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Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term Basic Science Week 3
CLASS: Primary 1
TOPIC: Soil – Types and Importance
At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:
Mention the types of soil
List the importance of soil
A cupful each of sandy, loamy and clay soil neatly and separately packed into boxes/cartons. Label the boxes with either letters A, B, C or numbers 1, 2, 3.
Steps to introduce the lesson
Divide pupils into group. Each group comprising of 3 pupils.
To each group, give a set of concealed/packaged sand packs.
Instruct them to identify the specimens, differentiate between them and decide an important thing to do with the specimen. For each exercise, guide them with the following instructions:
Exercise A: Identification
Go to your group table.
Put these three boxes on top.
Then, sit or stand round the table.
Let the first member of the group open the first box (Box A or Box 1).
All the group members should touch and fetch what is inside the box unto their palms.
Tell each other what you think the material is.
Once all the group members agree on what is inside the box, put the material back in the box then each of you should write the name in your book.
Then do the same thing for the second and third boxes. The second group member is to open the second box while the third group member should open the third box.
Exercise B: Differentiation
Put the three opened boxes on the table.
All the group members should look at the material inside the three boxes, touch it again and if any wants, smell it.
Teach each other whether the materials in the three boxes are the same thing or not.
If what is inside the three boxes are not the same, tell each other the difference between the three.
EXERCISE C: Importance
All group members should sit round the group table.
First group member should remind other group members what was is in first box; second member, second box; and third member, box 3.
Starting from first person, if the teacher gift (dash) the three packs to you; mention one way the content can help you.
Recall the pupils from their groups and collect their workbook then keep them in a safe place for marking at a later time.
Ask them the questions orally and receive attempts from willing pupils:
What did you find inside box A, B & C?
Are the contents of the three boxes the same?
What are the differences between the content of the three boxes?
If, I gift the three boxes to you; what important thing will you do with the contents, how are the contents useful to you?
Here are the possible answers the pupils will give to each of the questions:
The content of the boxes is sand or dirt.
Yes, the three boxes all contain sand or dirt.
There is no difference between the content of the three boxes.
If you gift the content of the three boxes to me, I will play with it then throw it away.
Start by hinting that the answers are not exactly correct though not particularly wrongs either.
Tell them that they shall in the week’s lesson learn the correct answers to each of the questions.
Thereafter, write/project the topic on the board and explain the lesson objectives.
Meaning of Soil
Continue the lesson by providing the correct answer to the first question – content of the boxes.
Tell the pupils that instead of sand or dirt, the content of the boxes is soil. Then explain the list and explain the l of soil as opposed to sand and dirt as follows. Use video, slides, posters or charts to aid faster comprehension. In-between the explanations, there are one or two questions. Use the question to induce interaction.
Earth as a whole (object) is divided into three parts.
The first part contains different kinds of air. This is called atmosphere. It starts from the sky above down to under our feet when we lift our legs. Birds, bats and insects live in the air.
The second part of earth is water in natural places apart from the sky. This includes small water bodies like natural ponds, lakes, streams and large water bodies like rivers, seas and oceans. Fishes, turtles and frogs live in water – water is their home.
The third part of earth is land. Land is also called ground, earth’s surface or earth’s crust. It is the strong rocky surface that human beings can stand, walk, run, jump and live on. What other things live on land? Correct! Goats, dog, lizard and so on also live on land. Plants grow on land too.
Soil, is part of land. If you dug the ground down for 10 years without resting, what would you see?
Layers of Earth’s Land/Ground
Many scientists did the experiment many years ago. They found out that from the top where we walk, the ground is soft. Human beings, animals and plants can break the top soft part of the ground. The top soft part is mostly dark in color. After the soft part of the ground, there is the hardpart. Human beings, animals and plants cannot easily break this hard inner part – but they still can with more effort or engine/machine. This part of the ground is usually brownish or reddish in color. After this part, there many harder parts deeper into the ground. The deeper you go, the harder until you hit the rocks. The rocks are followed by underground water. After the underground water, there is the hardest part of the earth. The last hardest part of the ground is very hot. In fact, the deeper you go from the top, the hotter it becomes.
When scientists draw the different parts of earth’s land/ground from the top to the innermost part, they call each part a layer. See the layers of earth’s land/ground below.
Where is soil in all of these? What is soil?
Soil is the topmost layer of the earth surface. That means it is the top soft part of earth’s land that man and other animals live and plants grow. Whenever we dig a hole, scrub our feet against the ground or stamp our feet; we break the ground. The small piece that results from that breakage is what we call soil. Generally, whenever a stone or rock breaks, it forms soil – smaller pieces of that stone/rock. That is how we got the content of the three boxes in the earlier exercise. So, the content of the boxes is soil.
Don’t forget to give excellent feedback to the pupils. Where available, use reward stickers to this effect.
Second Period: Types of Soil
Continue the lesson with the following steps:
Remind them of the earlier differentiation exercise and ask if them if the content of the three boxes is the same.
After the discussion, clarify that the three boxes all contain soil.
Thereafter, ask the pupils again if the different soils in the three boxes are the same. You may demand reasons for more interactivity.
In the end, clarify again that the different soils in the three boxes are not the same – give one or two differences between the soil such as the color and how the soil feels when you touch them.
Then ask them what they think made the soils to be different despite that all are same soil.
Succeeding the discussion, explain that the soils are different because of where we get them from and also the condition that form them.
When a hard rock breaks by force into many pieces, it forms shiny and sharp soil. However, when a rock breaks into many small pieces by the smooth washing of fast-moving water, we get smooth soft soil. And when smooth soft soil combines with remains of dead organisms for a very long time, it gums together and become smooth sticky soil.
Components of Soil
Explain that when the different kinds of soil form, they lie on top of the ground. So, when people walk on them, animals dig holes or rain drops and wind blows; soil gets mixed with other things. These things that get mixed with and are present in soil are what we call components of soil. The component of soil include:Many pieces of different kinds of rocks and these are called minerals.
Tiny remains of dead organisms, and this is called organic matter.
Very tiny living things called micro-organisms.
NOTE: Depending on your timetable, if you have up to 4 or 5 periods for this lesson; then carryout the experiment to demonstrate the presence of these components with the pupils. Click here if you need the guidelines.
What are the different kinds of Soil?
After identifying/proofing the components of soil, explain that all soil do not contain equal samples of the components of soil.
Further explain, with emphasis, that because all soil does not contain equal samples of the components of soil, and also because of how they are formed and what they have been through; there are different kinds of soil.
Teach them that these different kinds of soil have names.
Therefore, identify the names of the different kinds of soil with the pupils. Show them the sample of any kind you identify and give only one or two property to help them differentiate between them subsequently.
The sharp shiny soil that forms when hard rocks forcefully break into pieces is called sandy soil. These are the kinds of soil with the largest particles/pieces.
The soft smooth soil that forms when water gently and speedily washes rocks into pieces is called silt soil. The size of the particles/pieces of this type of soil is not too big or small.
Finally, the smooth sticky soil that forms when smooth soft soil combines with remains of dead organisms for a very long time is called clay soil. This is the type of soil that has the finest or tinniest particles/pieces.
Then, when the three kinds of soil mix together; they form loamy soil.
Therefore, the types of soil are:
Clay soil and
Tolerating Personal & Social Differences
Give a brief talk on individual and social differences and the need for them to be tolerant towards all peoples. Teach them that at school and elsewhere, they meet different kinds of people. Some people looks dirty, others clean. Some are gentle, others rough. There are hungry people who are beggars, and there are others who have. Even our culture and religion is not all the same. Some cultures eat what other cultures don’t. Explain to them that just like soil, everybody is the way they are because of the environment they are from; or the things they have been through. Finally, encourage them to learn to tolerate differences. Teach them to relate to other people with their good behavior instead of reacting back with the bad way they are treated. Also, just as they will not be happy when someone make jest of their culture and religion, that is how they must not do same to other people’s culture and religion.
Don’t forget to give excellent feedback to the pupils. Where available, use reward stickers to this effect.
Third Period: Importance of Soil
Follow these steps for the final part of the lesson:
Revise the entire lesson so far:
The earth as a whole (object) is divided into three major components – air (atmosphere), water and land.
Land is also known as ground, earth’s surface or earth’s crust.
Earth’s crust is divided into layers from the top to the innermost part.
Soil is the topmost layer of the earth’s surface.
Soil is made up of different components that include minerals, organic matters, micro-organisms, water and air.
All soils are not the same. Soils are different because of how they are formed and the conditions they have undergone.
The different kinds of soil are sandy, silt, clay and loamy soils.
Just like soil, people and culture are different. We should respect our differences
Refer to the third exercise at the introductory stage. Tell the pupils that since they now know more about soil, what would they do if someone gifts the different soil samples to them? You may expand the discussion by asking what if the soil samples span large fields.
After the discussion, list and thoroughly explain the importance of soil. Use videos/slides or charts to illustrate each of the uses/importance of soil.
Explain that a given type of soil is best suited for particular use.
We use clay to ceramics like pots, plates, flower vase and tiles. Show videos/pictures of pottery making.
We use sandy and clay soil to make blocks/bricks and build house. Show videos/pictures of block/brick making and brick layering.
Silt and loamy are useful for farming. Loamy is the best of all the soil types for farming. Silt and loamy contains nutrients for plants and crops to grow and produce well. Show videos/pictures of farming.
Teach the pupils that the amount of soil in a place is not endless. Soil gets finished. For example, if you start digging up the sand that is available in a place for a long time; the sand will finish up and you have to go look for it elsewhere.
Explain that as a result, we have to take care of our soil. One way they can help to take care of soil is by not digging up soil everywhere.
Evaluation (Summative Assessment)
Before you conclude, summarize the entire lesson and revise it thoroughly. Then assess the pupils’ understanding by giving them all of the exercises in the accompanying question paper.
Note that I expect you to conduct this assessment orally. In that case, I also encourage you to explain each question and option in local dialect for the pupils to understand before asking them to make a choice. However, this may not be necessary for some schools in the urban region.
First, ask the questions serially. The, repeat it randomly.
Mark pupils’ exercises, if you conducted the test other than orally.