where they think all the software is stored inside the computer.

Succeeding the discussion that will follow, the teacher teaches that we store or save software in the computer storage devices including Floppy disk, CD/DVD ROM and Hard disk – the teacher shows these to the students.

When someone does not already have a particular software in his/her computer; and s/he is saving it for the first time so that s/he can use it; then we say the person is installing the software on his/her computer.

Types of computer software

In the last part of the revision, the teacher explains that there are obviously several kinds of computer software – because there are several operations that computer can perform and there are also several kinds of computing devices.  This is because each operation and each computing device has different software.

In furtherance,

the teacher explains that we divide the many kinds of computer software into two. Then, s/he asks who among the students is able to remember to remind the class the two types of computer software.

In the end, s/he mentions, writes/projects the list on the board/screen and then explains thoroughly. The two major types of computer software are:

  1. System Software; and
  2. Application software.

The teacher concludes the revision with brief explanation of system and application software as follows:

System software consist of a set of programs that control and manage the operations of computer hardware.

Application software is a type computer software that users (people) use to work, learn, plan, entertain and to communicate. Application software is designed for a particular kind of task. The teacher presents a simple difference between system software and application software thus:

Differences

System software is software that the computer (system) use to function. While application software is the software that people use to perform tasks on a computer.

Finally, the teacher notes that they shall learn about the types of computer software more in subsequent lessons – beginning with system software in this.

Stage Evaluation

Upon completing the revision above, the teacher accesses the students’ understanding by asking the following questions – orally, as quiz, or classwork.

  1. Why is computer often referred to as system?
  2. Mention the components of computer system?
  3. What is computer software?
  4. Professionals that writes computer software are called __________
  5. Computer software instructions are written in plain human language that everyone understands and are able to understand. True/False
  6. Within the computer, software is stored in the _________________, __________________, and ________________
  7. Installing software means ______________________________________________
  8. The types of computer software ____________________ and ___________________
  9. _______________ software controls and manage computer hardware; while _________ is used by man to solve his problems.

System Software

Once the teacher has ascertained the understanding of the students; s/he continues the lesson by initiating a discussion. To do this, the teacher reminds the students that man uses application software; but computer uses system software by itself. S/he adds that examples of the application software that man uses include games, word processing software to type and graphic software to design.

Then the teacher asks, but what are the system software that computer use? And is computer invented for itself, why does computer need system software?

To be continued…

Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1

Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1 in one sentence

This Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1 is a leading guide for teachers on how to teach week one topic in Computer Studies for JSS One during the second term of the academic session.

General Introduction to Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1

I prepared this Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1 based on standard Computer Studies Scheme of work for Junior Secondary School 1 – 3 by various state ministries of education.

The state ministries of education on the other hand prepared these schemes according to the new 9-year basic education curriculum. The Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council is the official developer of the Nigerian National curriculum frameworks. The revised 9-Year BEC reviewed the number of subjects in Nigerian schools from twenty (20) to a maximum of ten (10) for JSS 1 – 3. The developers did this by adopting a conceptual framework that identified and grouped related subjects under one composite subject. Under this structure, Computer Studies (or Information Technology) is under Basic Science and Technology. The other subjects under Basic Science and Technology are Basic Technology, Physical and Health Education and Basic Science.

Accordingly, teachers may this deliver lesson in the first week of second term of the academic year.

Who may find this useful?

These lesson note guides will be useful to all teachers  especially those in Nigeria, parents who want to help their children keep up, school owners and school administrators who want their teachers to do things right.

Note however that this guide does not favour a particular lesson plan format. Instead, it is a general suggestion that can be adapted to any format of choice. The focus of the note is to provide enriched lesson content and then suggest ways of delivering such content.

Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-JSS-1


Teacher: PiusJoe Ankpa

School: LeadinGuides Post

Date: Look up the day that the timetable for the committee fixed the subject and the particular date that the teacher intends to teach the subjectE.g.: Monday & Wednesday, November 11 & 13, 2019.

 Period: Look up your timetable for the periods the subject occupies on the date of delivery. E.g. 6th & 3rd, 12:15 to 01:30 pm and 09:00 to 09:45 am respectively

Duration: Based on the timetable, what is the cumulative duration of the subject for the week in which the teacher will deliver the lesson? E.g. 90 minutes, 45 minutes each

Age: What is the average or range of ages of the children in the class? The students in Junior Secondary School One are typically within the ages ranging between 11-13 years.

Class: JSS 1

Class Composition: How many pupils are in the class? Typical population of students in a class arm for private schools is usually a maximum of 25 – 30 pupils with mixed abilities and moderately quiet.

Subject: Computer Studies (Information Technology)

Topic: Data Processing

Sub-topic: Data and Information – Meaning, Sources and Examples

Aims and Objectives:  At the end of the lesson, the students should have attained the following objectives:

  • Cognitive
    • Define data and information
    • List the types and sources of data
    • Mention examples of data and information
    • Differentiate between data and information
    • State qualities of good information
  • Affective
    • Make logical judgment based on quality information
    • Demonstrate conscious observation skills
  • Psychomotor
    • Carryout data collection/sourcing activities

Reference Materials:

MIT Office of Digital Learning. (n.d.). IMPROVING OBSERVATION SKILLS. Retrieved from MIT Open Learning: https://ccmit.mit.edu/observation/

Asun, P., Bajah, S. T., Ndu, F. O., Oguntonade, C. B., & Youdeowei, A. (2010). Basic Science & Technology UBE Edition Book 4. Lagos: Longman Nigeria Plc.

Cambridge International Corpus . (2008). Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Third Edition. Cambridge University Press .

Folorunso, O., Aduroja, O., & I, E. (2012). Melrose Computer Studies for Junior Secondary Schools. Ogun: Melrose Books and Pblishing Limited.

Ikeobi, I., Wasagu, M., Asim, A., Eyetsemitan, P., Uyanne, M., Gankon, B., . . . Bandele, O. F. (2009). STAN Primary Science. Ibadan: University Press PLC.

NERDC. (2013). 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (Basic Science for JSS 1 – 3) . Kaduna: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council.

Ogunniyi, M. B., Egbugara, U., Okebukola, P. O., & Mahmoud, I. (1998). Macmillan Primary Science book 4. Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Ltd.

Simon, D. J. (Director). (2010). The Monkey Business Illusion [Motion Picture].

Sloman, L. (2019, August 30). Trapping the Tiniest Sound, . Retrieved 2020, from Scientific America: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/trapping-the-tiniest-sound/

Instructional materials

  • White board and temporary marker or chalk and blackboard (chalkboard),
  • Any two objects for producing sound
  • The Monkey Business Illusion video
  • A computer
  • A sample raw material and the processed form. For example, raw tomato and tomato paste, orange and orange juice, raw cassava and gari, millet and popcorn, etc. If none of these items is available to the teacher, a chart of same will serve.

Previous Knowledge (Entry Requirement)

The students have memorized definition of both terms – data and information – from earlier classes in definition of computer. They however, may not have clear understanding of the concepts. Neither of these is however a prerequisite for understanding this lesson.

Method of Teaching

Talk and Chalk method and project-based.

Teacher’s Activities

In addition to thorough explanation and demonstration of the concepts; the teacher shall demonstrate and guide the students in carrying out the data collection/recording activity. S/he will also mark, grade and provide adequate feedback to the students.  The teacher shall group the students based on their abilities, supervise and accept their discussions.

Learners’ Activities

The students shall actively participate in the lesson by asking and answering questions. They shall also carryout data collection activity and accurately report/present the result.   The students shall also participate in group discussions.

Presentation

The teacher presents the lesson in order of the following steps:

1.     Introduction (warm up)

To introduce the lesson, the teacher presents/displays the raw material and the processed form to the students. S/he then asks the students to identify the specimen and state the relationship between them afterwards. The teacher notes that the essence of this exercise is to induce the students’ curiosity and command their attention in preparation for the lesson. Hence, s/he directs the question(s) to seeming inattentive student. Since the exercise is also to create familiar/friendly environment in the classroom, the teacher encourages as many attempts as possible while still being conscious of the time.

After the identification of the specimens and the relationship between them, the teacher explains that they shall in the week’s lesson, begin to learn how to get a finished product from a raw material. S/he clarifies that the raw material and products are however not in agricultural terms as the ones s/he presented. Instead, since they are in Computer class, it shall be raw material and finished product in Computer terms – you might want to bring fun to class by demanding a guess (don’t kill your time).

Thereafter, the teacher reminds/demands the students to recall the definition of computer in earlier classes:

“Computer is an electronic machine that accepts and process DATA; store and give out INFORMATION based on the instruction given to it by the user”

However their definition goes, the emphasis is on DATA and INFORMATION. The teacher also reminds them how their primary school teacher probably told them that DATA is raw information while INFORMATION is raw data. S/he therefore, reveals to them that data is the raw material and information is the finished product. The teacher also points out that they shall learn how data become information in what is known as data processing.

In conclusion of the warm-up exercise, the teacher explains that before proceeding however, they shall understand in details; what data and information means. S/he therefore writes the topic – Data and Information – on the board and explains the objectives of the lesson to the students.

2.     Definition of Data

In continuation of the lesson, the teacher teaches that the term data is the plural form of datum. S/he furthers the lesson by defining and explaining both datum and data to the understanding of the students. I present recommended definition and explanations below.

Datum

Datum is a unit of any of the means of expressing facts.

Explanation

1.       A unit

A unit means one item of the means we use to express facts.

2.       Facts

Fact means something which is known to have happened or to exist, especially something for which proof exists, or about which there is information.

One distinguishing feature of facts is the existence of proofs to show for it. Hence, one of the qualities of well educated people is that they are not easily swayed by hearsays. Instead, they always verify authenticity of every rumor before believing and circulating.

Examples of what could be facts are:
  1. Color of an object – the proof is that we can see the color.
  2. The taste of an object – we prove this by tasting it
  3. The shape of an object – we can see and even draw it by making the outline
  4. The height and length of an object – we can measure it with ruler or appropriate tools
  5. The number of an item – we prove this by counting
  6. The state of an item – whether liquid, solid, gas – we prove this by feeling
  7. The texture of an item
  8. The size of an item
  9. The feeling of a person or an animal
  10. Statement of an occurrence like “there was a bomb blast”, “she was awarded”, “he is sacked”, “I am blind”, e.t.c.

Note that all these could be facts if there are reasonable proofs or information to show for it. They could also be false.

3.       Means of expressing facts

Means of expressing facts now referred to how we communicate/report (say or show) facts. The means of expressing facts are through:

  1. letters
  2. numbers
  3. letters and numbers (text)
  4. sound
  5. graphics (drawing, picture, painting)

We may also call each of this means of expressing facts medium of communication. Hence, the last form of medium of communication is called multimedia. Multimedia is a medium of communication that contains many means of expressing facts. Examples of multimedia are videos, animations and music/audio (combination of many sound elements).

From the explanations above, datum refers to a single letter, single number, the tiniest piece of sound (phonon) and the smallest unit if image (pixel – picture element). So, any of these items formed alone is a datum. Now from this it can also be said that datum does not make complete sense. For instance, writing a number or letter without saying a word or prior discussion will not make any sense.

Data

From the definition and explanation of datum above, we can derive the definition of data. Since data is the plural of datum, data can be defined as any collection or a set of one or more medium of communication expressing a fact which can be processed to make complete sense or give more meaning to support decision making.

Explanation

1.       Collection or a set

This means data is usually not a single content form such as a letter, number, phonon or pixel. Instead, it is many letters, many numbers, group of phonons, and group of pixels or combination of two or more of the content forms.

2.       Expressing a fact

This means that the collection or set of medium of communication is usually a description of a fact. Therefore, writing number 1 alone without describing what it represents is no data. Instead it is a datum. However, saying “the number of oranges left is 1” makes it data because it now describes a fact.

3.       Which can be processed to make complete sense or give more meaning

Process (verb form) in computer means performing operations such as conversion, calculation or arranging/rearranging a set of data to give a desired meaning/output. More so, a characteristic of data is that it does not make sense or complete sense. Hence, it has to be processed or it can be processed to make complete or more meaning.

4.       To support decision making

Since data does not make complete sense or there are additional meaning that one can derive, we cannot make decisions based on a given data except it is processed.

 

3.     Examples of data

Referring the students to the definition and explanation, the teacher asks them to give examples of data. S/he accepts as many attempts as possible. After that, the teacher lists some examples.

  1. Aubja
  2. Maihcel
  3. Name my is Smason
  4. Favorite color of 5 students: Green, Green, Yellow, White, Purple
  5. The shoe size of ten children: 12 11          5      10.5      10         12         13         9.5       8          12
  6. Unedited sound and video recording
  7. Unedited and indistinct outline sketch of a painting

Note that in each case, the data can be processed into a meaningful form or to give more meaning.

 

Stage Evaluation and Group Discussion

After identifying the examples of data, the teacher demands the students to ask questions. Following, s/he revises what s/he has taught so far and then asks the following questions:

  1. Which is the raw material, information or data?
  2. Data is changed into information in what is known as ___________.
    1. data processing
    2. information processing
  3. That which is known to have happened or to exist, especially something for which proof exists, or about which there is information is ________
    1. medium of communication
    2. fact
    3. proof
  4. Which one is not true of data?
    1. It is a single content form such as a letter, number, phonon or pixel
    2. Data always describes facts
    3. Ability to be processed
  5. How many qualities of data were discussed?
    1. 3
    2. 2
    3. 4
    4. 5

Group Discussion

Following the stage evaluation questions above, the teacher groups the students. Then dedicating a/some group(s) as opponent and the other(s) as proponent, the teacher directs each group to answer the following questions:

  1. List the 4 qualities of data
  2. Using the qualities of data mention in (1 ) above, prove/disprove that a letter written by some students to the Principal is an example of data.

 

This note is being updated, kindly check back for continuation…

First-Term-Basic-Technology-Lesson-Note-JSS-One-Week-1-2

Introduction to First-Term-Basic-Technology-Lesson-Note-JSS-One-Week-1-2

I prepared this First-Term-Basic-Technology-Lesson-Note-JSS-One-Week-1-2 based on KERDC’s Scheme of Works for the new Standard Basic Technology Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council for Junior Secondary Schools 1. Basic Technology is one of the four separate but related subjects compressed to form the composite Basic Science and Technology in the new national curriculum. The other subjects are Basic Science, Physical and Health Education and Information Technology (IT) – formerly Computer Studies. Accordingly, this note is written to be delivered in the first and second week of the first term of the academic year.

To Basic Technology Teachers

Basic Technology teachers must understand that this is a practical subject. Hence, the success of its delivery stretches beyond the cognitive objectives. A Basic Technology teacher is a demonstrator, mind influencer and a motivator that inspires his/her student to DO.  As a result, s/he delivers the class by demonstration and motivation while majoring his/her performance by what the pupils are able TO DO at the end of the lesson.


First-Term-Basic-Technology-Lesson-Note-JSS-One-Week-1-2

Name of Teacher

Name of School

Date

Period

Duration

Age

CLASS: JSS One

CLASS COMPOSITION:

SUBJECT: Basic Technology

Theme: One – You and Technology

Basic Technology is a compulsory subject in the (Nine) 9-Year Basic Education programme. The National Educational Research and Development (NERDC) outline the objectives of the subject to include:

  • Inculcation of technological literacy;
  • Exposure of students to the world of work to match their talents for wise vocational choices; and
  • Inculcation of positive attitudes towards work as a source of human identity, livelihood and power.

In order to achieve these objectives, the Basic Technology curriculum is divided into nine (9) themes including:

  1. You and Technology
  2. Safety
  3. Materials and Processing
  4. Drawing Practice
  5. Tools and Machines
  6. Applied Electricity and Electronics
  7. Energy and Power
  8. Maintenance
  9. Building

Each of the themes is thereafter subdivided into topics. The week’s topic is under theme one – You and Technology which generally introduces the students to technology. This theme will still be the centre of discussion until the next three (3) weeks.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Funk, K. (1999, September 1). Technology and Christiian Values. Retrieved June 13, 2017, from Oregon State University.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Library. (n.d.). Objects and Plan of an Institute of Technology. Retrieved 06 16, 2017, from MIT Libraries: https://libraries.mit.edu/_archives/exhibits/objects-plan/index.html

Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council. (2007). 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum, Basic Technology for JSS 1-3. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Education – Nigerian Educational Research Development Council.

Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council. (2015). NERDC Basic Technology for Junior Secondary School 1. Lagos: Learn Africa.

Pain, R. (1937). Technology and State Government. American Sociological Review , 2, 860.

Schatzberg, E. (2006). Technik Comes to America, Changing Meanings of Technology before 1930. Project MUSE Scholarly Journal Online , 487.

THIERER, A. (2014, April 29). Defining “Technology”. Retrieved June 13, 2017, from The Technology Liberty Front: https://techliberation.com/2014/04/29/defining-technology/

Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. (2017, June 2). Technology. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology#cite_note-6

 

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

  1. Chalkboard/Whiteboard and Chalk/Maker
  2. Projector or similar digital display with a computer set. Preferably, the computer/display should have a wireless control.
  3. Charts of some Innovations and corresponding pre-innovative period. This is requirement is only for those who have no digital display
  4. Sample of simple primitive tool and its modern alternative. For those in Northern Nigeria, a very good example which we recommend and shall thus use in this note is a Koranic slate (or tablet) and book

ENTRY BEHAVIOR

Customarily, some of the students believe that technology relates to computers and complex machines only. Also, there is the general perception that technology and its industry is exclusive to men – technology work is men’s work.

OBJECTIVES

  • Cognitive: At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to :
    • Coin the definition of technology in their own words;
    • List the benefits of technology
    • Mention some products of technology
    • Link technology to other discipline
    • Describe and apply a problem solving model to solving contemporary problem
  • Affective: The pupils should:
    • Develop and show interest in the subject and seek to apply their knowledge to make new thing or solve problem.
    • Change their perceptive and persuade others to correct the perceptive that technology is exclusive to men
    • Correct the notion that technology applies only to computer and complex machines

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The students have elementary knowledge of technology from primary school. They use products of technology and are familiar with the term Information Technology, Information and Communication Technology or Computer Technology.

METHOD OF TEACHING

Deductive – the teacher shall explain the concept of technology using Computer Aided Instruction (CAI)/ charts so clear as to make the students able to deduce the definition of technology.

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

Prior to the commencement of the lesson, the teacher shall collect samples of simple primitive tool(s) and the modern alternative (s). S/he shall also collect and prepare necessary instructional materials – videos, slides or charts.

LEARNERS’ ACTIVITIES

The students shall listen and contribute to the lesson/definition of technology. Contributors may be asked to defend their point by fellow student in a form of debate – but not necessarily.

PRESENTATION

The lesson is presented in such steps as follows:

Step 1: Inspiring Interest in the subject – Basic Technology

In order to arouse the students’ interest in the lesson and subject in general, the teacher explains or teaches the relevance of the subject in this manner:

S/he asks the students the reason they are in school and receives as many answers as possible. Among probable answers will be:

To learnto which the teacher further asks why we learn. Of course, that is after appreciating the student for initial answer.

In respond to the forgoing question, the students should give random answers. However the teacher should look out for something like, we learn so as to be able to earn a leaving and help other people. As soon as such or nearly same answer is given by any of the student, the teacher appreciates all the respondents and make the students understand that technology has somewhat the same objective as going to school or learning – it helps us to learn how to help other people and earn a comfortable life.

Thence that to help other people, the helper looks for the problems or challenges of those to be helped – be it in their works, family or general way of life – then proffers the appropriate solution(s) to such problems/challenges.

Following the disclosure above, the teacher uses the invention chart/video or slides to further explain the concept of problem/solution oriented meaning of technology. For each invention/inventor, s/he tells the pupils the motivation of the inventor (which problem s/he observed), the invention (what he invented to alleviate the plight of the people) and how it actually helped the people after invention or entry into the society.

Step 2: Motivation: Selflessness or Selfless Thinking as the first step to innovation

Succeeding the first step, the teacher consolidates the idea with a short period of motivation on selflessness as the first step to innovation.

Selflessness or Selfless Thinking as the First Step to Innovation

The nature of every man (i.e. how God made him) is such that he is inclined to be self-centered or egocentric. It takes some kind of mind development (mostly religious exercise) to suppress this natural inclination of self-seeking or excessive desire of the feeling of importance or respect. This is why selflessness is referred as an act of heroism, not all man wants or can be selfless.

Consequently, man naturally desires popularity and power – in form of money, education, leadership or success of any kind that will make others to respect him and give him the feeling of importance. Nonetheless, Nature (God or Divine Providence) has also designed it that before any man attain the level of success that attracts such attention or respect, he first must pay attention to others – he must be able to solve someone else’s problem.

This has been the message or lesson of nature communicated to man through the lives of fellow men (and businesses) that have accomplished such success.

Take for examples all the inventors we just learned about, they became important (or more important) after their invention (solution to a particular problem of others).

The aim of Basic Technology is to equip students with the knowledge and skills necessary to identify other people’s problem and not only develop suitable solutions but also earn a good living from the aid you provide.

Step 3: Meaning of Technology

At this stage that the students’ mind is prepared for the lesson and the subject in general, the teacher explains the meaning of technology to them.

NOTE: the teacher ensures that the students do not just memorize a particular definition as may be suggested by rote. S/he engages the students in defining technology – explains the concept so that they could define it with their own words. This is one of the propensities of revising the national curricular.

To explain the concept of technology in an engaging way, the teacher follows these steps:

  1. S/he explains the different but (somewhat) accepted definitions of technology – i.e. explains what each author means.
  2. S/he then asks each student which of the definitions they agree with. Thereafter, the teacher groups those that chose or agreed with the same definition. Each group is then allowed to discuss why they chose it. After about 5-10 minutes, each group (leader) makes a short presentation (on the reasons) to the class. Members of other groups may be allowed to support or oppose the point of any given group.
  3. In conclusion, the teacher picks out the prevalent (key) words (or ideas) in the different definitions and explains them. The teacher then coins a definition using the key words – and/or let the students do same.

The Various Meanings (Definitions) of Technology

Even though we are unsure of the meaning of technology, as soon as the word is mentioned many technological advances come to our mind. Hence, to begin the definition of technology, the teacher plays a video of some groundbreaking applications of technology. This helps them to instinctively develop the meaning of technology within. After the video, the teacher proceeds to the origin and variant meaning of the word – technology.

Origin of the word – ‘Technology’

Technology comes from two Greek words: techne and logos (Funk, 1999). Techne means art, skill, craft, the way, manner or means by which a thing is gained. Logos means word, the utterance by which inward thought is expressed, a saying or an expression.

Literary Meaning of the word – ‘Technology’

Dr. Kenneth H. Funk is an Associate Professor in the department of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering at Oregon State University. After studying the origin of the word, ‘technology’, he defined technology literarily thus: Technology means words or discourse about the way things are gained (Funk, 1999).

This literal definition means that any form of conversation about how to get anything at all would qualify to be called technology. For example, if I wanted to eat meat and approached my dad, he would engage me on discussing how to (knowledge of procedures, skill and tools) get meat out of animals such as goat to gratify my need or want. The implication of the literal definition of technology is that at the end of our simple (forgoing) discussion, we would have achieved or practiced technology.

The teacher then asks students’ opinion of whether or not they agree with the definition and entertain a few minutes of discussion before proceeding to next definition.

Technology as study of useful art or useful art

Another researcher and author, Eric Schatzberg, an associate professor in the Department of the History of Science, University of Wisconsin–Madison, who also studied the history of technology, said that technology originally means the science or study of useful art (Schatzberg, 2006).

This definition means that technology is a field of study (just like a school subject) that teaches practical arts like woodworking or needlework – this includes knowledge of procedures, skills and tools

Technology as a school or level of education

In 1861 William Barton Rogers founded The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to improve industry by furnishing young men with training in science that they could apply in the pursuit of practical goals, producing better results with greater efficiency (Massachusetts Institute of Technology Library) – that is, to teach technical skills.

Although such (advanced) technical schools at that time were called Polytechnics, William chose not to call his new school a polytechnic (something that might have been Massachusetts Polytechnic) but technology.

As a result of his choice, William invented another (new) meaning of technology as a higher technical education (Schatzberg, 2006, p. 492).

This meaning implies that technology is a school that is dedicated to equipping students with the knowledge and practical skills of particular occupation for a better result.

Read Bain’s Definition of Technology

Read Bain, one of Miami University’s most prolific scholars wrote that technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them (Pain, 1937, p. 860).

In Bain’s opinion, technology consists of the things produced to meet our needs or solve our problems combined with the skills we need to make the things.

Technology as Idea or Process of doing something

Finally, there are some other groups of people who believe that technology is the idea in producing things. While some other people say technology is a new or better way of doing something like a college typist who used to type with a typewriter but now uses computer.


To be update later in the day with downloadable PDF

Lesson Note – Week 1 Computer Studies for JSS 3

Lesson Note – Week 1 Computer Studies for JSS 3

General Introduction to LeadinGuides Lesson Notes

This lesson note (guide) is based on the new Computer Studies National Curriculum for Junior Secondary School (JSS) 3 or Year 9.

The developers of our lesson note (guides) are veteran educators and professional instructional designers. While writing, they capture all three education domain viz. Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor – setting specific objective for each, where necessary. The lesson note guides also feature step by step guidelines for delivering any topic.

These lesson note guides will be useful to all teachers  especially those in Nigeria, parents who want to help their children keep up, school owners and school administrators who want their teachers to do things right.

For teachers and schools, it is important to note that the notes or guides do not favour a particular lesson plan format. Instead, each is a general suggestion that can be adapted to any format of choice – the school’s lesson plan format. The focus of the note is to provide enriched lesson content and then suggest ways of delivering such content.

Introduction to This Lesson Note

We (at LeadinGuides) have since 2014 joined forces with concerned educators to advocate the need for Career Guidance and Counselling (CGC) to be included as a subject in the national curriculum. Take statistics if you would, and see the many ‘wrong’ career decisions that Nigerian teens make at post-secondary level. You will see JAMB applicants who know too little career alternatives. It is certain, that you will also see many university students studying courses not out of choice but due to lack of alternatives. There is also the sect who is wishing they could choose another course all over again. The bold among the last sect usually drop out of a course at 300 – 400L just to start another course of interest all from the scratch.

The upshot of the lack of CGC in our schools is not good. For those that made initial wrong career choice only to change to another later on, there is loss of time and resources. And for the majority that proceeds with wrong career choices, there is little productivity of graduates. This does not stop with the individual. It also tells on the nation in general.

Our CGC curriculum is currently being test-run in some selected schools across the country. If you would like to have one for your school, please send us a mail at [email protected] or call/Whatsapp us at 08067689217.

This lesson offers opportunity for Computer Studies/Information Technology Teachers not only to open up to the students the many career opportunities in Computer Science/Information technology; but also to provide some general career guidance and counselling as well as specific career guidance and counselling in Computer Science/Information Technology. It is our hope that this lesson note (guide) will be helpful in this regard.

Should you find it helpful or not, do not forget to send us your feedback either in the comment section below or directly to our mailbox/WhatsApp number.

NOW THE GUIDE WITH KEYWORDS: Lesson Note – Week 1-Computer-Studies-JSS-3

NAME OF TEACHER:

SCHOOL:

DATE:

PERIOD:

DURATION:

AGE: 12 – 15 years

CLASS: Junior Secondary School 3/Year 9

CLASS COMPOSITION:

SUBJECT: Basic Science and Technology

THEME: Information Technology/Computer Studies

TOPIC: Career Opportunities in Computer or Computer Professionals

OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, the students should have attained the following objectives:

  • Cognitive – the students should be able to :
    • Define Career
    • Define Computer Professionals
    • List and state the functions of at least ten computer professionals
    • Mention the factors to consider or the steps in choosing career paths
    • Mention the requirements for studying Computer Science/Information Technology at the tertiary level
  • Affective – the students should be able to:
    • Demonstrate likeness for careers in information and communication technology
    • (interested students) Choose IT career that is suitable for them
    • Pursue chosen career in information and communication technology
  • Psychomotor – the students should be able to:
    • Perform level-appropriate tasks as intending professional

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR

To better understand this lesson, the students should know the meaning and uses of cmputer.

Instructional Materials

For maximum impartation, the delivery of this lesson requires charts of different computer professions at work.

Method of Teaching

The teacher shall deliver this lesson by direct induction and lecturing. However, evaluation   shall employ deduction method.

Learner’s Activities

The students shall actively participate in the lesson by listening, asking and answering questions.

There may also carryout level-appropriate professional tasks.

Previous Knowledge

The students know some computer professionals.

Presentation

The teacher delivers the lesson in order of steps as decribed below:

Step 1: Introduction – General Career Guidance & Counselling

The teacher starts the lesson by making the students to see the need for career guidance. After that, s/he gives the students some general career tips. The teacher does this in the folowing ways.

The Need for Career Guidance

The teacher make the students to deduce the need for career guidance by presenting the following scenarios – the dilema of tertiary institutions applicants (JAMB/UTME Candidates) in Nigeria.

However, before that the teacher initiates discussion/participation by asking each student the course they intend to study at the tertiary level. S/he may also ask them the reason they chose the course. The teacher comments on the students’ answers where necessary. If time permits, s/he may further ask them their intending second choices.

Tendencies

Tendencies are high that some of the students would not have a choice or cogent reason for the choice(s) they made. Also majority of the students may only mention common courses like Medicine and Surgery, Nursing/Nursing Science, Medical Laboratory Science, Pharmacy, Microbiology, Biochemistry,  Engineering (all category), Computer Science/Engineering, Law, Economics, Accounting, Mass Communication, Business Administration, Public Administration and Political Science.

 

How to Handle Tendencies

In the event of either or both of the tendencies above, the teacher explains the following statistics to the students:

  1. Analysis of JAMB/UTME applications since 2010 reveals that out of the 630 courses choose the 15 courses I mentioned above every year.
  2. These students do not make these choices according on any guidances. Research shows that the common reasons for the choice of these 15 courses are:
    1. Seeming course prestige – the society makes it as though these courses are better than others.
    2. Job prospects – people make students to believe that those who study these courses have higher chances of getting job after graduation.
    3. Money factor – people make students believe that career in these courses lead to a more paying jobs than others.
    4. Lack of knowledge of alternatives – most of applicants does not know any more than the 15 common courses even though there are 630 courses.
    5. Outside influence – some students chooses a course because their parents, peers and family want it for them.
  3. Nigerian tertiary institutions have limited capacity for the 15 courses
  4. Because majority of applicants choose these courses, the competition for each of the 15 is twice or more than for others.
  5. On average, only about 15% of the total applicants for these courses are offerred admision. The rest of the 85% of those that choose these 15 common courses are not offered admision into them. Ironically, the remaining 85% are offered admission for other courses which they might not prepared. Those that accept this later offer end up pursuing careers they likely are not prepared for. Meanwhile, those that rejects the later offer may end up wasting that year – in an attempt to chase a career that they too are not sure is their calling.

Wrapping up the need for Career Guidance

After the teacher reveals these unknown dilema, s/he notes that an attempt to ease the process is the existence of Career Guidance and Counselling (CGC) – as a subject or educational service/programme in some schools. Succeeding this, the teacher gives the students some general career tips. I give and suggest some of the tips in the next section.

General Career Tips for students

Prior to the general career tips, the teacher defines and explains the meaning of Career:

Career is the work that one spends most time of his life doing from which he earns a living. Career may also mean the achievement that one attains from all life engagements.

In the first instance, the teacher notes that there are lots of career that the students can choose. Similarly in the second definition, the teacher points that one may have either a succesful or an unsuccesful career.

Thence the teacher explains that the following are tips which will likely help them make  right choices and to attain successful career.

1.       Understand that every man is unique, in nature and in calling

First, the teacher teaches that every man is unique both in nature and in calling. There are things that each human can naturally do very well. And there are things that each human cannot naturally do very well. There are things that one human will do and be happy doing it. And these things which make one man excited may not necessarily excite another man. The teacher continues that for this reason, it is a duty upon all men that want to succeed to identify their uniqueness – in nature and calling. And when a man wants to do this, it is very important that s/he cannot be another person because all men are unique – don’t pick a course because some else picked it, you are two different person.

  1. Know yourself

Following the latest explanation, the teacher follows that since every man is unique, to find the course that is suitable for one; such must know himself/herself. Teacher should note that complete self study for career choice is best done under independent career guidance and counselling programme – such as the one we suggested in our CGC curriculum or other mentoring programs. However, for the purpose of this class I recommend the following. That the second step in the process– for students who may have access to special CGC programme – is  to

  1. Course and career research
  2. Make empirical decision
  3. Make institution research

This note is being developed. Check back for updates