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## INTRODUCTION TO – Lesson Note – Primary Three Third Term Mathematics Week 4

I wrote this note based on Primary 3 Mathematics Scheme of Work. . If you don’t have the scheme, please click here to get a copy. This is a free lesson note for Nigerian primary schools 3.

### Focus of this lesson note

Lesson Note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1 focuses on depth and pedagogy. This means it aims to provide an enriched lesson content. Then, suggest ways for teacher and parents to deliver the lesson.

### Turning this note to official lesson plan

Please note that I do not intend this lesson note to take the place of lesson plan. These two are different. I discussed the differences in an earlier post. If you haven’t done so already; click here to read up the differences between lesson plan and lesson note.

That aside, teachers can adapt this note into the lesson plan for the week. In fact, many teachers do. That is why we prepared a special lesson plan template for teachers.

It helps teachers to easily and professionally plan their lessons by filling in the lesson-specific values of the standard components of lesson plan, in a clean and professional layout. Click here to download the lesson plan template.

## OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

1. Define day, week, month and year as unit of time
2. Perform simple conversion between units.
3. Mention the days of the week and months of the year and tell their order.
4. Tell date from the calendar
5. Mention dates of key feasts and observances within the year
6. Appreciate the concept of planning/time management

## PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson in order of steps as follows:

### Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the distributes copies of printed calendar to the students. The calendar should contain all dates from January to December. Then, the teacher challenges the pupils to circle the dates that s/he will randomly call. They may also name the day of the week that each date falls. Another useful challenge that the teacher may give to the pupils include asking them how many days to certain feast or observance like Christmas and Id El-Kabir.

At the end of each challenge, the teacher retrieves the calendars. And tell the pupils that s/he will keep the calendars until the end of the lesson. By the end of the lesson, they will check to see whether or not they got it correctly.

Eventually, the teacher writes/projects the topic on the board/screen. Then s/he lists and explain the objectives to the pupils.

### Other Units of Time – Day, Week and Month

In continuation of the lesson, the teacher explains day, week and month as other units of time. First, s/he revises the previous lessons on time. The teacher can do this either deductively by means of interactive questions and answers. Or, s/he does so inductively by explicitly listing and briefly explaining the key points of the previous lessons on time. Interactive discussion is better. But induction is preferable if there is want of time. However, combining both methods is the best.

Following the revision, the teacher explains as follows:

Seconds, minutes and hours are not the only units of time. There are other units of time. These units are longer than seconds, minutes and hours. They include:

• Days,
• Weeks,
• Months and
• Year

A second is the shortest unit of time. While a year is the longest unit of time.

#### Time Metric System

The relationship between the units of time is given in time metric system. The time metric system is as follows:

1. 60 seconds make 1 minute
2. 60 minutes make 1 hour
• 24 hours make 1 day
1. 7 days make one week
2. 4 weeks make 1 month
3. 12 months make 1 year.

After the explanation, the teacher makes the peoples recite the metric system a few times for memorization. S/he follows this with simple exercises on how to convert between pairing units – e.g., from seconds to minutes & minutes to seconds; from minutes to hours and hours to minutes; etc.

#### Exercise Examples

##### Useful hints

Prior to the exercises, the teacher guides the pupils to highlight the following useful hints.

First, s/he leads the pupils to identify the sizes and order the various units.

Second → Minute → Hour → Day → Week → Month → Year.

The above means that second is shorter than minute; minute, shorter than hour; hour, shorter, shorter than day; day, shorter than week; week, shorter than month; and month, shorter than year. It is also true in reverse. That is, year is longer than month; month is longer than week; etc.

Secondly,

###### Exercises
1. Which one of the following is the shortest?
2. Day
3. Month
4. Minute

1. Select the longest among the following
2. Day
3. Week
4. Hour

1. If 60 seconds make one minute, 120 seconds will make how many minutes?

Explain to the pupils that if we are to change longer to shorter unit, we should multiply. And if they are to change shorter to longer unit, they should divide.

In this example, the question gave us 120 seconds to change to minutes. Since second is shorter than minute, we divide. Therefore, the

Answer is: 120  60 which is equal to 2. That means, 120 seconds will make 2 minutes.

1. 12 months make 1 year. How many months are there in 8 years?

The question wants us to change 8 years to months. This means we are changing from longer to shorter unit. And to change from longer to shorter unit, we multiply. Therefore, the

Answer is: 8  12 which is equal to 96. This means, there are 96 months in 8 years.

1. 24 hours make 1 day. And 7 days make 1 week. How many hours are there in 3 weeks?

This question wants us to change 3 weeks to hours. And a week is two units longer than an hour. So, we must first change from weeks to days. Then, we will change the days to hours.

Let’s change 3 weeks to days. 7 days make 1 week. A week is longer than a day. Since a week is longer than a day, to change weeks to days; we need to multiply. Therefore, 3 weeks = 37 = 21 days.

Now let us change 21 days to hours. 24 hours make 1 day. A day is greater than an hour. Again, since a day is longer than an hour, to change days to hours; we need to multiply. Hence, our final

Answer is: 21 days = 21  24 which is equal to 504.

The teacher gives as many examples as possible. Then s/he gives the pupils similar exercises – either as classwork or homework.

This concludes the lesson for the first day.

### Days of the Week

On the second day of the lesson, since the pupils now understand the concept of the other units of time; the teacher explains day in particular and guides the pupils to list the days of the week as follows:

A day is a period of 24 hours. This means from one 6am to another 6am is a day because it is 24 hours. From one 3pm to another 3pm is also a day because it is 24 hours. The teacher displays a clock on which s/he counts the hours with the class while resetting it.

The teacher explains that although a day can be within any given 24 hours; on a general basis, a day starts at 12 midnight and ends at the next 11:59 pm. This is why the current date on our calendar changes to the next at midnight (12:00 am).

The teacher explains further that people usually use events to differentiate one day from another. In fact, there are different names for different days. The names of the days in a week are:

1. Sunday
2. Monday
3. Tuesday
4. Wednesday
5. Thursday
6. Friday
7. Saturday

Teacher explains this thoroughly. Identify the days in local dialect, if necessary. S/he teaches the moral lesson of having different days of the week. This relates to planning and time management. After the explanation, the teacher leads the pupils to identify the days for common weekly activities.

S/he can do this through question and answer as follows:

#### Questions

1. How many days are there in a week?
2. Which is the first day of school every week?
3. Which is the last day of school every week?
4. Which days do you come to school?
5. On which days do you not come to school?
6. Which is the market day in your area?

Check back…

## Introduction to Lesson Note Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1

### Primary 5 Basic Science Scheme of Work

I wrote this Lesson Note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Wee 1 based on official primary 5 basic science scheme of work. If you don’t have the scheme, please click here to get a copy. This is a free lesson note for Nigerian primary schools 5.

### Focus of this lesson note

Lesson Note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1 focuses on depth and pedagogy. This means it aims to provide an enriched lesson content. Then, suggest ways for teacher and parents to deliver the lesson.

### Turning this note to official lesson plan

Please note that I do not intend this lesson note to take the place of lesson plan. These two are different. I discussed the differences in an earlier post. If you haven’t done so already; click here to read up the differences between lesson plan and lesson note.

That aside, teachers can adapt this note into the lesson plan for the week. In fact, many teachers do. That is why we prepared a special lesson plan template for teachers.

It helps teachers to easily and professionally plan their lessons by filling in the lesson-specific values of the standard components of lesson plan, in a clean and professional layout. Click here to download the lesson plan template.

Now the note…

## Lesson Note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1

### Topic

Rocks – Meaning and types

### Objectives

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

1. Define rocks
2. State the types of rocks
3. Give the properties of the different kinds of rock
4. Collect and classify rocks into the different types based on the properties

### Instructional Materials

To effectively deliver this lesson, teachers will require a collection of rock samples. I recommend the Toysmith Rock Science Kit. It is a pack with all the different types of rock. And it is cheap too. Click here to get it on Amazon at 29% discount.

### Presentation

The teacher delivers this lesson note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1 – in order of steps as follows.

#### Step 1 – Introduction

To introduce the topic, the teacher initiates discussions on rocks – as one of the first and key components of our world. S/he begins by displaying some prehistoric pictures of the earth. These should be images that highlight the rocky features. Afterwards, the teacher asks the pupils to identify the pictures – what pictures are these? What is common to all these pictures?

Following the brief discussion, the teacher identifies the images as well as the common features – rock. In addition, the teacher shows and identify images of some rock landmarks in the present time. S/he follows this with a short prologue in this manner:

Rocks are essential to our world, to understanding it and to live in it. Because rocks have been on earth for a long time, it helps us to understand even the past world. And not only our world, but the entire universe. Rocks from space and below the earth help scientists to learn more the universe. Rocks also make roads, bridges and buildings possible. Early men used rocks for almost everything – hunting, shaping woods, making fire, cooking, etc. We still use rocks for making ornaments and lots more things.

The questions are what exactly is rock? Where do rocks come from? How do we know which rock to use for which purpose? These and more questions about rock are what we will be learning this week.

Succeeding this short explanation, the teacher projects/writes the topic on the board. S/he concludes the introduction by listing and explaining the objectives of the lesson to the pupils.

### Step 2: What is rock? Where do rocks come from?

Furthering the of the lesson; the teacher correlates the meaning and origin of rocks to the geological history of the universe.

First, the teacher reveals that rocks are not only present on earth. Astronauts have come back with rocks from space (show picture). And rocks from space have fallen to earth many times.  In fact, scientist call rocks that fall from space to earth as meteorite – show images and illustration of latest meteorite, EB5.

Since rocks are present everywhere in the universe, to know what rocks are and where they come from; we have to study the origin of the universe as well.

The teacher revisits the meaning of universe. Then, s/he asks the pupils where did the universe come from? How did the universe begin?

#### Comment

This is for critical thinking. Hence, guide the discussion towards helping the pupils to think deeper. Some pupils may perfunctorily say the universe originates from God – or that God created it. In response, the teacher should try to channel their thinking in scientific light.

For instance, if a pupil say God created the universe; I will ask how did God went about it? If they say by His Word of mouth; I will say probably, if at all there was God’s Word; His command merely started the process; so, what processes did the universe take in its formation – following “God’s Words”?

The teacher’s role here is not to approve or disprove their religious belief. However, the essence of Basic Science is to equip pupils with basic scientific knowledge and skill.

So, the teacher must inspire in the pupils, scientific thinking instead of religious. To do this, the teacher first distinguishes between the two.

S/he teaches that religious belief is based on faith – believing without proof. On the contrary, scientists believe only what there is evidence of or proof for. Faith says God created rocks, and that is it. Science says how is rock created? What is rock made of? How can we use it for the right job?

Secondly, the teacher makes it explicit that some religious people do not believe in [some] scientific explanations – such as scientific explanation of how the universe formed. Also, some scientists do not believe in religious explanations. However, many people believe in both religious and scientific explanations. And they combine the two to better understand what they want to explain.

Following the explanation, the teacher reveals that they will learn how scientists explain the history of the universe – because they are in science class.

#### The Big Bang Theory

To start with, the teacher explains that the most popular scientific explanation of how the universe began is called the Big Bang Theory. The name of the scientist that started this Big Bang explanation is Georges Lemaitre.

##### The Big Bang Explanation

In 1927, Georges Lemaitre made some studies and formulated how the universe began. In his explanation, before everything started; the universe was in a hot dense state. This means that everything joined together into an infinitely small and infinitely hot point – like a dot. The point was smaller than atom and many million times hotter than the sun. This point was tiny particles mixed with light and energy.

Then the point suddenly expanded and stretched rapidly to form the universe – as large as it is today. The expansion happened so rapidly that scientists liken it to many million times the size of the biggest explosion today. This is why scientist called the expansion the Big Bang – as in big explosion.

During and immediately after the Big Bang, the universe was too hot for anything to exist – there was absolutely nothing except the particles.

But after thousands of years, when the heat in the universe has reduced; the tiny particles grouped together. They formed atoms. Then those atoms grouped together.  And after a long period of time, the group of atoms came together to form stars and galaxies.

###### Planet

From stars come star dust – which is formed when stars formed, aged and died. When star dusts combine with gas, collide with each other and stick together; they form a planet. The combination of gas and star dust to form planet takes millions of years to complete. First, it occurs under extremely high temperature – as hot gases and/or in molten (extremely heated and boiling rocks and metals in liquid) state. So, it takes millions of years to cool off. After cooling, some planets such as earth becomes solid. This is what we call rocks. It is the origin of rocks.

###### Asteroid

Not all the star dusts in space that are able to stick in forming a new planet. Some continue to float in space round the sun as rocky objects. This is what scientists called asteroid. When an asteroid falls and lands on earth, then scientist call it meteorite. Meteorite is also another origin of rocks.

#### Meaning of rock

Scientist call the chemical materials in star dust and gases which collects together to form planet and asteroid as minerals. So, in science, a rock is a collection of solid minerals that is strongly bound together.

To conclude the lesson on the meaning and origin of rocks, the teacher makes the pupils watch National Geographic documentary on the formation of earth. You can watch it free on Amazon free trial. Click here to register for 30 days free trial.

### Step 3: Types of Rocks

#### Discussion:

The teacher groups the class into small groups. Then, s/he gives each group different kinds of rock samples – from the Toysmith Rock Science Kit in the instructional material. The teacher also gives each group the following discussion questions:

1. Are all the rock samples the same?
2. What are the similarities and differences between each sample?
3. Why are the samples the same/different?

After the discussion, the teacher continues the lesson with types of rocks. To do this, the teacher explains that not all are the same. S/he explains further that rocks are different because not all rocks form in the same way – that is, from solidification of molten minerals.

Then, the teacher reveals that based on formation, scientists divide rocks into three types. S/he follows this by listing the types of rock; defining, and thoroughly explaining the formation of each.

### Step 4: Identification and Classification of rocks

In the final part of the lesson, the teacher teaches the pupils how to identify and classify rocks into the different types.

To do this, the teacher pairs or divides the pupils into small groups – as appropriate. Then to each group, s/he give a pack of Toysmith Rock Science Kit. Thereafter, the teacher leads them to follow the guide that comes with the kit to classify the rocks.

## Evaluation

Prior to concluding the lesson – primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1; the teacher asks or gives the pupils exercises to assess their understanding.

## Conclusion

The teacher concludes the lesson by revising the entire lesson. Then, s/he links the lesson to next

NOTE:

Step 2 and 3 covers the content for week 2 in the official Scheme of work. This is why I did not include the content. I will include the content for types and classification of rocks in next week’s note. You may stop at step for this first week altogether.

##### Keywords:
###### Universe

Everything in existence everywhere. This includes the sun and all the planets, stars, space, land, water, air, fire and everything else.

###### Astronaut

Scientist who acquires training for travelling in spacecraft into space.

###### Space

The empty area outside the Earth’s atmosphere, where the planets and the stars are.

###### Meteorite

A piece of rock or other matter from space that has landed on Earth.

###### Particles

Extremely small piece of matter smaller than an atom. Here, particles refer to the smallest known things in the world like quarks and photons.

###### Light

Electromagnetic emission. Here, it means emission or discharge of high-energy particles and gases.

###### Energy

Ability to do work. Here, it means the particles are capable of doing work such when it expanded.

###### Atom

An atom is the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are what combine to form all things including water, food, clothes, cars, human being and everything. Atom is a chemical substance. It is extremely small. So, we cannot see atoms with our eyes.

There are different types of atoms. Each type of atom is called an element. When an element divides, or when two or more combines; it forms a new kind of substance. Then, we say a chemical reaction has taken place.

###### Stars

A very large ball of burning gas in space which we usually see from Earth as a point of light in the sky at night. Stars are made up of hydrogen and helium gases. Hydrogen and helium are the simplest kinds of elements.

In stars, these two elements combine in a special and combustible chemical reaction. This keeps stars “burning” for a very long time – millions to trillions of years.

The burning fusion of hydrogen and helium in stars leads to the production of new heavy elements like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, etc.

Although these elements are molten (burning liquid or gas) in stars due to high temperature; they become solid when they cool. Also, as stars aged and dies; the heavy elements turn into dust or debris which float about in space. Scientists call this star dust.

###### Galaxy

A galaxy is a huge collection of gas, dust, and billions of stars and their solar systems. There are many galaxies – billions of them. Our galaxy, which is made of the sun, earth and other planets; is called the Milky Way. The nearest galaxy to our Milky Way is called Andromeda.

###### Planet

A Planet is an extremely large round mass of rock and metal, such as Earth, or of gas, such as Jupiter, which moves in a circular path around the Sun or another star.

###### Asteroid

Asteroids are rocky objects that orbit the Sun. Although asteroids orbit the Sun like planets, they are much smaller than planets.

## References

NASA Space Place. (2020, June 4). What Is a Galaxy? Retrieved from NASA Space Place: https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/galaxy/en/

NASA Space Place. (2021, March 17). What Is the Big Bang? Retrieved from NASA Space Place: https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/big-bang/en/

ZUCKERMAN, C. (2019, March 20). Everything you wanted to know about stars. Retrieved from National Geographic : https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/stars

[qsm quiz=3]

## Lesson Note – Primary 1 Third Term Computer Studies Week 2 in brief

Lesson Note – Primary 1 Third Term Computer Studies Week 2 is a free Computer lesson guide for schools, teachers and parents. Although, parents and teachers can use this guide to teach their child(ren) how to use digital wristwatch at any time; the purpose of this guide is for use in regular classrooms.

As such, I prepared this guide according to the latest 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum on Computer Studies for Primary 1. Specifically, I used the Primary 1 Teaching Schemes of Work that Education Resource Centre (ERC), Abuja developed.

### Scheme of Work

The Scheme of Work is a complete breakdown of how an adult may introduce Computer to the Nigerian child(ren). This breakdown is in terms and weeks for age 5 through age 17. The Computer Scheme of Work does not only describe how an adult may introduce Computer to Nigerian child(ren). It also, ensures safe technology environment foe the children.

The national curriculum developers took care to not bombard children with the overwhelming versatility of computer technology. Instead, at every stage of development through the Basic Education levels; the Scheme recommends computer skills necessary for appropriate digital learning and leisure activities. In addition; the curriculum ensures that children acquire knowledge necessary for them to pursue a career in Computer Science.

### Up to you

What is left is for adults to deliver the lesson in a manner good enough to attain the objectives for the every topic. But it is a common knowledge, that some teachers find it somewhat difficult to identify all the objectives that every topic intends for the pupils to learn. Fortunately, we have a guide on how to identify and set lesson objectives. Click here to check the guide on lesson objectives.

In addition, I prepared this lesson note to guide Computer teachers on how best to deliver the lesson to attain the objectives. Parents who homeschool their children and those who wishes to help their children stay ahead in school will find this really helpful too.

This, as with the rest of our lesson notes, is a comprehensive guide. But, kindly note that I do not intend for the teacher to deliver the entire content in one day/meeting. Instead, I assume that the teacher will deliver the lesson in at least 3 meetings.

### For School Teachers

While a lot of school teachers use our lesson notes, it is important you understand that this is not a lesson plan. This despite that I wrote this lesson note in outline of all STANDARD LESSON PLANS.

There is a differences between lesson plan and lesson note. You can click here to quickly read the differences between a lesson plan and lesson note.

If a school teacher intends to use this note to for their lesson plan as many do, to get our PROFESSIONAL LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE. The layout of the template makes it easy for teachers to write a professional lesson plan and easily.

## Now, Lesson Note – Primary 1 Third Term Computer Studies Week 2

### TOPIC:

Common IT Devices, Digital Wristwatch

### OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

Cognitive: define digital wristwatch and tell the time on a digital wristwatch

Affective: demonstrate (time consciousness) punctuality

Psychomotor: Set date, time and alarms on digital wristwatch

### PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson in order of steps as follows.

#### Step 1: Introduction

To introduce the topic, the teacher shows the pupils a clock and a wristwatch. Then s/he demands volunteers to identify the clock and watch. Also, the teacher asks the pupils to tell the time displayed by both the clock and the wristwatch.

The teacher may also ask the pupils in what ways is digital wristwatch like computer.

Following the discussion that will ensue, the teacher reveals the topic of the week’s lesson to the pupils. S/he reminds them that they learned the meaning of computer in the previous lesson. Additionally, they identified computer-related devices. Here, the teacher asks the following questions to review the previous lesson:

1. Computer is an/a _________________ machine
1. Electrical
2. Electronic
3. Mechanical
2. What a computer user input into the computer is called _______________
1. Information
2. Process
3. Data
3. Data is to input as _________________ is to output
1. Process
2. Information
3. Instructions
4. Play, cancel and print belong to the category of input called ________
1. Data
2. Instructions
3. Information
5. __________________ is used for making and accepting payment
1. Telephone
2. Fax machine
3. POS
6. Digital wristwatch is used for ________________________
1. Playing music
2. Telling time and date
3. Listening to news and music
7. Mention 5 computer-related devices
1. ____________________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________________

In conclusion of the introduction, the teacher discloses that having learnt computer-related devices, they shall now learn how to use each of the devices – starting with digital wristwatch. Hence, the teacher lists and explains the lesson objectives for the students.

#### Step 2 – Meaning of Digital Wristwatch

In continuation, the teacher displays a digital wristwatch. Then, s/he asks how the pupils will describe/define it. Succeeding the discussion, the teacher defines and explains the meaning of digital wristwatch:

Digital Wristwatch is a watch that displays the time in form of digits (numbers).

The teacher explains this in contrast to analogue clock. First, s/he displays a clock and explains the face – hands. The teacher teaches them to be able to tell the names of the different hands.

Once the pupils are able to differentiate between the hands of the clock, the teacher explains what each read:

1. Hour hand indicates or tells us the hour of the day;
2. Minute hand indicates or tells us the minute of the hour; while the
3. Second hand indicates the seconds
##### Telling O’clock times

After the teacher explains the clock face, s/he teaches the pupils how to tell time on the clock. To do this, the teacher explains the position of the minute and hour hands that makes an o’clock:

When the minute hand of a clock is on 12; then we say the time is exactly the number that the hour hand is at – on the clock.

The teacher explains further with illustrations. S/he sets the hour hand to 1, and the minute hand to 12; then explains that the time on the clock at that moment is 1 o’clock. Thereafter, the teacher repeats the process for 2 O’clock, 3 O’clock, 4 O’clock, 5 O’clock, etc. S/he makes it interactive and fun. After explaining one or two examples, the teacher may reset the clock and demands the pupils to tell the time. Alternatively, the teacher may give the pupil the clock to reset it to a given time.

NOTE: Teacher gives these to the pupils in order of 1 – 12 O’clock first, then randomise it.

##### Telling Time Past the Hour

After teaching the pupils how to tell time on the hour, the teacher teaches them how to tell time that is past the hour.

First, the teacher displays a clock like the ones above. After that, s/he explains that if the minute hand is in the part of the clock shaded yellow – right side of the clock face; then we say it is the minute past the hour – number in which the hour hand is pointing at. And we know the exact minute by counting from the first minute at 12 to where the minute hand is currently at.

###### Examples of time past the hour

Teacher teaches the pupils to tell the time interactively by through questions and answer:

• How many minutes does the minute hand indicates? Lead pupils to count

So, it is 7 minutes

• Is it 7 minutes past or to? Answer: The minute hand is at the right (yellow-shaded) side of the clock. So, it is 7 minutes past the hour.
• But it is 7 minutes past what hour? Answer: The hour hand is pointing at 11. So, it is 7 minutes past 11 O’clock.

The teacher resets the clock several times. Then, repeats the process – interactively – with the pupils until they are able to tell the time past the hour.

###### Half-Past & Quarter Past

Before proceeding to telling time to the hour, the teacher teaches the pupils half-past and quarter past the hour. S/he does this in the same manner as I have described above.

##### Telling Time to the Hour

After teaching the pupils how to tell time past the hour, the teacher teaches them how to tell time that is to the hour.

To do this, the teacher displays a clock like the ones above. After that, s/he explains that if the minute hand is in the part of the clock shaded white – left side of the clock face; then we say it is the minute to the hour – number in which the hour hand is pointing at. And we know the exact minute by counting from where the minute hand is currently at to the last minute at 12.

###### Examples of time to the hour

Teacher teaches the pupils to tell the time interactively by through questions and answers:

• How many minutes does the minute hand indicates? Lead pupils to count

So, it is 5 minutes

• Is it 5 minutes past or to? Answer: The minute hand is at the left (white-shaded) side of the clock. So, it is 5 minutes to the hour.
• But it is 5minutes to what hour? To explain this, the teacher first of all teaches the pupils with illustration that the hands of clock move in clockwise direction – top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back up to the top.

Having explain that the hands of clock move from left to right, the teacher helps the pupils to understand the hour that the hour hand is currently moving to.

Answer: In the example, the hour hand is moving to 2. So, it is 5 minutes to 2 O’clock.

The teacher resets the clock several times. Then, repeats the process – interactively – with the pupils until they are able to tell the time to the hour.

##### Stage Evaluation Question

Before the teacher proceeds to the remaining part of the lesson, s/he assesses the pupils’ understanding of the forgoing section.

#### Step 3 – Telling time from Digital Wristwatch

Once the teacher ascertains that the pupils are able to tell time from the clock, s/he teaches them to tell time from digital wristwatch.

First /she reminds the pupils that digital wristwatch displays time in form of digits instead of hands. Then, the teacher shows a poster of a time on a digital wristwatch and explain the different parts of the numbers.

Following identification of the hour and minute digits in a digital wristwatch, the teacher teaches the pupils how to tell the time.

S/he explains that telling time from a digital wristwatch is much easier than from a clock. To tell the time past the hour, we simply say the current minute past the current hour on the watch face.

For example, the time on the digital wristwatch below is 20 minutes past 4 O’clock.

The teacher resets the digital wristwatch and practice telling the time past the hour on digital wristwatch several times with the pupils.

##### Telling time to the hour on a digital wristwatch

Once the teacher ascertains that the pupils have understood how to tell time past the hour from the digital wristwatch, s/he teaches them how to tell time to the hour.

In doing this, the teacher first of all explains that if the minute on a digital wristwatch is more than 30; then we say it is to the hour.

And to know the exact minute to the next hour, we simply subtract the over-30 minutes from 60.

For example, in the digital clock below; the minutes (45) is more than 30. So, we say it is already to the next hour. But how many minutes to the next hour? To get this, we say 60 – 45; which 15 minutes. Hence, it is 15 minutes to the next hour.

Note that the next hour here is 6 because it is currently 5 and the next hour after 5 is 6.

Teacher carries out more exercises on this with the pupils resetting the digital wristwatch each time. S/he also makes it interactive:

• Reset the watch
• Ask if it is minutes to or minutes past; and why?
• Demand to know the exact minutes to or past
• Then as of the hour (current or next)
##### Stage Evaluation Questions

Before the teacher continues with the rest of the lesson, s/he asks the pupils based on what s/he has taught them so far – especially from the current section.

As part of the evaluation exercises, the teacher may carryout some time telling activities with the pupils – see references for link.

#### Step 4 – Setting time on digital wristwatch

In the final part of the lesson, the teacher teaches the pupils how to set time and date on digital wristwatch – by demonstration. WikiHow has a detailed guide on how to set time – see references for link.

Afterwards, the teacher also teaches the pupils how to set alarm.

### SUMMARY

Before the final assessment, the teacher summarizes the lesson into a concise note which s/he writes/prints for the pupils to copy into their exercise books. Afterwards, the teacher revises the entire lesson with the pupils.

### EVALUATION

After note copying and revision, the teacher evaluates the pupils’ overall understanding of the lesson by asking them questions and giving them exercises on the topic.

### CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by marking the pupils’ exercises, grading and recording their grades.

## REFERENCES

Staake, J. (2021, April 21). 15 Meaningful Hands-On Ways to Teach Telling Time. Retrieved from We Are Teachers: https://www.weareteachers.com/5-hands-on-ways-to-teach-telling-time/

wikiHow. (2021, September 16). How to Set a Digital Watch. Retrieved from wikiHow: https://www.wikihow.com/Set-a-Digital-Watch

## INTRODUCTION to Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2

This Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2 is one of the most popular and most comprehensive lesson guides for schools, teachers and parents in Ni in Nigeria. Nigerians in diaspora also use this lesson note guide to teach their children Nigerian History according to the national curriculum.

### History Schemes of Work for Nigerian Schools

I wrote this lesson note based on the new History Scheme for Work for Nigerian Schools by the NERDC. In July, 2017; the National Council on Education ratified the return of History into the national curriculum – for primary and junior secondary schools. Consequently, NERDC developed History curriculum for Grade 1 through 9.

The implementation of the History curriculum commenced in September 2019. Hence it is mandated for all schools to acquire and begin the implementation of the curriculum thence. This scheme is the exact breakdown of the curriculum.

### Note to the Teacher that will deliver this Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term History Week 1

#### Learning of History is Complex

The teaching and learning of history are complex tasks, the latter being more so than the former. Researchers have discovered that simple and gradual narration of historical events does not necessarily translate to a well-made understanding of history. Rather, researchers have suggested that history teachers adopt domain-specific approach to teaching history. A major challenge that comes with this approach however, is that teachers must understand the nature of the domain that learners are attempting to understand from. In this light, historians – or history teachers – are divided along two paths of historical significance: those who considered the political, economic and military achievements; and those who are advocating for social inclusions.

#### Teaching Nigerian History is Tricky

Elsewhere, there is somewhat less rife between the duo in that the formal took root before the emergence of the later. Nevertheless, this is not so in Nigeria. The rife has begun even before we started teaching history in our schools – at the junior level. This is even more so in view of the current shaky national unity. How then do we proceed? Should we teach the glories of Nigeria from the economic, political and military achievements to impress national unity at the cost of social inclusion? How do we teach the Nigerian civil war without offending the victims?

Nigerian History teachers must understand the magnitude and yet delicate task that lies before them. More importantly, they must seek to teach balanced history that is fair to all yet promote patriotism and national unity. As you teach, always remember that any knowledge that spur anger and hatred is knowledge taken from the wrong perspective. Innumerable writers including Emmerson and Hill have proven that there are equal, if not more, positive ending from all mishaps. Your ingenuity lies in your ability to fish out the positive lessons and impress it on the minds of the learners so much so that they view mishaps in history for their true value – blessings in disguise. See the burning fire of patriotism in the eyes of Americans when they talk of the Vietnam War, or the American Civil War or the War of 1812.

#### End Objective

When your students sit in the class feeling twice a Nigerian even after the lesson, then you have done your job; and very well. LeadinGuides History Lesson Notes for Nigerian schools help Nigerian teachers, schools and even parents to teach their students Nigerian history; the right way and to attain the objectives.

### How to develop Lesson Plan from Lesson Note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 10

I wrote this lesson note Nursery 1 Third Term Mathematics Week 10; in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this notes for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to follow this guideline to writing standard lesson plan. To make it faster, click here to get my lesson plan template for N300 only. Or click here to get it from paystack.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, quickly read this article on their differences.

## Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2

Topic: Meaning of History

## OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

Cognitive: Define history

Affective: Value heritage and assume responsibility for actions

Psychomotor:

## PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson in order of steps as I have outlined below:

### Step 1: Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher briefly tells the pupils the story of Napoleon Bonaparte’s sword. S/he displays the picture and demands the pupils to guess what they think the price of the sword would be.

They should normally say prices that are far lower than the worth. Consequently, the teacher reveals the actual price (\$6.4 million or ₦2.6 billion). This should be surprising to the pupils – that an ordinary sword costs as high. A pupil may ask why the unusual price. Then the teacher mentions that it is because the sword is an unusual sword. S/he adds that another unusual thing about the sword is that it is a property of a country, France. Even more so is that even though it is a national treasure; the public does not know the person that bought it at ₦2.6 billion since 2007. The current owner does not want the public to know his/her identity because there are many people that will do anything, including fighting or even killing to get from the owner. In fact, the country that owns it – France – will readily do anything necessary to protect it.

The next natural question that the pupils will ask is why all the troubles for just a sword?

#### Napoleon Bonaparte

This is where the teacher begins teaching on the relevance of history. S/he explains that people undergo all the troubles for the sword because of the history (story) behind it. Then the teacher narrates the story of Napoleon to the pupils, briefly. To do this, s/he explains that the sword belongs to the first emperor of France, Napoleon Bonaparte – display his picture.

Napoleon is one of the greatest soldiers since the country of France started. He won many wars for France and made the country one of the strongest in the world. Other countries feared France because of Napoleon. Until today, he is one of the greatest soldiers in the history of the whole world. And many soldiers in military schools, learn his skills and approach. During Napoleon’s time, soldiers fought most wars with swords. And this is the sword that Napoleon himself used.

Succeeding the narration above, the teacher asks the pupils if they now see why the sword is very important to many people? Hence, s/he explains that in the same way; when we do not know the history (story) behind something, we may not know the actual value (respect). But if we know the history of a place, event or things; we will not only value them but also learn how to do things better just as young soldiers learn the history of Napoleon so they can become better soldiers.

And this is why we have to learn the history of our community and the things around us so that we will understand their true value and also do and make things better.

From here, the teacher reveals that they shall begin with the most basic knowledge of history – its meaning. Thence, s/he writes the topic on the board and explains the lesson objectives to the learners.

### Step 2: Meaning of History

Beginning, the teacher asks the pupils’ opinion of the meaning of history. After receiving as many attempts as possible, the teacher inspires the pupils on problem-solving. To do this, s/he explains that they come to be educated so as to become responsible members of the society – one that helps to solve one or more problems in the society so as to earn a living therefrom. The teacher reiterates that to be successful, one must learn to solve problems. S/he emphasizes with instances of the renowned “successful” figure(s) in the locality.

For instance, within the global perspective; Jeff Bezos, the most successful man in the world (according to Business Insider at the time) became so successful by solving the problem of easily connecting buyers to sellers through his company, Amazon. The teacher gives as many examples as necessary to make the pupils understand the relevance of problem-solving skill to life success.

#### The Rope Puzzle

After that, the teacher narrows the discussion to the basic method of solving problem. To do this, the teacher may make the pupils do the rope puzzle.

Picture of rope puzzle

Once the pupils have completed the puzzle successfully, the teacher may ask how they did so.

Then s/he explains that to solve a problem, one must understand the problem. And understanding a problem is to learn about it (its past) – how it started.) – how it started. This is just as they resolved the rope puzzle. First, they studied to see how the puzzle was made – what the creator did in the past that gave the puzzle its current nature; then from what they learned about it, they predicted that if they pass the rope through one of the wholes, they will be able to undo the tie.

The teacher explains that this is what history means: the study of the past to understand the present and predict the future.

#### Definition of History for Kids

Following, the teacher writes (projects) the definition of history on the board, then s/he explains thoroughly:

History is the past and the study of the past which helps us to understand the present and predict the future.

##### Explanation of the definition of History
###### History is the past

The past means things that have already happened, the places that existed or the time before NOW – this time (you may look up the time to be specific). The past does not refer to only one thing that have happened, or only one place that existed or only one particular time before then. Past in history means ALL THE THINGS that have happened on earth since its beginning, ALL THE PEOPLE, ANIMALS, PLANTS and ALL THE PLACES that existed on earth since its beginning.

###### History as the study of the past

History as the study of the past means it is the provable story of the past. That is, the story of all the

• things that have happened on earth since its beginning
• people that have existed on earth since its beginning
• animals that have existed on earth since its beginning
• plants that have existed on earth since its beginning
• places that have existed on earth since its beginning

These stories are not just made up but provable. This means that there is some sort of evidence to show that the stories are true. For example, one of the histories of the world note that very long time ago (over 200 million years ago), there were a kind of animals on earth – called dinosaurs – that were as tall as a six-storey building. This story has evidence such the skeletons of dinosaurs as in the American Museum of Natural History. At this junction, the teacher should expect question such as how do we study history? This should take the teacher to the next step.

### Step 3: How do we study History?

In answer to the pupils’ question in the forgoing step, or if they did not ask; the teacher asks the pupils’ opinion of how they think we know the history (provable stories) of the world since its beginning. After accepting attempts, the teacher teaches that those that studies and writes history are called historians.

#### Sources of History

Then s/he explains further that where historians get their history from is known as sources of history. And there are two kinds of the sources of history:

1. Primary Sources
2. Secondary Sources
##### Primary Sources of History

In continuation, the teacher explains that the first way historians get the history of a thing, place or people is observing, reading, listening to, and watching the video, music/speeches, artefacts, diaries, letters, and other writings and drawings that the people of that time in the past filmed, recorded, wrote or drew.

For example, if a historian wants to know the history of the Yoruba people 20 years ago; s/he will collect the artefacts, videos, music, speeches, diaries, letters and other writings and drawings of the Yoruba people that lived at that time. Historians may also interview people that lived at that time. Then they use the special skills they acquire from their historian training to determine the history. After determining the history, they write it down for others to learn.

###### Archaeological Tools

The teacher explains that if however, the object of the history study is prehistoric – before written records started; historians used archaeological tools to learn the history. S/he concludes that archaeology is the study of the things that ancient people made, used, and left behind.

Finally, the teacher reiterates that the aforementioned are the primary sources of history: diaries, letters, speeches, artefacts, music, videos, drawings, etc.

##### Secondary Sources of History

To conclude discussion on how we learn history, the teacher explains that in addition to the primary source; historians learn history from the historical works of earlier historians in books, library, historians conference and the internet.

### Step 4: Which helps us to understand the present and predict the future

To explain the final part of the definition, the teacher notes that it summarizes the importance of history. Thence, s/he furthers that present experiences are the result of the past; and the future is determined by the happenings and people of today. Hence, a key reason for studying history; is to be able to explain today through the lens of yesterday. And also, to take responsibility in shaping the future.

Following this, the teacher teaches the pupils on assuming responsibilities for one’s actions.

Conclusively, the teacher reveals that they shall learn more of the importance of history in the next lesson.

## SUMMARY & EVALUATION

Subsequent to concluding the lesson, the teacher summarizes the lesson into a concise note which s/he copies/gives to the pupils to copy into their exercise book. Afterwards, s/he assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson.

## CONCLUSION

In conclusion of lesson note – primary 1 first term history week 1; the teacher reminds the pupils and reiterates that they have in the week’s lesson, learned the meaning of history as well as why we study it. Then s/he tells the pupils that some people are of the opinion that history is not relevant to individual success in modern world, but specialized skills and knowledge. As such, this people are of the opinion that history should not taught in our schools. Thereafter, the teacher asks the pupils’ opinion on the subject.

Subsequently, the teacher reveals that they shall in the following week’s lesson; learn about the benefits of studying history.

## Bibliography of Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2

American Museum of Natural History. (n.d.). Dinosaurs. Retrieved from American Museum of Natural History: https://www.amnh.org/dinosaurs

Hoffower, H. (2019, April 30). 50 of the most successful people in the world in the past year. Retrieved from Business Insider: https://africa.businessinsider.com/lifestyle/50-of-the-most-successful-people-in-the-world-in-the-past-year/p5ymhsy#:~:text=With%20a%20rough%20net%20worth,of%20more%20than%20%241%20trillion.

LittleJohn, A. (2019, August 29). What Is History? Introducing History to Kids. Retrieved from Owlcation: https://owlcation.com/humanities/What-is-History-Introducing-History-For-Kids

[qsm quiz=3]

## Introduction to Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 7

I wrote this Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 7 based on the latest Nigerian National 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Primary 3 Teaching Schemes of worked prepared by Education Resource Centre Abuja. Since this scheme is based on the latest 9-YEAR BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM by NERDC, schools and teachers from all 36 states of the federation uses the scheme as well as our lesson notes.  Click here to get the Scheme.

### The Focus of Our Lesson Notes

We pride ourselves as the publisher of Nigeria’s #1 free and most comprehensive lesson guide for teachers. Our lesson notes are absolutely free. Note however that the primary focus of our lesson notes is to present an enriched content for every topic; as well as to provide guidelines for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

Have you heard Mathematics teachers say “I am not here to talk, but to calculate” before? They do so to imply that Mathematics is all about crunching numbers, not giving moral lectures.

But that is where the uniqueness of our lesson notes lies. As professionals, we understand that with every topic in the classroom; there is new knowledge to impart; new skill for the students to acquire; and new moral character to imbibe. This is true for Mathematics as it is for other subjects.

Many teachers are not able to fish out the specific cognitive, physical and moral objectives for every topic. But we are. Hence, you will find in this Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 7 – as in the rest of our lesson note; specific cognitive, psychomotor and affective objectives for the topic. Additionally, we provide professional guidelines on how to deliver the lesson so as to attain each of the objectives.

## Guidelines to Adapting Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6 into you Lesson Plan

I wrote this lesson note in outline of all STANDARD LESSON PLANS. However, I advise teachers that want to use this note for official purpose – i.e. to create the lesson plan which they will submit to their supervisors – to get our PROFESSIONAL LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE. The layout of the template makes it easy for teachers to write a professional lesson plan and easily.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, CLICK HERE TO QUICKLY READ OUR ARTICLE ON THEIR DIFFERENCES.

For a quality blog like ours that pay attention to all important details, we understand that our articles are mostly necessarily lengthy. Hence, starting from May 7, 2021; we added a new feature to make reading of our articles more enjoyable for all our site users.

We henceforth break lengthy articles into pages. As you read, you will be able to navigate between pages and even pick off from where you stopped if you are unable to read everything at once. Accordingly, you will find page numbers at the bottom of every article. You can click on the numbers to move between pages of the articles.

## Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 7

Topic: Standard Measurement of Length

## OBJECTIVES

At the end the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

### A.      Cognitive:

1. State the standard units of length
2. State the standard metric units of length involving mm, cm, m & km
3. Convert between units of length mm, cm, m & km
4. Add and subtract measurements of length in mm, cm, m & km

### B.      Affective

1. Demonstrate the ability to make accurate estimates standard units of length
2. Value the need for standard units

### C.      Psychomotor

1. Measure the lengths of an object using standard methods
2. Construct ruler

## PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

• The pupils can identify a ruler is.
• They can define length; and
• measure/estimate length using non-standard way

# REFERNCE MATERIALS

## ENTRY REQUIREMENT

This lesson assumes that the pupils are able to perform vertical addition and subtraction of ordinary numbers.

## PRESENTATION

### INTRODUCTION

In continuation of the Week 6 lesson, the teacher teaches the pupils the need for, and how to carry out standard measurement (units) of lengths.

S/he begins this by telling them that there are some problems with non-standard measurements of length. Therefore, the teacher asks the pupils’ opinion of possible problems of non-standard measurement of length.

After receiving as many as possible, the teacher lists and explains the following as the problems of non-standard measurement of length and the need for standard measurements – units.

#### 1. Uniformity or Inequality

Because non-standard measurements of length are different from person to person; it makes it difficult to replicate equal measure of length by different people.

The teacher explains this further by referring to the introductory scenarios in week 6 lesson. Ocheme could not replicate goalposts of equal width as Alechenu; just as Nafisat could not replicate exactly the length of rope as the hairdresser.

#### 2. Verifiability

Another problem of non-standard measurement of length is that it is difficult to verify. To verify means to check and see if it is as someone said it is.

For example, if a tailor in Sokoto measures and cut 20 armlength of a piece of cloth and sends it to someone in Port Harcourt; the person in Port-Harcourt may not be able to verify that the piece of cloth is truly 20 armlength since his armlength may not be the same as that of the tailor in Sokoto.

#### 3. Inaccuracy

Non-standard measures of length are not accurate. Accurate means to be exactly equal or the same as one said it is.

If you measure the length of your desk for the first time and opened your fingers very wide; you may get 10 handspans. But if you try measuring the length of the same desk again, you may get 9 ½, 9 ¼, 10 ½ or 10 ¼. This makes non-standard measures of length not to be very accurate.

#### 4. Not Scientific

Something that is not verifiable and not accurate is not scientific. Scientific means something that scientists can use and make. Scientists want something that is very accurate and verifiable.

Because non-standard measurements of length are not scientific, we cannot use them to make things like chairs, fans, windows, desks, duster, board, cars, computer, etc.

But we need to use length to make all these things and even many more things. That is why we need standard measurements of length.

After the forgoing explanations, and any ensuing discussion; the teacher may ask the pupils the following questions as revision:

#### Stage Evaluation Questions

1. What is length?
2. Mention 3 non-standard ways of measuring length
3. John is 3 years old. And James is 7 years old. John measured the length of their dining table and it is 20 cubits. But James measured the same dining table and got 17. Both of them have been arguing that they are correct
4. a) Who do you think is correct?
5. b) How will you settle the argument?
6. Mention 4 problems of non-standard measurements of length
7. Mention 3 reasons why we need standard measurement of length

### Step 2: Standard (Units) Measures of Length

Succeeding the revision as in the stage evaluation questions above, the teacher informs the pupils that they shall from then learn how to measure length in the standard way.

#### Meaning of Standard (Units) Measures of Length

First, the teacher explains that standard measurement of length is the measurement of length that is accepted and the same all over the world.

The teacher continues that in standard measurement, there are sta2ndard sizes of length and instruments for measuring these sizes. To conclude the preliminary explanation, the teacher reveals that the standard sizes have names to make it very easy for people to know the size whenever it is mentioned. Each of the named sizes of length is called the unit of length.

#### Standard (S.I) Unit of Length

Thereafter, showing the meter rule, the teacher tells the pupils that that is the size (measure or unit) of length that is accepted all over the world – this is known as the S.I (Système International) unit of length.  S/he also explains that that size (unit) of length is called a meter (one meter). The short form of meter is m. Hence, 1m = 1 meter.

Therefore, whenever anyone in the world say 1 meter of wood, glass or clothe, people that understands SI units will also know how long the material they talking about is.

The teacher may concretize this concept by asking the pupils if they have ever seen a real one-meter-long candy/biscuit before. Repeat this for as many common objects as possible: a meter-long phone, key, desk, TV, Radio, Speaker, bread, book, pencil, pen, etc.

#### Other Units of Length

To conclude the discussion on the units of length, the teacher explains that some things are several thousand meters and other things are far less than a meter.

For example, it is difficult to say the length of one’s fingers in meters because fingers are far less than a meter.

Consequently, there are divisions of meter to use in standard measurement of length. These include:

##### 1. Millimetre –

Millimetre is the length you get when you divide 1 meter into 1000 equal places. The teacher shows the pupils the equivalent of a millimetre on a ruler. S/he tells the pupils to bring out their ruler. Then, the teacher shows them the millimetre graduation scale and the amount of gap equivalent to 1 millimetre.

The teacher may help the pupils in further conceptualizing the size of millimetre by asking them to guess how many millimetres make up objects. The teacher applauds probable guesses and allows for retry for non-probable guesses.

S/he finalizes on millimetre by revealing that the short form of millimetre is mm.

##### 2. Centimetre

Centimetre is the length that you get when you divide 1 metre into 100 equal parts. The teacher shows the pupils the equivalent of 1 centimetre on a ruler. S/he tells the pupils to bring out their ruler. Then, the teacher shows them the centimetre graduation scale and the amount of gap equivalent to 1 centimetre.

The teacher may help the pupils in further conceptualizing the size of centimetre by asking them to guess how many centimetres make up objects. The teacher applauds probable guesses and allows for retry for non-probable guesses.

S/he finalizes on centimetre by revealing that the short form of centimetre is cm.

##### 3. Kilometre

Kilometre is the length that you get when you put 1000 metres together – i.e. when you multiply 1m by 1000.

The teacher helps the pupils to conceptualize the size of kilometre by giving them instances of the distance between two places that the teacher knows will be within 1 kilometre.

Alternatively, if there are marked measurements of up to 1km within the school, the teacher may refer to it.

Succeeding, teacher may help the pupils in further conceptualizing the size of kilometre by asking them to guess how many kilometres will the distance between given places will be. The teacher applauds probable guesses and allows for retry for non-probable guesses.

#### Metric Charts of Length

Following the identification of the standard units of length, the teacher leads the pupils to memorize the metric units.

First, s/he engages the pupils in a brainteasing exercise with the following questions:

1. If 1mm is 1m divided into 1000; and 1cm is 1m divided into 100; how many mm makes 1cm?
2. How many cm makes 1 metre?
3. If 1km is 1m times 1000; and 1cm is 1m divided into 100; how many cm makes 1km?

Eventually, the teacher displays the metric chart of length. Then, s/he makes the pupils to read/recite the charts any times:

The unit of length is centimetre (cm):

1000m = 1km

1m  100 = 1cm

1m  1000 = 1mm

10mm = 1cm

100cm = 1m

1000m = 1km

#### Stage Evaluation Questions

Before the teacher continues to the remaining part of the lesson, s/he assesses the pupils’ understanding of the concepts in this stage. S/he does this by asking them the following questions:

1. What is the full meaning of S.I?
2. The measurements of length that is accepted and the same all over the world are called ______
3. What is the S.I unit of length?
4. Which unit of length is abbreviated as cm?
5. In units of length, m­m means ___________ while km means ___________
6. A metre in a 1000 place is called _______________________
7. One part of a metre shared into 1000 parts is called ______________
8. How many centimetres make a metre?
9. How many millimetres make a metre?
10. _____________ metres make a kilometre

### Step 3: Instruments for Standard Measurement of Length

To continue the lesson, the teacher teaches the instruments for standard measurement of length. S/he begins by initiating discussion – in non-standard measurement of length, we use arm to know the length in cubit or armlength; legs for foot/feet & pace; and fingers to know the length in handspan. But how do we know how many millimetres, centimetres, metres or kilometres are there in a given (measurement of) length?

Succeeding the resulting discussion, the teacher explains that there are different instruments for measuring lengths in standard way. These include:

1. Ruler
2. Tape

Thereafter, the teacher shows and explains the graduation of each to the pupils. Afterwards, /she teaches the pupils how to use ruler to measure length:

1. Pick the object that you want to measure. Or mark off the points that you want to measure.

1. Pick the ruler and identify the side with the graduated unit of measurement that you intend to use. Then note the origin of the unit.

1. Accurately place the mark of origin on one point of the object that you want to measure. Do this such that the other side of the ruler lies on the remaining part of the object.

Avoid reading error by looking directly on the measurement instead of from an angle.

The teacher practically demonstrates this by using ruler to measure the length of different objects for the pupils to see.

#### Group Activity

Once the teacher has demonstrated how to use ruler for the class to see, s/he groups the pupils. Then calling the attention of the group leaders, s/he repeats the demonstration once again.

Finally, s/he gives an item to each pupil and directs the group leaders to lead the members in measuring and recording the length of their items. The group leader and/or other members are to verify each member’s reading before such a member records the reading.

#### Stage evaluation exercise

After the group activity, the teacher gives the pupils individual activities:

1. Use your ruler to measure and label the length of the following lines in centimetres (cm):

2) Use your ruler to measure and label the length of the following lines in millimetres (mm):

3) Write all your answers from 1 and 2 above in the table below. Compare the measurements then complete the table:

 Measurement from 1 (cm) Measurement from 2 (mm) a b c d Now study the patterns of your measurement above and complete the following 8 cm _______________________________mm _________________cm 50mm 10 cm _______________________________mm _________________ cm 100mm

4) Use the diagram below with your ruler to measure and record/answer the questions that follows:

The length from:

1. M to N = ______________________________
2. L to M = ______________________________
• L to N = _______________________________
1. W to X = ______________________________
2. X to Y = ______________________________
3. Y to Z = _______________________________
• P to Q = ______________________________
• P to R = ______________________________

SELECT THE CORRECT OPTION IN THE FOLLOWING

Which of the following is correctly the height of the building?

1. W to Z
2. W to X
3. X to Y
4. Y to Z

The width of the door is ______________

1. RS
2. PR
3. QS
4. QR

### Step 4: Estimating Standard Measurement of Length

Following step 3, the teacher guides the pupils to estimate standard measurement of length as in the following steps:

1. Revise the meaning of estimation from the previous week
2. Pick the object to estimate
• Look at the size of the standard unit
1. Imaginatively mark the size standard unit along the object
2. Count the imaginary markings and write down the result
3. Carryout the actual measurement of the object and tabulate your readings as in the table below
 Item/Object My estimate Actual measurement The difference

The teacher does this estimation on different objects for the pupils to see. Thereafter, s/he groups the pupils and make them estimate standard measurement of length in group as they did for non-standard measurement of length.

#### Stage Evaluation

Before proceeding to the remaining part of the lesson, the gives the pupils the following exercises either as individual homework or classwork to assess their understanding:

1. Page 145 of MAN Mathematics Book 3
2. Using a pair of dividers, your fountain pen, a ruler, a plywood, sand paper, hand saw and the instruction below; create and graduate a ruler in cm.
##### Instruction
1. Use the hand saw to cut the plywood to the size of a ruler – 15cm or 30cm
2. Choose the smooth side of the plywood and use the sand paper to smoothen it further
• Pick the pair of dividers and extend it against 1cm gap on the ruler
1. Keep the extension the same and mark off the same gaps on the plywood to create the graduation
2. Use the fountain pen to trace the markings/graduation
3. Write your name at the opposite side of your new ruler.

The teacher may demonstrate this with the pupils prior to the individual project

## Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6

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## Introduction to Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6

I wrote this Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6 based on the latest Nigerian National 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Primary 3 Teaching Schemes of worked prepared by Education Resource Centre Abuja. Since this scheme is based on the latest 9-YEAR BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM by NERDC, schools and teachers from all 36 states of the federation uses the scheme as well as our lesson notes.  Click here to get the Scheme.

### The Focus of Our Lesson Notes

We pride ourselves as the publisher of Nigeria’s #1 free and most comprehensive lesson guide for teachers. Our lesson notes are absolutely free. Note however that the primary focus of our lesson notes is to present an enriched content for every topic; as well as to provide guidelines for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives.

### Complete Lesson Objectives

Have you heard Mathematics teachers say “I am not here to talk, but to calculate” before? They do so to imply that Mathematics is all about crunching numbers, not giving moral lectures.

But that is where the uniqueness of our lesson notes lies. As professionals, we understand that with every topic in the classroom; there is new knowledge to impart; new skill for the students to acquire; and new moral character to imbibe. This is true for Mathematics as it is for other subjects.

Many teachers are not able to fish out the specific cognitive, physical and moral objectives for every topic. But we are. Hence, you will find in this Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6 – as in the rest of our lesson note; specific cognitive, psychomotor and affective objectives for the topic. Additionally, we provide professional guidelines on how to deliver the lesson so as to attain each of the objectives.

## Guidelines to Adapting Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6 into you Lesson Plan

I wrote this lesson note in outline of all STANDARD LESSON PLANS. However, I advise teachers that want to use this note for official purpose – i.e. to create the lesson plan which they will submit to their supervisors – to get our PROFESSIONAL LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE. The layout of the template makes it easy for teachers to write a professional lesson plan and easily.

REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, CLICK HERE TO QUICKLY READ OUR ARTICLE ON THEIR DIFFERENCES.

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## Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6

Topic: Length, making estimates of lengths and distances

## OBJECTIVES

At the end the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

### A.      Cognitive:

1. Define length
2. Differentiate between length and distance

### B.      Affective

1. Demonstrate the ability to make accurate estimates non-standard units of length
2. Value other people’s opinion

### C.      Psychomotor

1. Measure the lengths of an object using non-standard methods

## PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The pupils know what a ruler is. The boys might have measured the length of goalposts & line of defence in domestic football. While the girls have measured the length of plaiting thread.

# REFERNCE MATERIALS

Mathematical Association of Nigeria (MAN). (2008). MAN Primary Mathematics UBE Edition Book 3. Ibadan: University Press Plc.

## ENTRY REQUIREMENT

This lesson assumes that the pupils are able to perform vertical addition and subtraction of ordinary numbers.

## PRESENTATION

The teacher presents this Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6 – in order of steps as follows:

### Step 1:  Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher begins from the previous knowledge. S/he does this by presenting the following scenarios – each for boys and girls.

#### Boys Scenario:

Once, some ten boys went to play football. They decided to have two teams of five members each. For each team, one member will be the goalkeeper. Four people will play from each side. The goalkeeper of the first team is called Alechenu. And the goalkeeper of the second side is called Ocheme.

They went to the field. But there were no goalposts. So, each goalkeeper made the goalpost of 12 feet for their team.

When it was half-time, the other team scored Alechenu 5 goals. But Ocheme did not concede even a goal. Immediately the game began after half-time, they scored Ocheme 2 goals. So, Ocheme wondered why they were now scoring him easily. He later found out that the goalposts in their new side are wider than those of their previous side. Hence, Ocheme raised alarm. The two teams game together. They checked the goalposts at both sides. And they confirmed that it was true. The goalposts were not equal. There was disagreement.

Alechenu’s team said the earlier 5 goals against them must be cancelled. But Ocheme’s side refused.

##### Questions:
1. The goalposts at both sides are 2 feet each. Why was one wider than the other?
2. After Ocheme raised alarm, the players confirmed that the goalposts were not equal. How do you think the players did this?
3. How can they players have made goalposts that are exactly equal?

#### Girls Scenario:

Once, Ogwa went to plait her hair. The hairdresser gave her the thread to hold and cut for her. Ogwa cut the first set of thread and gave them to the hairdresser. But the hairdresser said it was too short. Then, Ogwa cut the second set of thread longer than the first set. She gave the second set to the hairdresser. Yet, the hairdresser said the second set of thread were too long.

So, the hairdresser showed Ogwa how she wants the thread to be using her armlength. Once Ogwa cut the thread at her armlength, there were still not up to the ones the hairdresser cut.

##### Questions:
1. Both Ogwa and the hairdresser cut the thread at an armlength. Why were the threads not equal?
2. How can Ogwa cut thread that is exactly equal to the hairdresser’s?

After the discussion that will ensue from the pupils’ attempts to answer the questions, the teacher informs the pupils that they shall in the week’s lessons; learn how to accurately measure the length of an object. Thereafter, the teacher writes/projects the topic on the board and explains the lesson objectives to the pupils

### Step 2: Meaning of Length and Distance

To continue the lesson, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall begin with the meaning of length & distance. Hence, the teacher asks the pupils’ opinion of the meaning and differences between both.

After receiving several attempts, the teacher thoroughly explains the meaning and differences between length and distance is as simple terms as possible as below:

Length is the amount of gap between the beginning and the end of an object or the amount of gap between two points along the longest side of an object.

#### Examples of Length

Teacher illustrates the meaning of length with examples such as the following:

1. The length of a pencil is the gap between the beginning and the end of the pencil.
2. The length of the board is the amount of gap from the beginning to the end of the board.
3. We can measure the length (amount of gap) from the beginning to the end of middle of a desk.
4. There is the length of one’s trousers from waist to the feet.

#### Activity 1

After the teacher had thoroughly explained the meaning of length with many examples, s/he gives the pupils this activity:

##### Stage Evaluation Questions
1. Invite pupils to step forward to place their hands to show the length of a given object – duster, desk, piece of chalk, stick, shoes, piece of cloth, door, window, etc. – note that length is along the longest side of the object.
2. Exercise: Following the physical activity in (1) above, the teacher gives the pupils these simple exercises in their workbook.

Instruction: Draw a straight line to show the length of each of these items:

1. Fish
2. Earthworm
3. Belt
4. Bottle
5. Block
6. Extension box
7. Eraser
8. Pineapple
9. Boy
10. Height

#### Differences between Length and Distance

Soon as the teacher ascertains that the pupils have understood the meaning of length, s/he differentiates between length and distance thus:

Length and distance are similar but slightly different. Length is the amount of gap between two points along the longest part of an object. Whereas, distance is mostly the amount of gap from one place to another. In a nutshell, distance is a longer length (amount of gap) between two points while length is a short amount of gap between two points.

##### Exercise

Succeeding the explanation above, the teacher carries out the following activities with the pupils:

Instruction: state whether each of the following amount of gap is a length or distance

1. The gap from one end of a piece of cloth to the other end.
2. Amount of gap from Lagos to Enugu.
3. Amount of gap between ends of a biscuit
4. The amount of gap from one block of classroom to another block in the school.
5. Amount of gap around or between the ends of the school football field. Etc.

In addition to the forgoing explanation, the teacher teaches the pupils the meaning of the following associated terms:

Width – is the amount of gap across and object from one side to the other. Width may mean the same thing as breadth.

Height – is the amount of gap from the top to the bottom of an object.

##### Exercise

The teacher follows the preceding with exercises for pupils to identify the length, width and height of different real objects. I recommend that the teacher uses cubes and cuboids.

### Step 3: How to measure Length

After the exercise on the meaning of length, the teacher applauds the progress of the pupils. Thereafter, the teacher asks how we may measure the length of an object. S/he receives as many attempts as possible. Subsequently, the teacher explains that there are many ways of measuring length. These many ways of measuring length are grouped int two categories:

1. Non-standard means of measuring length; and
2. Standard means of measuring length.

#### Non-Standard Measurement of Length

S/he explains further that non-standard ways of measuring length are the ways whose result may not be the same for everybody but may be different from one person (that measured the length) to another. This is because it involves the use of body parts that may be longer or shorter from person to person.

Non-standard Measures of Length includes:

Handspan
 Non-standard unit of Length – Handspan – Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
Cubit
 Non-standard unit of Length – cubit – Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
Armlength, arm span or fathom
 Non-standard unit of Length – armlength or fathom- Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
Foot length

Pace

The teacher explains what each of the above means. Then, s/he demonstrates and guides the pupils to measure given items by each of the methods.

Board – handspan

Rope – armlength

Length of classroom – foot

Distance from one classroom block to another – pace

Desk – cubit

#### Activity 1

The teacher groups the pupils. Then, s/he shows the class how to measure the objects I have mentioned above using the stated non-standard ways. S/he also teaches the pupils to tabulate his measurements. Then makes each group leader to do the same after the teacher. Each group leader should also record their measurements.

So, at the end; the tabulated measurements should be as follows:

##### Desk
Teacher15 hs5ams25fts10pcs3cubits

#### Activity 2: Group

Succeeding activity 1 above, the pupils separates into their various groups with the group leader. Then, for each group; the leader leads the group members to do their own measurements. The leader tabulates the measurements as follows. Thereafter, the group members copy the record into their notes.

Group member 1
Group member 2
Group member n

### Step 4: Analysis of Reports and Valuing Individual Differences

In continuation of the lesson, after the teacher had marked the pupils reports from the previous activity; s/he once again draw the pupils’ attention to the differences in the reading. The teacher enquires why the readings are different despite that all the members of the same group measured the same item.

After receiving attempts/answers; s/he reiterates that the readings are different because the means the pupils used to measure the length of the objects depends on the size of the individual’s legs and hands – which are different. And because these means yield different results; we say handspan, cubit, armlength, foot and pace are non-standard means of measuring length.

In addition, the teacher hinges on the difference in measurement to teach the pupils the value of individual differences as follows.

#### Valuing Individual Differences

The teacher displays the tabulated non-standard measurements of length with the group leaders. Then s/he explains the uniqueness in the differences of every individual.

The teacher teaches that we are all different from all other people in many ways such as shown in the table. These individual differences are what make every human being unique (special). We are all special in our sizes – sizes of our body parts; in how we do things; in what we like and what we do not like; in what we think; in how we speak; in our environment, languages, culture and religions.

##### No superiority in difference

Nobody is bad or backward because of these differences that make us special. When people ask or interact with other people; they do so with their differences. Therefore, do not expect everybody to answer or relate with you in the same way. Instead, expect different answers and different way of interaction with different people. This is because we are different and special.

Do not laugh at anybody because of how they answer questions or interact. Son not easily get offended by other people’s differences. Instead, always remember your own differences – your culture; your religion; and the good behaviours you have learned from your home, churches, mosques and school. So that when you see someone behaving in a way that you know is bad, you can help the person.

Every society put laws and norms to help us know when someone’s behaviour is bad – that is, bad differences. You can help people to solve the problem of their differences that are not good in two ways:

1. Talking to them if they are not dangerous or can overpower us
2. Telling a trusted adult like teachers and parents to help them

When you want to talk to them, tell that them that you had learned that what they are doing is not good. Then tell them why it is not good. And if they continue to do the bad thing, you should tell an adult. If they will not stop their bad behaviour; you may stop interacting with them so that they won’t teach you the bad behaviour as well.

#### Affirmation

After the talk, the teacher makes the pupils to copy and affirm the following sentences, several times:

I am different. I am special

Everybody is different. Everybody is special.

I will always contribute my answer even if it is different.

I will also allow everybody to contribute their answer even if it is different.

Because we are all different. And we are all special

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ assimilation of this by constantly observing how the pupils adjust in allowing their mates’ opinion during subsequent class discussion.

### Step 4: Estimating Non-Standard Measurement of Length

Following step 3 above, the teacher teaches the pupils how to estimate non-standard measurement of length.

First, s/he explains that to estimate means to make calculated guess of the measure of an item. For example, we can estimate the number of people in a room after we hear their voices. Also, after we count how many times a pupil drank water on Monday, Tuesday & Wednesday; we can estimate how many times such pupil will drink water on Thursday.

Same also is estimating non-standard measurement of length. If we know the size of our handspan, cubit, armlength, foot and pace; we can estimate/calculate/guess the non-standard length of an object.

Succeeding this, the teacher displays some objects and demonstrate how to estimate to the pupils:

1. Pick or observe the object
2. Look at the non-standard measure
3. Imaginatively mark the non-standard measure along the object
4. Count the imaginary markings

After this, the teacher leads the pupils in estimating his/her length measurement of the objects at hand. Thereafter, the teacher performs the actual measurement and compares the accuracy of the estimation.

#### Group Activity

The teacher guides the pupils to carryout the non-standard estimation of length in groups:

1. Group the pupils into 5 – 10
3. Demonstrate how to estimate to the pupils
 NAME Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Estimate Actual Estimate Actual Estimate Actual

## SUMMARY of Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6

Prior to ending the lesson on Lesson Note – Primary 3 Third Term Mathematics Week 6; the teacher summarizes the entire class which s/he reviews with the pupils.

1. Length is the amount of gap between the beginning and the end of an object or the amount of gap between two points along the longest side of an object.
2. Length and distance are similar but slightly different. Length is the amount of gap between two points along the longest part of an object. Whereas, distance is mostly the amount of gap from one place to another. In a nutshell, distance is a longer length (amount of gap) between two points while length is a short amount of gap between two points.
3. Width – is the amount of gap across and object from one side to the other. Width may mean the same thing as breadth.
4. Height – is the amount of gap from the top to the bottom of an object.
5. There are many ways of measuring length. All the ways are grouped into two categories. These are the standard and the non-standard categories of measuring length.
6. Non-standard ways of measuring length are the ways whose result may not be the same for everybody but may be different from one person (that measured the length) to another.
7. The non-standard ways of measuring length include handspan, cubit, armlength, foot, and pace.
8. Measurement of length using non-standard ways give different result because we are different. And our individual differences make us special.
9. Estimation means the calculated guess of the measure of an item.

## EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding of the lesson by asking them questions based on the lesson; giving them practical exercises as well as exercises from their recommended textbooks.

## CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by marking the pupils’ note, recording their scores and providing adequate feedback. Thereafter, s/he links the current topic to the following week’s topic. To do this, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall in the following week discuss standard measurement of length.

## Introduction to this Lesson Note Primary 1 First Term Spoken English Language Week 1

I wrote this Lesson Note Primary 1 First Term Spoken English Language Week 1 based on the new Nigerian National Curriculum. Particularly, I used the Primary Teaching Schemes that the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed in 2017 – contact me if you want this scheme. This scheme is the same as those of the other 36 states’ education resource development centre. This is because all the states developed their schemes from the National Curriculum. Nonetheless, I only crosschecked this topic in that of Lagos, Kano and the FCT. Regardless, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National Curriculum.

Click here to get the scheme of work that I used and which we also use for other lesson notes.

### Guides to Adapting this Lesson Note

I wrote this lesson note in outline of standard lesson plans. However, new teachers must know that this note is too long/detailed for a lesson plan. Hence, you cannot submit this lesson note directly to your head teacher or supervisor. If you intend to use this note for your lesson plan – which many do; I advise you to get my Lesson Plan Template. I designed the template professionally in a way that makes it easy for teachers to create clean lesson plans by simply filling it. Click here to check the template.

## Lesson Note Primary 1 First Term Spoken English Language Week 1

Class: Primary One

Term: First

Week: 1

Subject: English Language

Theme: Listening/Speaking

Topic: Simple Greetings and Commands – sit/stand, come/go, clap, start/stop, touch/pointing at something, smile/laugh/cry.

## 1.             OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

• Cognitive:
• Define greeting
• Mention correct time for given verbal greeting
• State the names or words for the common actions – stand, sit, kneel, come, go, clap, smile, laugh, cry, point at.
• Psychomotor:
• Greet appropriately
• Demonstrate the common actions – stand, sit, kneel, come, go, clap, smile, laugh, cry, point at.
• Correctly report the occurrence of each action
• Affective
• Give adequate values to greeting
• Demonstrate how to speak politely using requests instead of commands

## 2.             Previous Knowledge

The pupils are conversant with the common actions and probably are able to tell each in local dialect.

## 3.             PRESENTATION

The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:

### Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the teacher makes the pupils to realize the need for them to speak English Language. Or if there is any rule such that prohibits speaking of vernacular in the school, the teacher reminds the pupils such rule. Thence, s/he explains that since they are not permitted to speak vernacular, they have to be able to say – in English – what other people do should they need to report; or in case they want to ask permission to do the things. Also, they need to be able to say and understand so as to perform the action when a trusted adult – like their parents, teacher, etc. – require them to do so.

For further illustration, the teacher reads and narrates the accompanying classroom story to the pupils. Succeeding the narration, the teacher asks the pupils’ opinion on the story:

• Do they think the twins were truly stubborn? The answer is no. Because being stubborn shouldn’t have stopped them from collecting the biscuit
• Why then did they not do the things Mrs. Ochanya asked them to do? That is because the twins did not understand what she said.

Subsequent to the discussion, the teacher tells the pupils that in order not for them to be like the twins; they have to learn to greet and the simple things people would tell them to do. Then s/he tells them that they are going to start the learning thence. In conclusion, the teacher explains the objectives to the pupils.

### Greeting

The teacher continues the lesson with greeting. S/he does this by giving the pupils short moral talk on greeting as an act of respect; and then s/he teaches them how to greet. The teacher makes the discussion on greeting with regard to the various Nigerian cultures. S/he contrasts the traditional values of greeting in yesteryears with it in contemporary times – a short story here will further drive home the points. Afterwards, the teacher encourages the pupils to greet and do so properly.

Consequently, s/he teaches the pupils that the first right thing to do/say to someone on meeting is greeting. In succession, the teacher teaches the pupils the meaning of greeting thus:

Greeting is saying something polite to someone when we meet them for the first time or after separation for some time. The teacher expatiates this thoroughly.

# Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-Primary-1 in one sentence

This Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-Primary-1 is a leading guide for teachers on how to teach week one topic in Computer Studies for Primary One during the second term of the academic session.

## General Introduction to Lesson-Note-Second-Term-Bst-Computer-Studies-Week-1-Primary-1

I prepared this Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-Primary-1 based on standard Computer Studies Scheme of work for Junior Secondary School 1 – 3 by various state ministries of education.

The state ministries of education on the other hand prepared these schemes according to the new 9-year basic education curriculum. The Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) is the official developer of the Nigerian National curriculum frameworks. The revised 9-Year BEC reviewed the number of subjects in Nigerian schools from twenty (20) to a maximum of ten (10) for JSS 1 – 3. The developers did this by adopting a conceptual framework that identified and grouped related subjects under one composite subject. Under this structure, Computer Studies (or Information Technology) is under Basic Science and Technology. The other subjects under Basic Science and Technology are Basic Technology, Physical and Health Education and Basic Science.

Accordingly, teachers may this deliver lesson in the first week of second term of the academic year.

### Who may find this useful?

These lesson note guides will be useful to all teachers  especially those in Nigeria, parents who want to help their children keep up, school owners and school administrators who want their teachers to do things right.

Note however that this guide does not favour a particular lesson plan format. Instead, it is a general suggestion that can be adapted to any format of choice. The focus of the note is to provide enriched lesson content and then suggest ways of delivering such content.

## Lesson-Note-Second-Term-BST-Computer-Studies-Week-1-Primary-1

Teacher: PiusJoe Ankpa

Date: Look up the day that the timetable for the committee fixed the subject and the particular date that the teacher intends to teach the subjectE.g.: Monday & Wednesday, November 11 & 13, 2019.

Period: Look up your timetable for the periods the subject occupies on the date of delivery. E.g. 6th & 3rd, 12:15 to 01:30 pm and 09:00 to 09:45 am respectively

Duration: Based on the timetable, what is the cumulative duration of the subject for the week in which the teacher will deliver the lesson? E.g. 90 minutes, 45 minutes each

Age: What is the average or range of ages of the children in the class? The students in Junior Secondary School One are typically within the ages ranging between 5-7 years.

Class: Primary 1

Class Composition: How many pupils are in the class? Typical population of students in a class arm for private schools is usually a maximum of 25 – 30 pupils with mixed abilities and moderately quiet.

Subject: Computer Studies (Information Technology)

Topic: Using the computer to play games and for typing text

NOTE: This topic span week 2 – 3. Hence, in this week, I treat using computer to play games.

## Reference Materials

Ankpa, P. (2015). Tutors Manual, Smart Kids Guides to Computing. LeadinGuides Educational Technology.

Educational Resource Centre, FCT Abuja. (2014). Primary School Scheme of Work. Abuja: Educational Resource Centre, FCT Abuja.

Gibson, E. (2017, May 11). Children and video games: a parent’s guide. Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/may/11/children-video-games-parents-guide-screentime-violence

Kano Educational Resources Department. (2016). New Primary School Curriculum, Computer Studies Scheme of Work. Kano: Kano Educational Resources (KERD).

Lagos State Government Ministry of Education. (2016). Unified Schemes of Work. Lagos: Lagos State Government Ministry of Education.

Nisbet, J. (2019, October 1). 27 Best Educational Games for Kids [Sorted by Subject]. Retrieved from Prodigy Game: https://www.prodigygame.com/blog/educational-games-for-kids/

O’Leary, T. J., & O’Leary, L. I. (2006). Computing Essentials. McGraw Hill.

Science Daily. (n.d.). Computer and video games. Retrieved from Science Daily: https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/computer_and_video_games.htm

Shelly, G. B., & Vermaat, M. E. (2012). Discovering Computers, FUNDAMENTALS; Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World. Boston: Course Technology, Cengage Learning.

Sicart, M. (n.d.). The Ethics of Computer Games. MIT Press. Retrieved from MIT Press: https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/ethics-computer-games

## Entry Behavior

This depends on the location of your school. For a school where the pupils have had only enough contact with computer, the pupils should be excited about using computer. In other places where the pupils might not have had enough contact with computer, the pupils might be nervous about using computer. And for schools in the urban areas where using computer is a regular routine, the pupils will neither be too excited nor paranoid. Notwithstanding, the pupils should generally be interested by the idea of using computer.

## Aims and Objectives

At the end of the lesson, the students should have attained the following objectives:

• Cognitive
• Define Computer Game
• State the purpose of playing computer game
• Mention at least 5 computer game
• Describe how to play selected game(s)
• Psychomotor
• Use the computer to play selected
• Affective
• Defend the essence of playing computer games

## Previous Knowledge

From first term the pupils defined computer, identified different kinds of computer and computing devices, identified the parts of computer. These shall serve as entry requirements. Pupils that did not do these lessons may not

## Instructional materials

• White board and temporary marker or chalk and blackboard (chalkboard),
• Computer Systems – one or more of desktops, laptops and/or tablet/any smart devices

## Method of Teaching

Induction, demonstration and deduction

## Teacher’s Activities

The teacher shall identify pupils with control issues and provide adequate guidance. S/he shall also choose suitable game for available device/platform and provide clear instructions. The teacher shall also play selected game in demonstration to the pupils; monitor, guide, group/pair and assess the pupils.

## Learners’ Activities

The pupils shall actively participate in the class by asking and answering questions. They shall ask and answer questions. And they shall play and/or compete in the games, complete assigned challenges and carryout written assignments.

## Presentation

The teacher presents the lesson in order of the following steps:

### 1.      Introduction (warm up)

To introduce the topic, the teacher asks the pupils to mention what they do/like to do during their leisure time (hobby). The teacher takes note of pupils that may mention playing with computer. Afterwards the teacher reveals that there is an interesting thing that some people do with their computer which greatly entertains them. S/he discloses that that activity is known as computer game.

Subsequently the teacher writes/displays the topic and explains the lesson objectives to the pupils.

### 2.      Meaning of Computer Game

In continuation of the lesson engages the pupils in a short probe in an attempt to define computer games.  After that, the teacher thoroughly explains the meaning of Computer Game:

“Computer Game is a computer activity where people interact with objects displayed on a screen for entertainment or to learn.

The teacher picks the keywords/phrase in the definition and explains.

Computer Activity means something/work that people do with a computer. “Interact” means that people communicate or react to the screen objects. This means the screen objects says or expects the player to do a specific thing – i.e. carryout a particular action – at a given moment. And when the players do the action exactly, s/he scores a point and is often given another task. The teacher explains further that sometimes the screen objects give limited time to perform the action. And if the player fails to complete the action within the time, s/he has to restart again. The teacher reveals that most computer games have smooth sweet background music and sound (effect) to give a pleasurable feeling.

Objects

The teacher explains that the object on the screen is one, combination or all of text, image and animation (moving image).

For entertainment or to learn

The teacher explains that this shows the purpose of computer game – the reason people play computer games. People play computer game to entertain themselves – make themselves happy – or to learn some skills or both.

### 3.      Importance of Playing Computer Games

After discussing the meaning of computer game, the teacher leads the pupils to discuss the benefits of playing computer game. Thereafter, s/he encourages them to play it as regular as possible especially for the benefits s/he shall outline and discuss.

Hence, to initiate the discussion; the teacher asks the pupils whether it is right or wrong to play computer game – and why? After the ensuing discussion the teacher lists and explains the importance of playing computer game. I mentioned some below.

1. Computer Games help the players to learn how to control the working of body parts (eyes, ears and hands) to accomplish a particular task. This is known as coordination.

#### ii.            It helps players to be able to solve problems

Computer games involve certain rules. This means that the player has to think carefully before making any move to ensure that they stay within the required rules of that particular game. The player needs to make split- second decisions that will determine whether or not he or she will advance to the next level.

#### iii.            Computer Games help players to remember things

Playing computer game may require both visual and audial memory. The player is required to read or listen to the instructions which might only be provided at the beginning of the game, thus the need to remember them throughout the entire game. Mastery of the keys on your keyboard helps you easily move your characters in the game. This helps improve your memory, whether short- term or long-term.

#### iv.            Computer Games help player to concentrate

Computer games especially action games, have proven to be able to capture the player’s attention for the entire period of the game. This is brought about by the player’s need to achieve certain objectives within the game, and be able to progress to the next level.

### 4.      Ethics of Computer Games for Kids

Before proceeding with the lesson, the teacher advises the pupils briefly on ethics of computer game. This is especially for schools in the urban region where the pupils are likely to get too attached to computer games/gadgets.

The teacher explains that although computer game has many good benefits, they must take care not to play computer game in a way that reduces their ability to do other things. S/he teaches that playing computer game in this way is called game disorder. Therefore, the teacher demands volunteer pupil(s) to describe such manner of gaming that may constitute game disorder – i.e. to mention any game behaviors they think might be bad.

Succeeding the discussion, the teacher outlines the following computer game rules and explains to the pupils:

1. Do not pick a new game all by yourself – always let an adult see and approve the game before you play.
2. Read all game instructions/warning – and ask an adult for clarification in you did not total understand anything.
• Have time limit for playing computer game. The time should not be more than 4 hours each day
1. Computer Game is a leisure activity with educational benefits; at home, you should complete your house chores before playing.
2. Do not loss your manners to Computer Game –
• You must pause the game when talking with an elder
• No game at the table/mealtime
• You must pause the game when you have a visitor or when someone enters the room and attend to them first.
• No game when alone in commercial vehicles and crowded areas
• You must not refuse errands for games. You can always pause the game and continue when you return

### 5.      Examples and Selection of Computer Games

Subsequent to the brief lesson on ethics of computer games above, the teacher leads the pupils to identify some age-appropriate educational games. After that the teacher selects appropriate games for available computing device/platform – such as android, Mac or Windows devices.

To begin with, the teacher asks the pupils to name any game they know or have played in the past. I present some list of educational computer games below. It is not unlikely that one or two of the pupils will mention popular games like Temple Run, Zuma, Fruit Ninja, Candy Crush, Solitaire, Minecraft, FarmVille, Tetris, FIFA and other similar games. The pupils may also mention games like Grand Theft Auto (GTA), Mortal Kombat and other violent games.

After the pupils name the games, the teacher initiates discussion by demanding what one could learn from each. Generally, these games increase the players’ creativity in addition to the other benefits of computer games that we mentioned earlier. Although research has not been able to find any link between playing violent games and real-life aggression or a child’s academic performance; commonsense demands that adults put some restriction on such games for children of early years. Hence, the teacher encourages the pupils to play more of the former sets than violent games. Similarly, the teacher tells the pupils that the aforementioned games are of general benefits – but this class aims to teach them a particular school subject. Therefore, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall pick and play games in which they will learn a particular subject.

Thus, the teacher lists suitable subject-based games for the devices/platforms that are available for the pupils in the class. S/he thereafter asks the pupils – preferably individually – their subjects of interest for which they will like to play the game. After the pupils make their choices, the teacher teaches the pupils how to play the games – s/he provides clear instructions and demonstrates for the pupils to see.

I recommend

#### The following list of games:

1. English (Vocabulary) – Scrabble
2. Mathematics – Maths Ninja
3. Science – Minecraft

NOTE: These games are available for android, Windows and Mac. For other educational programmes that are appropriate for your platform, I suggest you visit your device app store.

### 6.      Playing the Game

After identifying at least five educational games, the teacher (preferably with the pupils) selects a game which they shall play. Thereafter, s/he demonstrates and describes how to play the game they selected. This basically includes the control and how to score points. Then assuming there is a large wall screen, the teacher invites volunteer pupil to play the game for other pupils to observe. Two or three more pupils may do same then the teacher directs each pupil to power up their device, launch the game and give it a try. While the pupils are playing the game, the teacher moves round to assist any pupil that may have difficulty.

Once the pupils are able to play the game comfortably, the teacher may pair them and assist them to set up multiplayer mode. The teacher repeats the same exercises for another game the remaining two weeks.

#### Different Situation

This is however different for schools in the rural area or in schools were the pupils have not had much contact with computers. The teacher has to first of all practice controls with the pupils. This may involve using another game that teaches controls. For mouse control, I suggest Zuma game – available for Windows, Android and Mac. Chicken Invader is another good game for mouse control. For screen control, I recommend Asphalt 8 – available for Android, Windows and Mac.

After the pupils have demonstrated some level of confidence at the system, the teacher can proceed to the game as I have described above.

## Evaluation

The teacher assess the pupils’ attainment of the cognitive objectives by setting questions based on the games they played; psychomotor objectives by observing and rating the pupils during the game; and affective objectives through the pupils’ presentations.

## Summary

Prior to the teacher giving the pupils the final assignment and terminating the lesson, s/he revises the entire lesson. S/he also summarizes the lesson into a short note which s/he gives to the pupils to copy into their computer notebooks. I present this below.

### Computer Game

#### Meaning of Computer Game

Computer Game is a computer activity where people interact with objects displayed on a screen for entertainment or to learn.

Computer Activity means something/work that people do with a computer. “Interact” means to communicate or react to the screen objects or to do what the screen objects say or expect the player to do. When a computer game player does what the screen objects say or expect the player to do, the player scores point and wins the game.

Computer game screen objects include:

1. text
2. image
3. animation (moving image)
4. computer voice

#### Why People Play Computer Game

People play computer game for two reasons:

1. To entertain themselves or to make themselves happy
2. To learn some skills

#### Benefits of Playing Computer Games

Benefits of playing computer games are the good things people gain when they play computer games. Some of the benefits of playing computer games are:

##### 1.       Coordination

This means that Computer Games help the players to learn how to control the working of body parts (eyes, ears and hands) to accomplish a particular task

##### 2.       It helps players to be able to solve problems

Computer games involve certain rules. This means that the player has to think carefully before making any move to ensure that they stay within the required rules of that particular game.

##### 3.       Memorization

Memorization means to be able to remember something. When playing computer games, the player reads the instructions only once. But the player must remember the rules throughout the game. So playing the game helps players to learn memorization.

##### 4.       Computer Games help player to concentrate

To play computer game, the player is given a task to accomplish. By focusing on the task only he does it helps him to learn how to concentrate in other things.

#### Ethics of Computer Games for Kids

Ethics of Computer Games for Kids are the rules that tell us whether a young computer game player must obey when playing computer games. Playing computer game in a way that reduces the player’s ability to do other things is called game disorder. Obeying computer game ethics helps us not to have game disorder.

Some computer game ethics for children are:

1. Do not pick a new game all by yourself
3. Have time limit for playing computer game
4. At home, complete your house chores before playing games
5. Do not loss your manners to Computer Game
• You must pause the game when talking with an elder
• No game at the table/mealtime
• You must pause the game when you have a visitor or when someone enters the room and attend to them first.
• No game when alone in commercial vehicles and crowded areas
• You must not refuse errands for games. You can always pause the game and continue when you return

#### Examples of Computer Games

Some examples of educational computer game are:

1. Scrabble
2. Maths Ninja
3. Minecraft

## Assignment

Before concluding the lesson, the teacher gives the pupils exercises based on the lesson.

## Conclusion

To conclude the lesson, the teacher marks and returns the notebooks to the pupils. S/he provides necessary feedbacks and links the week’s topic to the next. S/he says that they have in the week’s lesson learned how to study with computer by playing educational games; and in the following weeks, they shall learn another way of using computer to study by watching educational films.

[qsm quiz=3]

## Introduction to First-Term-Basic-Technology-Lesson-Note-Primary-One-Week-1-2

This First-Term-Basic-Technology-Lesson-Note-Primary-One-Week-1-2 is prepared based on (Olatoye, The Scheme of Work plus 20 things You should Know about the New 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum, 2016, pp. 103-127). (Olatoye, 2016) drew the Scheme of Works in line with the new Standard Basic Technology Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council. Basic Technology is one of the four separate but related subjects compressed to form the composite Basic Science and Technology in the new national curriculum. The other subjects are Basic Science, Physical and Health Education and Information Technology (IT) – formerly Computer Studies. Accordingly, this note is written to be delivered in the first and second week of the first term of the academic year.

Basic Technology teachers must understand that this is a practical subject. Hence, the success of its delivery stretches beyond the cognitive objectives. A Basic Technology teacher is a demonstrator, mind influencer and a motivator that inspires his/her student to DO.  As a result, s/he delivers the class by demonstration and motivation while majoring his/her performance by what the pupils are able TO DO at the end of the lesson.

## First-Term-Basic-Technology-Lesson-Note-Primary-One-Week-1-2

TEACHER: Ankpa PiusJoe

DATE

PERIOD

DURATION

AGE

CLASS

CLASS COMPOSITION:

SUBJECT:

• Basic Science and Technology
• Theme 2: Basic Technology

TOPIC: Meaning and benefits of Technology

## REFERENCES

1. Ajogwu(PhD), E. Standard Schemen)s of Work in line with National Curricular (UBE Edition) for Primary 1-3 (Lower Basic). Lesam Educational .
2. Asun, P., Bajah, S. T., Ndu, F. C., Oguntonade, C. B., & Youdeowei, A. (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools Pupils’ Book 1. Lagos: Longman Nigeria Plc.
3. National Teachers’ Institute (NTI); Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC). (2010). Manual for Capacity Building Workshops of Teachers under the Federal Teachers’ Scheme (FTS) on Basic Science and Technology. Kaduna: National Teachers’ Institute (NTI).
4. Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools 1. Lagos: West African Book Publishers (WABP) Limited .
5. Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools Workbook 1. Lagos: West African Book Publishers (WABP) Limited.
6. Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2012). Teachers’ Guides for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC).
7. Ogunniyi, M. B., Obed, U., OKebukola, P. O., & Mahmoud, I. (2010). Macmillan Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools (UBE Edition) Book 1. Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited.
8. Olatoye, T. A. (2016). The Scheme of Work for Primary One Plus 20 Things you should know about the New 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. Lagos: KR Publications.
9. Science Teachers Association of NIgeria (STAN). (2011). STAN BAsic Science and Technology for Primary Schools (UBE Edition) Book 1. Ibadan: University Press Plc.

## INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

• Board and marker/chalk
• Digital display
• Video clip/slides on brief history of
• Transportation
• Communication
• Video of primitive way of doing things and modern method equivalent
• Making fire using stone versus using match
• Manual farm work versus mechanical farming
• Grinding with grinding-stone versus using grinding engine
• Falling tree with axe versus using chain saw e.t.c.
• If digital display is not available, charts should be used for oral narration of the above.
• Materials for project: cartons, cardboard, gum, masking tape and pair of scissors.

## OBJECTIVES

Cognitive: At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to define technology, list the benefits of technology and products of technology.

Affective: The pupils should develop and show interest in the subject and seek to apply their knowledge to make new thing or solve problem.

Psychomotor: The pupils should be able to create a classroom (applying what they learned in science for the week) model made out of carton.

## ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

The pupils have learned from adverts and probably believe that technology relates to computers and complex machines

## PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The teacher should have briefly explained the meaning of technology in earlier Basic Science lesson. While some pupils may be familiar with the term Information Technology, Information and Communication Technology or Computer Technology; others might not have heard the terms before.

## METHOD OF TEACHING

The teacher delivers the lesson through Induction, discussion and demonstration.

## TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher will thoroughly explain the meaning of technology. S/he will also inspire or motivate the pupils towards selflessness, demonstrate how to create the classroom model, regulate discussion and access pupils’ understanding.

## LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES

The pupils shall actively participate in the lesson by listening, asking and answering questions. At the end of the lesson, the pupils shall carryout a mini project and make presentation on it.

## PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson as in the following steps:

### Step 1: Introduction

To introduce the topic, the teacher presents a modern innovation (i.e. product of technology) and the corresponding olden form to the pupils. Then the teacher and the pupils, together, list out the uses/functions of the product. For example, I suggest:

#### Olden form

StoveCookingOpen fire/woodstove – firewood/charcoal
HammerDriving nailsStone
BookWriting onSlate

NOTE: the teacher should use only one of these products or any one other suitable product to avoid time wastage. In this note, I use stove to illustrate. In place of the real object, the teacher may use suitable chart.

After identifying the product and its functions or uses with the pupils, the teacher gives them brief background information on the product. Since I chose to use stove, I give brief information on stove below.

#### Kitchen Stove

Kitchen stove is used for cooking food. Nowadays, people use kerosene stove, electric stove or gas cooker to cook food. But there have not always been these stoves. In the olden days, people cook food on open fire made with firewood or charcoal – some people still do today.

Majority of people use open stove until in 1826 when James Sharp gave the world an alternative. Then in 1892, Frans Wilhem increased the alternative to two by developing kerosene stove. Finally, Thomas Ahearn invented electric stove also in 1892.

##### Objectives of invention

Following the brief information above, the teacher recalls the pupils’ attention to the topic by asking this question:

“I the end objective of all the different kinds of stove is to cook food and people at that time are able to achieve that objective with the earlier open fire, why do the inventors have to invent new things?”

The teacher receives attempts then explains the reason for new inventions.

#### Reasons for New Inventions

With respect to every human activity and way of life spanning through disciplines over the years; there have been innovative inventions such as stoves; and there always will be.

Just like the inventors of all inventions now in existence, the pupils may pioneer some of the yet-to-be innovations – the target of the subject. Every invention is a solution to a problem. Inventors invent so as to make work easier, faster and also make life better – i.e. more enjoyable.

So, the short answer to the question is this: to solve a problem, make work easier and faster or to make life better.

Once the reason for invention has been explained, the teacher once again asks the pupils the following questions, with reference to the stove illustration.

1. What is the problem of cooking with open fire that gas stove address?
2. What is the problem of cooking with gas stove that kerosene stove solve?
3. What is the problem of kerosene stove that electric stove address?

For each question, the teacher receives answers from pupils and/or discusses it with them before proceeding to the next step.

##### 1.       Problems of cooking with open fire
• Disturbing smoke
• Fire requires constant fanning
• It makes chef or cook smells
• It is slow to cook
• Wind/breeze blows heat away from the pot
##### 2.       Gas stove solves all these problems

The problem of cooking with gas stove is that gas was not readily available that time

##### 3.       Problems of Kerosene Stove

Although kerosene stove turned out to be a very good option, if it is not properly set, the fume or smoke stains cooking utensils black. Electric stove solves this problem.

After going through the problems of each type of stove and how the subsequent invention corrects the problem, the teacher teaches the pupils that the essence of the subject (Basic Technology) is to teach them how to solve problems by inventing new things – products or process. S/he concludes the step that before that however, they (the pupils) need to knows a few things about technology – which begins with the meaning of technology, the week’s lesson. The teacher then explains the target (objectives of the lesson)

### Step 2: Meaning of Technology

After revealing the objectives of the lesson in the last step above, the teacher writes, projects or displays the topic on the board. Following this, the teacher asks what the pupils think the word means and receives as many attempts as possible. At the end, s/he writes, projects or displays the definition on the board/screen and gives a thorough explanations.

#### Meaning of technology

Technology is the use of scientific knowledge and human reasoning to create inventions that make work easier, faster and faster and also make life better.

The teacher, through explanation, corrects the notion that technology is exclusive to computing and highly complex devices. S/he explains the underlined keywords:

Scientific Knowledge means what we learn from (Basic) science. Human reasoning means the creativity of the inventor. Inventions means whatever someone creates especially for the first time – what has never been done before. Invention may be a product or a process (way of doing something). Invention must not necessarily be something revolutionary. The person that makes something that has never been made before is called an inventor.

The teacher explains the definition with more examples of products of technology using clips and/or charts – tracing each to the historical developments with emphasis on the problems that each invention solves.

## Step 3: Products of Technology

Once the teacher adequately explains the meaning of technology and s/he ascertains that the pupils have understood it, s/he leads the pupils to identify some products of technology. Some of the products of technology are:

1. Fan – fan and electric
2. Blender – improvement over grinding stone
3. Bicycle – improvement over trekking
4. Motorcycle
5. Car
6. Airplane
7. Phones
8. Computer
10. Wheelbarrow
11. Robots,
12. Modern weaving and sewing method
13. Umbrella
14. Train
15. Refrigerator, etc.

### Step 4: Benefits of Technology

After identifying some products of technology, the teacher leads the pupils to list out the benefits of technology. S/he first of all explains the meaning of benefit –benefit means what people get out of something. Thereafter, s/he asks what the pupils think people get out of technology. Following the discussion the teacher list and explains the following benefits:

1. Productivity – this means technology help people to do more things
2. Efficiency – this means people use technology to reduce wastage
3. Wealth – those who practice technology and invent new things are paid for it – they make money from it.
4. Cost reduction – with technology, people are able to reduce the cost of production by hiring fewer workers.

### Step 5: Inspiring the inventor mindset

Succeeding the identification and explanation of the benefits of technology, the teacher once more encourages the pupils to always assume the mindset of inventors – that is, to be innovative. S/he advises them to be problem solvers. They should observe the problem in the immediate environment, write it down and think of a way to solve it – the teacher may give this an exercise. Finally, the teacher teaches them that to solve more problems; they need to be well-informed and knowledgeable. Hence, the pupils must be serious with their academic works.

### Step 6: Note writing

Prior to evaluation and subsequent conclusion of the lesson, the teacher summarizes the lesson into a concise note. Then s/he copies the note on the board for the pupils to copy into their notes. As they write, the teacher moves round to effect necessary guidance and corrections.

#### Board Summary

##### Meaning of Technology

Technology is the use of scientific knowledge and human reasoning to create inventions that make work easier, faster and faster and also make life better.

Scientific Knowledge means what we learn from science. Human reasoning means the ability to think of a solution or do something in a better way. Invention means the thing that has never been done before. Invention may be a product or a process (way of doing something). The person that makes something that has never been made before is called an inventor.

##### Products of Technology

Products of technology are the objects we get through technology. Some products of technology include:

1. Fan – fan and electric
2. Blender – improvement over grinding stone
3. Bicycle – improvement over trekking
4. Motorcycle
5. Car
6. Airplane
7. Phones
8. Computer
10. Wheelbarrow
11. Robots,
12. Modern weaving and sewing method
13. Umbrella
14. Train
15. Refrigerator, etc.
##### Benefits of Technology

Benefits of technology are the good things we get when we use technology or products of technology. Some of the benefits of technology are:

1. Productivity – this means technology help people to do more things
2. Efficiency – this means people use technology to do more things in less time.
3. Wealth –technology help us to make money.
4. Cost reduction –technology help people to spend less money at work.

After the note writing exercise, the teacher reads it several times with the pupils. The teacher should note that s/he is not necessarily to leave the note until the end of the lesson. Because s/he may teacher the entire lesson in two to four lessons, it is more advisable to give the pupils the note for each topic the teacher treats. This will further lessen the burden of having to write lengthy note at a seating for the pupils.

## EVALUATION

### Assessment of Affective Objectives

The teacher carries out evaluation of affective objectives in an ongoing process. At various stages of the lesson the pupils should express willingness or desire to invent. They may say this casually. However the teacher takes note of all of such observations. S/he may commend and encourage such pupil(s).

### Assessment of Cognitive Objectives

To evaluate the cognitive objectives, the teacher tells the pupils that before they could proceed to invent, s/he has to be sure that they now know the meaning of technology. So, s/he will have to ask them some questions.

#### Questions

1. What is technology?
2. Mention 10 products of technology
3. Why do people invent new things?
4. A person that invents new thing is called ____________
5. Mention three inventions and their inventors

### Assessment of Psychomotor Objectives

Following the assessment of cognitive objectives, the teacher gives the pupils the classroom model project.

#### Question

Using the classroom design, the materials listed below and the following instructions; create a classroom model.

NOTE: The pupils did the classroom design in their science class earlier. The teacher should first of all demonstrate each step of creating the model for the pupils. This project may be done individually or in groups. In the case of the later, the teacher should group the pupils accordingly.

## CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by marking and grading the pupils. Each pupil or group presents their project to the class. The group identifies the objects in the classroom and how the objects are arranged. The teacher takes note of the creativity of each child or group in terms of aesthetic and arrangement of their models.

At the end of the presentation, the teacher makes necessary corrections then links the lesson to the following week’s topic – Things in the home and school.

[qsm quiz=3]

# In Summary of lesson-note-1st-term-primary-5-basic-science-week-2

This post with keywords: lesson-note-1st-term-primary-5-basic-science-week-2 is a guide to help Primary 5 BST school teachers in Nigeria to prepare their Week 2 Basic Science lesson plan. The guide is also useful to parents who are looking for a way to help their Primary 5 children keep up with their Science curriculum. Primary 5 school children who are able to read and understand will find this guide very useful. Studying it before the class will make them understand the topic better and faster when their teacher delivers it. If they study it after the class, it will also help them remember more and they will get deeper understanding. School owners and administrators can help their Primary 5 BST teachers to deliver better by simply suggesting this note to them.

I wrote this lesson note guide based on (Olatoye, 2016) and (Ajogwu). Both Doctors Olatoye and Ajogwu drew their Scheme of Work in line with the new Standard Basic Science Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council. Basic Science is one of the four separate but related subjects compressed to form one major subject, Basic Science and Technology by the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). The other subjects are Basic Technology, Physical and Health Education and Information Technology (IT) – formerly Computer Studies. However the lesson covers more depth to meet private schools standard. If you would like to have any of these Schemes of Work for any class, let me know via WhatsApp: +2348067689217.

For teachers that are looking for lesson plan on the topic; it is important to note that you may not submit this guide directly to your supervisor exactly as I have written it here – except if your supervisor is OK with it. Most schools have a particular lesson plan format that they accept. The note does not favour any particular lesson plan format. Instead, it is a general suggestion that can be adapted to any format of choice – for this reason; I include the general components of standard lesson plans. The focus of the note is to provide enriched lesson content and then suggest ways of delivering such content qualitatively.

# Talking about qualitative delivery, this is my short note to all BST Teachers

Basic Science Technology teachers must understand that this is a practical subject. Hence, the success of its delivery stretches beyond the cognitive objectives. A BST teacher is a demonstrator, mind influencer and a motivator that inspires his/her student TO DO.  As a result, the teacher should classes by demonstration and motivation. Similarly you should measure your performance not only by what your pupils are able TO REMEMBER, but also by what they are able TO DO and the CHANGE IN THEIR MINDSET AND/OR CHARACTER at the end of the lesson. Set individual goals for each child. Help nurture them to attain these goals – one at a time. Acknowledge their every step in the development process and praise them for it. When a child misses a step and you need to correct him/her, do so with the understanding and love. Remember, if you get wrong answers consistently; the question may be wrongly worded and is being misunderstood – rephrase it. If they would not understand something you have repeatedly explained you may need to change your approach. Do not hesitate to call for help.

If you do this no matter what, nature by its law of compensation will cause everything and everyone to conspire for your reward – at some point – and posterity will remember you for it. And to fail in this, does not only represent incompetence but you have fail to build a nation of innovators and problem solvers when you had the opportunities. Nature also has its rewards for this.

# NOW THE GUIDE: LESSON NOTE – PRIMARY 5 1ST TERM BASIC SCIENCE WEEK 2

Teacher: Ankpa PiusJoe

Term: 1st

Week: 2

Duration:  4 periods a week totalling to about 120 – 160minutes depending on length of each period.

Age: Between 9.5 and 11 years

Class: Primary Five

Class Composition: see details here

Subject: Basic Science

Topic: Changes around us (Erosion)

## REFERENCED MATERIALS

Ajogwu(PhD), E. L. Standard Scheme of Work in Line with National Curricular(UBE EDITION) for Middle Basic (Primary 4-6). Lesam Educational.

Asun, P., Bajah, S. T., Ndu, F. C., Oguntonade, C. B., & Youdeowei, A. (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools Pupils’ Book 5. Lagos: Longman Nigeria Plc.

National Teachers’ Institute (NTI); Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC). (2010). Manual for Capacity Building Workshops of Teachers under the Federal Teachers’ Scheme (FTS) on Basic Science and Technology. Kaduna: National Teachers’ Institute (NTI).

Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools 5. Lagos: West African Book Publishers (WABP) Limited .

Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools Workbook 5. Lagos: West African Book Publishers (WABP) Limited.

Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2012). Teachers’ Guides for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC).

Ogunniyi, M. B., Obed, U., OKebukola, P. O., & Mahmoud, I. (2010). Macmillan Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools (UBE Edition) Book 1. Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited.

Olatoye, T. A. (2016). The Scheme of Work plus 20 things You should Know about the New 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. Lagos: Saint Hope Nigeria Limited.

Science Teachers Association of NIgeria (STAN). (2011). STAN BAsic Science and Technology for Primary Schools (UBE Edition) Book 1. Ibadan: University Press Plc.

National Geographic Society. (2018, March 20). Erosion. Retrieved from National Geographic Society: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/erosion/

National Snow and Ice Data Center. (n.d.). What is a glacier? Retrieved from National Snow and Ice Data Center: https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/glaciers/questions/what.html

National Ocean Service. (n.d.). Currents (Tidal Currents 1). Retrieved from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Department of Commerce: https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/tutorial_currents/02tidal1.html

## INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

1. Video, slides or pictures of eroded site to illustrate the meaning of erosion
2. Video, slide or pictures of each type of erosion
3. Video, slides or pictures of causes of erosion such as
1. Video/Animation of raining washing off top soil
2. Video/animation of different kind of wind carrying soil
4. Video, slides or pictures of erosion predisposing factors
5. Video, slides or pictures of the effects of erosion
6. Video, slides or pictures of erosion prevention and control measures
7. Science Notebook

## ENTRY BEHAVIOUR

This lesson assumes that the pupils know the meaning of changes and types of changes. Nonetheless, these are revised in the lesson

## PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The pupils probably have casually seen erosion/eroded site.

## OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

### ·         Cognitive:

They should be able to define erosion; mention the types of erosion; identify and differentiate between the different types of erosion; list the agents of erosion; mention factors that predispose an environment to erosion; state some effects of erosion and mention some prevention/control of erosion.

### ·         Affective:

The pupils should be able to internalize the concept of change, apply the concept of change to improve a particular character. The pupils should also recognize the need for erosion control and prevention exercises; and propose, join as well as persuade others to participate in environmental sanitation.

### ·         Psychomotor:

The pupils should be able to clear drainage, dispose refuse properly, create terracing and plant trees.

## METHOD OF TEACHING

The teacher shall deliver the lesson by:

• Induction (preferably using Computer Aided Instructions),
• Excursion or field trip (if time permits), and

## TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher shall source the instructional materials, make arrangements for excursion (if it is to be employed) to erosion site in the locality, organize erosion control project, assess the pupils and give proper feedback to the pupils.

## LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES

The pupils shall actively participate in the class discussions by asking and answering questions and giving personal opinions. They shall also embark on excursion to erosion site, prepare and make presentations. Finally, they shall carryout erosion prevention and control project.

## PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson in order of progressive steps as I outline below. I recommend that the teacher treats Step 1 through 4 in two periods. Then field trip on the third period and step 5 through 7 on the fourth period.

### Step 1:  Introduction

To introduce the topic, the teacher gives a brief moral talk on change – pursuant of the affective objectives.

First, s/he revises grade 4 definition of change.

Change is when something becomes different from its original form

The teacher makes the pupils to read this a couple of times for memorization. Forth, s/he explains and demonstrates the meaning of change.

Following this, the teacher explains that change is a constant occurrence in our world. The teacher gives these instances of change:

• At one time we are babies, then adults at another;
• New things become old;
• Civilization turns forests to cities;
• The poor become rich;
• The young get old;
• Day turn to night;
• The weak become strong;
• Losers turn champions;
• The last become first;
• Bullies turn friendly;
• The arrogant/stubborn become humble; and
• The lazy become hard-working.

The teacher concludes the examples that ours is the world of possibilities – it is possible for almost all things to change.

Succeeding this, the teacher further explains that the numerous changes in our world are natural or man-made; positive or negative – the teacher gives examples of each. S/he also explains that one of the essences of education is to make them create positive change. Hence, as they (the pupils) grow in their level of education – move to higher class such as moving from Grade 4 to 5, the society expect them to continually change and create change in positive ways.

#### Self-Examination and Changing Misbehaviours

Consequently, the teacher leads the pupils to a brief self-examination exercise. S/he gives the pupils the following questions:

##### 1.       What bad behaviours do many people – parents, family members, friends, and teachers – always complain about you?

NOTE: Teacher should differentiate between actual misbehaviour and steadfastness to yield to negative demand. Both may offend people. But the first offends people the pupils know really love them and wouldn’t do anything to hurt them – trusted people. Steadfastness to yield to negative coercion on the other hand, offends bad people – even though they may look good and caring.  Paedophiles and bad friends may actually get offended when they refuse to yield to their demands.  One important thing that the teacher should make them know that bad behaviours as we mean in this question are those things that offend many trusted people not just any one or two persons. They (the pupils) should themselves know those bad behaviours – What they do and their conscience tells them is wrong.

##### 3.       What good change do you want to create in your community – starting from the family and the school?

The teacher makes each pupil to answer the self-examination questions – either in a sheet of paper or in their notes. However, s/he first of all charges the pupils to be sincere with their answers.

Once the self-examination exercise is complete, the teacher encourages them to earnestly pursue their change decisions. S/he does this by teaching them to learn from how nature creates change – through persistent. Nature creates change gradually but persistently and consistently. Thereafter the teacher gives the pupils guidelines on persistent change creation as follows.

#### Guidelines on persistent change creation in misbehaviour

##### 1.       Apologize

The pupils should apologize to the (trusted) people who they constantly offend through their misbehaviours.

##### 2.       Assure

The pupils should tell the (trusted) people the good ways they (the pupils) want to change.

##### 3.       Write down

The pupils should write down (preferably in their dairy or daily journal) the good ways they want to change and the good change they want to create in their community. They should write in simple-past tense as in the format below:

“My name is _______________. On this _______ day of ______, 20___; I stopped being stubborn to my parents and a bully to my friends at school (the bad behaviours to change). And I promised to make my stubborn friends at school and at home to be humble (good changes to make in the community)”.

Signed

##### 4.       Believe

Once they have autographed their change pledge, they have to start believing that the change is done thence.

##### 5.       Persist

This means the will continue to try practising the change no matter how many times they fail.  If they do the thing(s) they promised not to do again; they should consider it as a mistake. They apologize, assure and read their change pledge many times. Whether this or not, they should read their change pledge at least 3 times daily: first thing in the morning after awakening from sleep, just before launch time (break) at school and just before dismissal from school.

#### Erosion as natural change in our environment

Once this change exercise is done, the teacher relates the general concept of change to the topic of the day. Foremost, s/he observes that although we are surrounded by numerous changes; some people live too casually to notice and study the pattern of these changes. S/he supplements that as a result, such people encounter many avoidable problems. For example, residents of a building who did not notice the cracks on their house until the house collapses; a farmer who does not study the pattern of flood and the farm is annually swept by flood, etc.

The teacher then teaches that differently, being students of science, the pupils are expected to live with full consciousness of their environment – they should always take note of changes in their environment and study it, whether negative or positive. If it is positive, studying it will enable them replicate it. And studying negative change will help them prevent recurrence. They should also find out all possible ways of remedying negative changes.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher reveals that scientists have studied some changes in our environment that affect us negatively. S/he furthers that these changes are divided into two based on their causes – natural changes and man-made changes. Thereafter the teacher explains that the week’s lesson is one of the major natural changes that are a problem all over the world. The teacher then continues by telling the pupils a real devastating story of the occurrence of erosion – possibly with a video, slides or pictures. See these following discussions:

1. See World Bank’s Nigerian Erosion story
2. See the Kenyan Erosion story on Stanford News
3. See a number of Erosion stories on National Geographic

The narration should include what caused the erosion and the effects.  Afterwards, the teacher tells the pupils that the week’s lesson is to study such occurrence – which is called Erosion. The teacher thereafter writes or projects the topic on the board/screen and then explains the objectives of the lesson.

## Step 2: Meaning of Erosion

To explain the meaning of erosion, the teacher refers the pupils to the story in the last step above. Then s/he asks them that having seen erosion in the story, how they would define erosion.  The teacher receives several attempts and appreciates every child that made attempt. At the end of the attempts – which the teacher receives with full consciousness of time – or when a pupil got the answer, the teacher projects/writes the definition of erosion on the board/screen and explains it thoroughly.

### Definition of Erosion

Erosion is the washing and carrying away of the top soil from one place to another on the earth surface by water and wind.

After explanation – of definition and the keyword, the teacher makes the pupils read the definition a couple of times for memorization.

## Step 3: Agents of Erosion

Succeeding step 2, the teacher explains that agents of erosion are the things that remove top soil from one place to another – that is, things that causes erosion. Thence, s/he teaches that there are two main agents or causes of erosion. These are:

1. Water
2. Wind

Following the identification of the agents of erosion, the teacher explains how each of the agents causes erosion.

### How Water Causes Erosion

Water causes erosion in the form of rain, tidal current (waves) and ice glaciers.  Starting with rain, the teacher asks the pupils how each of these forms of water causes erosion.

After a few minutes of discussion, the teacher with the aid of the accompanying video/slide explains how each causes erosion.

#### How Rain Causes Erosion

When there is a downpour – teacher plays the video or shows the slide one of water erosion – it results in excess water on the ground. Teacher pause the video and asks the pupils where the water goes afterwards. After a short discussion, the teacher continues the video and explains that:

First, the hitting of fast and forceful raindrops loosens up soil particles. And then some portion of the water sinks underground while other part of the rain water flows or runs off to open water bodies like streams and rivers. These small water bodies will then overflow their banks and the water again flows or runs off to large water bodies like oceans and seas.  As the water runs off to the water bodies, it washes along soil particles.

#### How Ice Glaciers Cause Erosion

Ice Glacier is a thick and large mass of ice that is formed when snow gathers and remains at a place for a long time. Ice glacier is always moving under its own weight. When ice glacier moves it scrapes, cracks and carries bedrocks into soil particles which it carries from one place to another.

#### How Tidal Current causes erosion

Tidal current is the forceful and speedy movement of water due to rise or fall in sea level. When tidal current hits banks of river bodies and cliffs, it breaks and sweeps soil particles from one place to another.

### How Wind Cause Erosion

When strong wind like whirlwind such as dust devil and tornado blow, it picks up and carries away loose soil particles from one place to another. Wind also carries relatively heavy objects into the air, when such objects fall to the ground they loosen the soil and make it easier for wind to carry.  The soil particles (mostly sand) that wind carry usually accumulates at a place. This accumulation is called sand dune.

The teacher explains each of the agents of erosion thoroughly with the aid of appropriate video/slides/pictures.

## Stage Evaluation Question

Before the teacher proceeds to the next step, s/he assesses the pupils understanding. S/he does this by asking them the following questions.

1. Define change
2. Apart from the ones given, state three other examples of changes in our environment
3. What are the five steps to change a bad character?
4. Based on their origin, what are the two divisions of the changes around us?
5. Which group of the division above does erosion fall into?
6. What is erosion?
7. What is meant by agent of erosion? State the agents of erosion
8. The accumulation of snow over a period of time into a large mass of ice which constantly moves under its weight is known as ____________________________________
9. State all the forms that water causes erosion
10. Differentiate between ice glacier and sand dune

## Step 4: Types of Erosion

Following the stage assessment above, the teacher continues the lesson with the following explanation. S/he explains that when wind and water cause erosion as we discussed earlier, it results in different forms and level of damages. One form/level of damage may be more than another. We identify the various forms and levels of damages that wind and water erosion cause by different names. One of the reasons that it is important to do this is because each form may require different prevention and control measures. Knowing the form or erosion or kind of damage that affects an area will make it easier to determine the correct control measures.

After the explanation above, the teacher teaches that there are two main types of erosion – water erosion and wind erosion. Thereafter, the teacher explains each type of erosion as below.

### Water Erosion

Water erosion is the erosion is the damage that results when water wash away top soil from one place to another. When water erosion happens, it causes different forms of damage. Consequently, there are different names that identifies each form of damage that water erosion cause.

#### Types of water erosion

##### 1.       Splash Water Erosion

This is when very fast rain drops scatter top soils. This kind of water erosion causes only little physical damage to the soil. Nonetheless, it causes good enough problem to plants because it increases soil pores which make water to drain too quick into the soil.

##### 2.       Sheet Erosion

This is the removal of thin layer of soil as water flows or runs off. This level of damage is also not too severe to physical eyes but to plants – it carries soil nutrient along with the topsoil.

##### 3.       Rill Water Erosion

This is the formation channel/cracks on land by water. This can cause major or severe damage to land and plants.

##### 4.       Gully Water Erosion

This is the formation of wide and deep channels/rills on land by water. This is the summit of the damages that water erosion cause. In gully erosion, water cuts up large field and form wide holes/pits known as gullies.

### Wind Erosion

Wind Erosion is the damage of land as a result of wind removing soil from an area. Most often, wind erosion occurs on flat land in dry or sandy areas.

NOTE: The teacher explains each type of erosion with appropriate chart/slides/video.

## FIELD TRIP

After the explanation/discussion on the types of erosion and before the continuation of the lesson, the teacher organizes a short excursion to the already-selected erosion site(s) in the locality.

### Preparation for the trip

In addition to other preparations, the teacher should visit the erosion site before the excursion day. During this time, s/he identifies different spots with different type of erosion. S/he names these spots and prepares questions for the pupils to answer for each spot during the trip – either onsite or when they return to camping ground or school.

### At the excursion site

On the excursion day, pupil should go with the science notebook and writing materials. Camera is a must – at least one for all. At the spots, the pupils inspect the kind of erosion and jot down their observation – description and inference. Upon their return, each pupil studies his/her jottings and the pictures from each spot, then independently describes and identifies the type of erosion.

### After the excursion

The teacher, after marking the notes – probably before the end of that day – but before making corrections; groups the pupils based on their answers – i.e. those that wrote similar answers into the same group. Subsequently, the teacher demands that each group, drawing from the jottings of all group members and the pictures, prepares and make group presentation on their answers – why they believe their answers are correct. Presentation may be on the day of wrapping up.

### Wrapping up

In conclusion of the excursion, probably another day of the subject other than the day of excursion; the teacher uses the pictures and explains the type of erosion at each spot and why. Subsequently, s/he distributes the pupils’ notes, gives appropriate feedbacks and then proceeds to the last part of the lesson.

## Step 5: Factors that Predispose land to Erosion

In continuation of the lesson, the teacher leads the pupils to discuss and list the factors that predispose land to erosion.

S/he begins by revising what they have learned so far. After that, s/he explains the meaning of the subheading – Factors that predispose land to erosion:

This means the things that encourage erosion. When these things are present, erosion occurs or occurs faster/more. And when the things are absent, erosion does not occur or it occurs minimally.

Next, the teacher asks the pupils why erosion happens in some places but not in others. Why the place they visited was eroded but the location of their school or some other places not? Naturally, the (smart) pupils should correctly say that it is because the predisposing factors were missing in the location that is not eroded. Notwithstanding, to induce more critical thinking, the teacher further asks them to mention examples of such factors. The teacher writes the factors as the pupils make attempts.

After the pupils have mentioned a couple of the factors or if answers were not forthcoming, the teacher proceeds with explanation of the factors.

### Factors that predispose lands to erosion

Some of the things that encourage erosion are natural while others are man’s activities.

#### The natural factors are:

##### 1.       Topography or sloppiness of the land

A sloppy land make water to run off faster thus removing more top soil whereas plain or flat land does not.

##### 2.       Vegetation

Vegetation means the kind of plants that grows in a place. A place that has lot of trees and grasses does not experience erosion as much as those that do not. This is because the trees and grasses will cover the topsoil from direct wind and raindrops.

##### 3.       Rainfall

Some places have more rainfall a year than others places. The places with heavy rainfall are more prone to erosion than the other areas.

##### 4.       Soil Type

Some type of soil (sandy) absorbs or drains water faster than others (clay and loamy). Hence, little rain results in little erosion. In other words, sandy particles are lighter than others. As a result, sandy soil is more readily eroded especially by wind than other type of soil. Clayey soil does not readily absorb water and the particles are compact. Hence, water accumulates and eats up the soil causing rill erosion as the water reacts with chemicals in the soil and cracks it up.  Loamy soil on the other hand is most susceptible to run off. Thus, more gully erosion occurs on loamy soil.

##### 5.       Wind Factor

Some areas naturally have windy weather than others while the speed and strength of wind also differs from place the place, areas with faster. Areas with faster and stronger wind will experience more wind erosion.

#### Man Activities that predispose lands to erosion

##### 1.       Deforestation

Deforestation means cutting down of trees or destroying forest. When man cut trees, he exposes the land to wind and water which causes erosion.

##### 2.       Exploitation of natural mineral resources

Exploitation of natural resources means removing natural mineral resources from the ground for use. Mineral resources are useful chemical substances that we can use to make other things. Mineral resources include things like gold, tin, crude oil, etc. When man removes these minerals, he digs up the soil and breaks up rocks. These make soil to become loose and easy to be carried by wind and water.

To construct roads, man fall trees and uses heavy cars to grade the path. Sometimes they even dig up the ground. These also expose the soil and loose soil particles making it easy for erosion to occur.

##### 4.       Bush Burning

People set bush on fire to hunt or for farming purpose. Bush burning also exposes the land to erosion by removing the covering grasses.

##### 5.       Poor Drainage

When there is no proper channel for rain water to flow away from an area or when the inside of the gutter is not cemented, the water eats up the drainage and expands the gutter, washes away the soil and result in a gully.

##### 6.       Poor method of Waste Disposal

When people dumb refuse on waterways or gutter; rain water creates ways for itself by washing off other areas.

## Step 6: Effects of Soil Erosion

After step 5 above, the teacher initiates discussion on the effect of erosion. However, s/he first of all explains the meaning of effect:

Effect means the result of something on another thing.

The teacher explains further that although effect may be good or bad, in effect of erosion; we mostly imply the bad ways that erosion affects us and the environment.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher asks the pupils to mention some of the ways they think erosion affect us negatively. S/he writes each on the board as the pupils mention the effects of erosion. After that, the teacher gives thorough explanation of the effects of erosion.

### Effects of Erosion

1. Destruction of the environment
2. Loss of lives and properties
4. Waste of resources – useful land and money in checking erosion
5. Loss of soil nutrient and fertility
6. Poor crop yield
7. Shortage of food

## Step 7: Control of Erosion

Having learned so many things about erosion and its devastating effort, it is obvious that it has to be prevented. Or where it is already in existence, we have to prevent it from getting worse. The teacher explains that this is what erosion control means – preventing erosion from occurring or getting worse.

Furthering, the teacher explains that preventing erosion can easily be derived from the human activities that predispose land to erosion. Since we said doing those things encourages erosion, then not doing them or doing the opposite will prevent erosion.

The teacher asks the contributions of the pupils. S/he picks each of the man’s activities that encourage erosion and asks the pupils the opposite of such activities.  Afterwards, s/he wraps it with a thorough explanation.

### 1.      Afforestation

Afforestation means planting trees – opposite of deforestation.

### 2.      Sustainable Exploitation

This mean exploitation that is environment-friendly. Government should make law to make sure companies and industries adopt sustainable exploitation.

### 3.      Proper Road and Drainage Construction and Maintenance

Government should make sure road construction companies construct very good road that will last for a very long time. The companies should also construct good drainage and cement it to prevent water from eating up the edges. And the roads and drainages should be very well maintained – whenever they notice any little damage, it should be repaired to avoid it from expanding. People should also take care of the drainage in their residential and business environment.

### 4.      Government should make laws against bush burning

Government should also teacher farmers and hunters environment-friendly way of doing their business.

### 5.      Proper Refuse Disposal

Government should make law against indiscriminate dumping of refuse. People should carryout periodic sanitation of their environment. Government and communities should employ the services of community waste management agencies or companies.

NOTE: We have no control over natural factors. However, the prevention measures to correct human-oriented factors also help to control natural factors. For example, planting trees will solve serve as a check for wind erosion.

## EVALUATION

### ·         Assessment of Cognitive Objectives:

The teacher evaluates the pupils understanding by giving them exercises based on the topic. Check back later for Multiple Choices and other cognitive evaluation questions.

### ·         Assessment of Affective Objectives

The teacher may also assess the affective objectives of the lesson by the kind of question they ask at the end of the lesson. The concluding part of the lesson leaves some issues open. With the low confidence in Nigerian governments, questions like how to make the government enact the laws under the control measures is an indication of affected traits. However, the teacher must see that as an opportunity to educate the pupils on the modus operandi of the governments. The pupils should understand the accessibility of public office holders and the legal demand for their accountability. In fact, if the pupils did not ask; the teacher should still proceed with the discussion.

### ·         Assessment of Psychomotor Objectives

#### Activity 1: Clearing drainage

The teacher ascertains whether the school’s drainage needs clearing. If it does, s/he asks for volunteers and supervises the pupils to clear it at free time.

#### Activity 2: Influencing Change

The teacher groups those that did not participate in activity 1 and tasks each group with:

1. Identifying one major erosion predisposing factor in the locality – one for each group
2. Identify needed action(s) to prevent (further) erosion of the site
• Writing to persuade the necessary authority to take the necessary action(s)
1. Presenting their letters to the class
2. (Optionally but highly recommended) submitting the letter to the authority under the guidance of the teacher and bringing feedback back to the class

NOTE: The greatest achievement of this lesson will be the teacher guiding the pupils to either visit or write to their legislatures at different levels to move the motions for these laws. They may as well call the attention of the ministry of road and transport to any wearing or worn road or problematic drainage; and also the ministry of environment for any waste disposal issues. The era of learning for the result is far gone. This is the generation of applied knowledge and how beautiful that you the teacher is leader thereof.

#### Activity 3: Tree Planting Project

On a fixed date, the teacher demands every pupil to pick a tree they are interested in planting and bring the seed to school. They pupils will also carry along their nursery bed materials for the tree they want to plant. The teacher therefore guides the pupils to plant the seed on their nursery bed. The teacher thereafter tasks all the children with the care of the plant through germination phase and until examination period (i.e. week 10-11) when all of them will bring their plant. The more healthy and cultured plant gets higher mark. The teacher may call for the plant monthly to ascertain their progress.

## SUMMARY

Following the evaluation, the teacher summarizes the lesson into a concise note. S/he gives the note to the pupils to copy unto their Basic Science note.

# CHANGES AROUND US – EROSION

A change is when something becomes different from its original form. There are many changes around us. Some of the changes are natural others are man-made. Whether natural or artificial, changes have either positive or negative effects on us or the environment. One of the most common changes that affect us and our environment is erosion.

## What is Erosion?

Erosion is the washing and carrying away of the top soil from one place to another on the earth surface by water and wind.

## Agents of Erosion

Agents of erosion are the things that remove top soil from one place to another or the things that cause erosion. There are two main agents of erosion. These include:

1. Wind
2. Water

## How does wind cause erosion?

When strong wind like whirlwind such as dust devil and tornado blow, it picks up and carries away loose soil particles from one place to another. Wind also carries relatively heavy objects into the air, when such objects fall to the ground they loosen the soil and make it easier for wind to carry.  The soil particles (mostly sand) that wind carry usually accumulates at a place. This accumulation is called sand dune.

## How does Water Cause Erosion?

Water causes erosion in the form of rain, tidal current (waves) and ice glaciers.

### Rain

When there is a downpour it results in excess water on the ground. First, the hitting of fast and forceful raindrops loosens up soil particles. And then some portion of the water sinks underground while other part of the rain water flows or runs off to open water bodies like streams and rivers. These small water bodies will then overflow their banks and the water again flows or runs off to large water bodies like oceans and seas.  As the water runs off to the water bodies, it washes along soil particles.

### Ice Glacier

Ice Glacier is a thick and large mass of ice that is formed when snow gathers and remains at a place for a long time. Ice glacier is always moving under its own weight. When ice glacier moves it scrapes, cracks and carries bedrocks into soil particles which it carries from one place to another.

### How Tidal Current causes erosion

Tidal current is the forceful and speedy movement of water due to rise or fall in sea level. When tidal current hits banks of river bodies and cliffs, it breaks and sweeps soil particles from one place to another.

## Types of Erosion

There are basically two types of erosion. Wind Erosion and Water erosion.

### Wind Erosion

Wind Erosion is the damage of land as a result of wind removing soil from an area. Most often, wind erosion occurs on flat land in dry or sandy areas.

### Water Erosion

Water erosion is the erosion is the damage that results when water wash away top soil from one place to another. When water erosion happens, it causes different forms of damage. Consequently, there are different names that identifies each form of damage that water erosion cause.

#### Types of water erosion

##### 1.       Splash Water Erosion

This is when very fast rain drops scatter top soils. This kind of water erosion causes only little physical damage to the soil. Nonetheless, it causes good enough problem to plants because it increases soil pores which make water to drain too quick into the soil.

##### 2.       Sheet Erosion

This is the removal of thin layer of soil as water flows or runs off. This level of damage is also not too severe to physical eyes but to plants – it carries soil nutrient along with the topsoil.

##### 3.       Rill Water Erosion

This is the formation channel/cracks on land by water. This can cause major or severe damage to land and plants.

##### 4.       Gully Water Erosion

This is the formation of wide and deep channels/rills on land by water. This is the summit of the damages that water erosion cause. In gully erosion, water cuts up large field and form wide holes/pits known as gullies.

## Factors that Predispose Land to Erosion

Factors that predispose land to erosion mean the things that encourage erosion. Some of the things that encourage erosion are natural while others are man’s activities.

#### The natural factors are:

##### 1.      Topography or sloppiness of the land

A sloppy land make water to run off faster thus removing more top soil whereas plain or flat land does not.

##### 2.      Vegetation

Vegetation means the kind of plants that grows in a place. A place that has lot of trees and grasses does not experience erosion as much as those that do not. This is because the trees and grasses will cover the topsoil from direct wind and raindrops.

##### 3.      Rainfall

Some places have more rainfall a year than others places. The places with heavy rainfall are more prone to erosion than the other areas.

##### 4.      Soil Type

Some type of soil (sandy) absorbs or drains water faster than others (clay and loamy). Hence, little rain results in little erosion. In other words, sandy particles are lighter than others. As a result, sandy soil is more readily eroded especially by wind than other type of soil. Clayey soil does not readily absorb water and the particles are compact. Hence, water accumulates and eats up the soil causing rill erosion as the water reacts with chemicals in the soil and cracks it up.  Loamy soil on the other hand is most susceptible to run off. Thus, more gully erosion occurs on loamy soil.

##### 5.      Wind Factor

Some areas naturally have windy weather than others while the speed and strength of wind also differs from place the place, areas with faster. Areas with faster and stronger wind will experience more wind erosion.

#### Man Activities that predispose lands to erosion

##### 1.      Deforestation

Deforestation means cutting down of trees or destroying forest. When man cut trees, he exposes the land to wind and water which causes erosion.

##### 2.      Exploitation of natural mineral resources

Exploitation of natural resources means removing natural mineral resources from the ground for use. Mineral resources are useful chemical substances that we can use to make other things. Mineral resources include things like gold, tin, crude oil, etc. When man removes these minerals, he digs up the soil and breaks up rocks. These make soil to become loose and easy to be carried by wind and water.

To construct roads, man fall trees and uses heavy cars to grade the path. Sometimes they even dig up the ground. These also expose the soil and loose soil particles making it easy for erosion to occur.

##### 4.      Bush Burning

People set bush on fire to hunt or for farming purpose. Bush burning also exposes the land to erosion by removing the covering grasses.

##### 5.      Poor Drainage

When there is no proper channel for rain water to flow away from an area or when the inside of the gutter is not cemented, the water eats up the drainage and expands the gutter, washes away the soil and result in a gully.

##### 6.      Poor method of Waste Disposal

When people dumb refuse on waterways or gutter; rain water creates ways for itself by washing off other areas.

## Effects of Erosion

Effects of erosion mean the negative ways that erosion affects man and the environment. The effects of erosion include:

1. Destruction of the environment
2. Loss of lives and properties
4. Waste of resources – useful land and money in checking erosion
5. Loss of soil nutrient and fertility
6. Poor crop yield
7. Shortage of food

## Control of Erosion

Control of erosion means the ways of preventing erosion from occurring or getting worse. The ways of preventing erosion are:

### 1.      Afforestation

Afforestation means planting trees – opposite of deforestation.

### 2.      Sustainable Exploitation

This mean exploitation that is environment-friendly. Government should make law to make sure companies and industries adopt sustainable exploitation.

### 3.      Proper Road and Drainage Construction and Maintenance

Government should make sure road construction companies construct very good road that will last for a very long time. The companies should also construct good drainage and cement it to prevent water from eating up the edges. And the roads and drainages should be very well maintained – whenever they notice any little damage, it should be repaired to avoid it from expanding. People should also take care of the drainage in their residential and business environment.

### 4.      Government should make laws against bush burning

Government should also teacher farmers and hunters environment-friendly way of doing their business.

### 5.      Proper Refuse Disposal

Government should make law against indiscriminate dumping of refuse. People should carryout periodic sanitation of their environment. Government and communities should employ the services of community waste management agencies or companies.

NOTE: Notes should preferably be given during or at the end of each lesson. This ensures that it does not accumulate to become too much for the pupils. After each note, the teacher should ensure the pupils read it together for many time. This will aid memorization.

At the end of the last note, the teacher revises the entire lesson with the pupils. S/he encourages them to ask questions to which s/he provides simple and straightforward answers. The teacher should also ask the pupils a lot of oral questions.

## CONCLUSION

To conclude the lesson, the teacher marks the pupils note, records their scores and distributes them. S/he gives appropriate feedback to individual pupil. Especially those that fell behind average, s/he sets goals for them to re-do the lesson and retake the assessments. Finally, the teacher links the week’s lesson with the following week’s topic – Changes around us, pollution.

S/he says that for the week, they studied natural change around us. However, in the following week, they shall study a man-made change that is also a major problem in our world.

[qsm quiz=3]

# Introduction to the Lesson-Note-Third-Term-Week-2-3-Basic-Science-Primary-5

This lesson introduces the pupils to elementary chemistry – the concepts of atom, chemical elements and then the two key chemicals – acids and bases. Well presented, the pupils will starts to develop some basic skills in scientific method – the act of questioning and providing logical or scientific answers to questions.

# To Basic Science and Technology (BST) Teachers

Basic-Science-Technologies teachers must understand that this is a practical subject. Hence, the success of its delivery stretches beyond the cognitive objectives. A BST teacher is a demonstrator, mind influencer and a motivator that inspires his/her student to DO.  As a result, s/he delivers the class by demonstration and motivation while measuring his/her performance by what the pupils are able TO DO at the end of the lesson.

# TOPIC

Acids and bases – Meaning, types, examples, properties and uses of acids and bases

# OBJECTIVES

By the time this lesson end, the pupils should have attained the following objectives:

## Cognitive:

1. Define both acid and base;
2. list the types and examples of acids/bases;
3. mention some physical properties of acid and base;
4. use the properties to differentiate between acids and bases; and finally
5. state some uses of acids and bases

## Affective:

1. Develop some safety consciousness in handling unknown substances
2. Grow awareness of the danger of “rampant consumption” of [unripe] fruits – which is common in this part of the country.
3. Develop increased curiosity at changes in the environment

## Psychomotor:

1. the pupils should be able to apply scientific method in finding scientific answers to question
2. Carry out acid/base identification experiment on a number of substances.

# PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson in order of steps as given below:

## Step 1: Introduction: the concept of acids and bases

To introduce the lesson, the teacher goes walks into the class with a dry cell and liquid soap: say dettol. Thereafter, the teacher calls the attention of the pupils and informs them that s/he (the teacher) is hungry and thirsty. Following, the teacher demands the pupils if s/he may eat the dry cell or drink the liquid. This should obviously induce an echoing no! To this the teacher asks why s/he may not eat/drink the specimens. The teacher receives as many answer as possible. Tendencies are that the pupils will say because the specimens harm or kill. In response to this, the teacher asks what makes the specimens harmful. Proximate answer will be that “because the specimens are chemicals”.

### Why dry cell and liquid soap are harmful

Upon receiving this or similar response, the teacher affirms the harmfulness of the specimen. S/he also explains that the specimens are harmful because they contain chemicals. Thereafter, the teacher explains that they shall, in the topic of the week, learn more about two of the most common chemicals – acid and bases.

Afterwards, the teacher writes the topic on the board then asks who among the pupils had seen or heard about either of acid or base in the past. If there is any, the teacher engages the pupil(s) in a short interaction then asks them what they would say acid/base is.  After the ensuing discussion or if none of the pupils indicated to have heard of acid or base, the teacher explains that acids and bases are chemicals which they are going to learn about. After that, the teacher lists and explains the lesson objectives.

### Sources of acids and bases

Succeeding the explanation of the lesson objectives, the teacher briefly notes that acids and bases may be of natural or artificial (that is, man-made or synthetic) sources. Natural acids are acids that are present in nature – animals and things that are not made by man such as trees and rocks.

The teacher stresses on with the synthetic-ability of acids. S/he explains that scientists are able to make acids and bases in the laboratory. This should raise question such as “how are the scientist able to make acids?”

### How do scientists make acids and bases in the laboratory?

In response to the question, the teacher explains that scientists are curious people – people that like to learn about the things around them and as such who ask a lot of questions. The teacher continues that scientists even have a special way of answering their questions. And that this special way of answering questions is known as scientific method. In conclusion of the explanation, the teacher explains that through this scientific method, scientists are able to study natural acids – and how nature formed those acids. After discovering how nature forms natural acids, scientists found a way of imitating nature and are able to form synthetic or artificial acids in the laboratory.

In continuation, s/he explains that since acid and base can be the product of the works of scientists, to understand the chemicals very well they have to learn how scientists think and work – perhaps one or two of them will like to become a scientist too! The teacher thereafter proceeds to step 2.

## Step 2: Scientific Method

In follow up of step 1, the teacher explains scientific method in the most elementary way. S/he explains as below:

There are a standard steps that every scientist adopts in their works. These set of steps are collectively known as scientific method. There many steps in scientific method can be summarized into 6. These are explained with an illustration using a pseudo-narration of how a scientist made the first perfume from a vanilla plant (flower).

 STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC METHOD ILLUSTRATION WITH VANILLA Steps 1 Careful Observation and Questioning:Scientists use all their senses to observe something carefully then asks a lot of questions The scientist walked along a flower orchard then perceives the scent of the flowering vanilla plants. He stopped and asked “what’s this sweet scent I perceive?” and “Where is it coming from?”The scientist moved forth and hence, trying to get the direction of the scent. Finally, he is convinced that the sweet scent was coming from the vanilla plants – how? Then he asked himself another question: “which part of the plant is producing the scent – leaf, petal or the nectar?” He believes if only he could get the scent into bottles, it will help a lot of people by giving them sense of importance after wearing it. In turn, he will also get money from the sale of the perfume. So to achieve the objective of getting the scent into bottles, the great scientist moved to step 2. Step 2 ResearchThis means to repeatedly search different people’s work to find out what they think about what you are looking for, and then compare with what you think so that you can choose the best option. When scientists research, they write down all the other people’s work they search so that they can proof their final decision. The scientist went to the library and read many books on vanilla plant then asked some people. In the end, he found out that the leaf, bark, root, petal and nectar of vanilla plant are all capable of producing scent. Step 3 HypothesisAfter finding out what other people think about what they are looking for and comparing with theirs,  scientists will make thoughtful guesses Since the scientist is interested in removing the scent from the plant and put it into bottles, he has to find out the part in which it will be easiest to remove the scent. In this regard, he thought for a long time then assumed that it will be possible to extract the scent into bottles thus:1.       The nectar will be the easiest part from which the scent can be extracted but the volume of the scent will not be much.2.       The petals will be the next in line of ease of extracting the nectar but the quality of the scent will be low.3.       It will be difficult to extract the scent from the root Step 4 Performing Experiment or ExperimentationThis is to practically or physically test the hypotheses or thoughtful guesses so as to know whether it is correct or not To confirm his assumptions, the scientist took some of the flower to the laboratory. And taking each part at a time, the scientist tried to extract the scent into bottles. After each extraction, he measured and recorded the length of time, quality and quantity of the scent. Step 5 Data AnalysisAfter experiment, scientists study the record or result of the experiment to see if it meets their assumptions After extracting the scent the scientist studied his record carefully so that he can make final decision Step 6 ConclusionAfter a careful study of the record or result, the scientist will choose whether to his assumptions were correct or not. If correct, he tell others about it and if not, he go back and start from step 2 again After studying his record carefully, the scientist saw that his guesses were correct – he extracted vanilla scent from vanilla plant. So he told a lot of people about and they bought it from him.

Stage Evaluation Question on Scientific Method

Following the explanation of scientific method, the teacher guides the pupils to apply scientific method to spurn curiosity and provide answer to questions. See the example below.

1. A boy noticed that ice melt quit fast in water. So he became curious and asked “Does ice melt faster in other liquid? Use scientific method to answer the boy’s question.
1. First, select the “other liquid” you want to test – in this case let us choose juice. Now the next step in scientific method after observation is research. So, go and find out (from science books and adults) about melting of ice.
1. What causes ice to melt? Answer: _________________________________
2. Does ice melt at the same speed in other liquid like juice as it does in water? Answer: _________________________________
• What makes ice to melt faster in one liquid than in another? Answer: _________________________________
1. Next step is to develop hypothesis – make a thoughtful guess or prediction.
1. Based on the information you gathered from your research, do you think ice will melt faster in juice than it does in water? _________________________________
2. Why do you think so? _________________________________
2. Now, test your hypothesis by carrying out this experiment:
1. Get a glass of juice, a glass of water, two cubes of ice and a stopwatch. If possible get a thermometer. Make sure the volume of water and juice are equal. Also use your thermometer to measure and make that the temperature of the juice and water are equal. Finally, the sizes of the ice cube should be the same – e.g. 15cm3.
2. Starting with the glass of water, measure and record the temperature and volume of the water – say 35cl each.
• Then set your stopwatch to 00:00 – zero minute and zero second.
1. Finally, while starting the stopwatch, place the ice cube in the water and allow it to stay until it melts.
2. After about 15 minutes, inspect the ice cube and record how much it has melted.
3. Note when the ice cube melt completely and record the time.
• Repeat step ii through VI with the other liquid – juice.
1. Following the experiment is data analysis. Study what you have recorded and compare the results.
1. In which liquid did more ice melted after 15 minutes?
2. In which of the liquids did it take longer for the ice to melt completely?
2. What is your final conclusion?
• If your hypothesis was not correct, what do you think caused it?
1. The teacher may give the pupils other simple experiments to do. For this reason, check out some kids science project websites. I recommend Little Bins for Little Hands and Kids Academy.
2. S/he may also allow the pupils to come up with their observation and try it out.

## Step 3: Concept of Atoms

The teacher having explained scientific method in step one above, now continues the lesson with concept of atoms and elements.

With reference to the earlier discussion under how scientists make acid and bases in step one above, the teacher informs the pupils that they will learn the findings (conclusions) of the scientists about acids and bases and how they are naturally formed.

### Meaning of matter

To explain the findings of earlier scientist with respect to acids and bases, the teacher first of all explains that the quests of these scientists were not really about acids and bases. Instead, the curiosity of the scientists emanated from the origin of matter.

The teacher thereafter explains what matter is – anything that has mass and occupies space. The teacher may simplify this by telling the pupils that matter is the scientific name for “something or anything they can see, perceive or feel”. That is, anything they can see like book, tree, human being, e.t.c; perceive like perfume, smoke, e.t.c, and feel is matter. The teacher wraps this by telling the pupils that matter is sometimes referred to as substances.

### Discovery of Atom and Atomic Theory

Following the explanation of matter, the teacher explains that the discovery of how nature forms acids and bases started from origin of matter.

#### Democritus’ theory of the universe

Following this, the teacher explains a very long time ago, at about 400BC, a man called Democritus wanted to know how matter is formed or what make up matter. He thought that if you take a piece of matter and divide it and continue to divide it you will eventually come to a point where you could not divide it any more. This indivisible part of matter is what Democritus called atom.

Democritus also wrote some theories about atom. He called this the theory of the universe. A theory to a scientist is a rule statement of a hypothesis that is proven by experiments. Two among the rule statement of Democritus’ theory of the universe are:

1. All matter consists of atoms, which are bits of matter too small to be seen.

This rule statement means all matter (that is, everything) is made up of extremely small pieces of itself and these extremely small pieces of any matter is called atoms of that matter. For example, an orange is made up of extremely small pieces of the orange, combined to form the whole orange. These extremely small pieces of the orange may be called atoms of the orange – and it cannot be seen.

1. Each atom (of a different substance) is different in size, weight and shape

This second rule statement of Democritus’ theory of the universe means that all atoms are not the same. The atoms of an orange are different from the atoms of a stone – in size, weight and shape.

#### Dalton’s atomic theory

Many people believed Democritus’ theory of the universe. And many scientists continue to experiment it even long after he died. In 1808, another man named John Dalton experimented and formed his own theory about atom which is known as Dalton’s Atomic theory.

Two among the rule statements of Dalton’s atomic theory are:

1. Atoms are indivisible particles
2. Atoms can neither be created nor destroyed
3. All chemical changes result from the combination or separation of atoms

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# INTRODUCTION:

This post with keywords – Lesson-note-third-term-Civic-RNV-Civic-Education-Grade-3-Week-2 is prepared based on (Ajogwu(PhD)) Standard Schemes of Work drawn in line with the new Standard Civic Education Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the National Education Research Development Council. Civic Education is one of the major subjects under Religion and National Values (RNV) in the new national curriculum by Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). The other subjects being Security Education, Social Studies, CRK and IRK. Accordingly, this note is prepared to be delivered in the fifth week of the third term of the academic year. All necessary components of a standard lesson note have been included.

## TO RELIGIOUS & NATIONAL VALUES TEACHERS

Civic Education teachers must understand that their role in the class is much more than making the pupils to simply know and able to list the merits and demerit of negative and positive attitude to work. S/he is a mind changer, a motivator, a patriot and an ardent promoter of patriotism. Especially at this moment of moral decadence when “the popular is seen as the right” and indigenous national values are being defaced; the teacher enjoys the duty of re-orienting the pupils in his/her classes.

## The Note

SCHOOL:

DATE:

PERIOD:

DURATION

AGE:

CLASS COMPOSITION:

SUBJECT: Civic Education

TOPIC: Preventing Drug Abuse

Sub-topic: People we should consult before using drugs

# REFERENCE MATERIALS

Ajogwu(PhD), E. L. Standard Scheme of Work in Line with National Curricular(UBE EDITION) for Middle Basic (Primary 4-6). Lesam Educational.

Ojedokun, O. E., Adesina, A. D., & Adeyemi, B. A. (2010). Lantern Comprehensive Civic Education for Primary Schools (Lower Basic Edition) book 3. Ikeja. Lagos: Literamed Publications (NIG) Ltd.

# INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

• Chalk/marker and chalk/white – board
• Video clip/slides or charts of:
• A sick child asking information on drug use from wrong person resulting in getting the wrong information. Or (if no digital display is not available), a comic or narration of similar may be used.
• Each of the right persons that the pupils can ask for the right information on drug use
• Tablet candies and hard non-edible and un-harmful objects – such as gravels

# ENTRY BEHAVIOR

To understand the lesson, the pupils should know the meaning of drug and drug abuse.

# OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to list the persons that they can ask for right information on drug use.

# PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Based on the curriculum, the preceding topic is: Ways of preventing drug abuse. Hence, the pupils understand the meaning of drug and drug abuse as well as how to prevent drug abuse.

# METHOD OF TEACHING

The teacher teaches the topic by induction with the aid of charts.

# TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher shall give thorough explanation on each person, entertain questions, assess and evaluate the pupils.

# LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES

The pupils shall actively participate in the lesson discussion by asking and answering questions. They will also participate in a play/drama at the end of the lesson to demonstrate their understanding.

# PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson as in the following steps:

## Step 1: Introduction

The teacher when s/he enters the class; plays the video clip/slides or give the narration using either poster or custom-made comic as described under instructional materials. (See narration)

At the end of the narration (where the clip stopped) – as the child who was following the wrong information took the drugs, the teacher asks the pupils whether they think the child’s health will get better or not and why they think so.

After receiving enough of the pupils’ opinion, the teacher explains that drugs are not and should not be taking based on conjectures (assumptions such as it might work). Citing the video clip (narration), the teacher asks what if the drug is not for kids, what will happen to the kid – Bad things!

Teacher proceeds by explaining that to prevent bad things from happening to us as a result of drug abuse, only drugs given to us by trusted people, people who are sure of the drugs must be taken. S/he then asks pupils to mention some of such trusted persons. Afterwards, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall learn more of such persons in the lesson. Thereafter s/he writes/projects the topic on the board/digital screen before moving on to the next step.

## Step 2: People to Ask for the Right Information on Drug Use

After receiving enough attempts from pupils in the forgoing step, the teacher writes/projects the list (below) on the board/screen. And taking one at a time with appropriate picture/poster, s/he explains why each person is the right person to consult.

Teacher differentiates between the professionals – Nurses, Doctors, Pharmacists and Counselors.

At the end of the list and if no child asks until then, the teacher asks why we cannot or should not ask our friends: Is it because they do not like or love us?

Obviously not, but because they simply do not know much about drugs as the persons we mentioned.

# EVALUATION

The teacher evaluates the pupils’ understanding in the following activity/drama/play.

## Prep:

The class (teacher and pupils) cut out cardboard papers and write the names different family relations and professions on each piece. Relations and professions such as younger brother, younger sister, stranger, musician, carpenter, mechanic, e.t.c. including the six persons mentioned in the list above.

## Scene 1:

Delegated members of the class are given the labels (pieces of cardboard paper) – one for each. Then each member, well arranged, holds his/her label at an easily-seen position.

NOTE: Only one of the six persons listed in step 2 must be included.

## Scene 2:

One of the remaining members of the class is asked out of the class (the presence) of the other members of the class.

Once this member is out, the delegated members in step one who had earlier been arranged exchange their positions. Then the teacher gives each of them non-edible and also non-harmful objects (such clean gravels) except the one whose label is among the list in step 2. To this person, the teacher gives a seed of the tablet candy.

NOTE: They shall hold whatever is given to them in their fist.

## Scene 3:

Once all is set, the lone member who left the class in scene 2 in recalled to the class (where every other member is) pretending to be feeling sick. S/he shall therefore identify the right person to ask for drug (i.e. among the delegates who should hold their label for easy reading/identification). If the “sick” member identifies and asks the (one) right person, s/he gets the candy; if not, the stone (LOL).

The play is repeated, but changing the label of the one right person and position of members each time.

# SUMMARY

Prior to terminating the lesson, the teacher summarizes the class into a concise note which s/he writes/projects on the board/screen for pupils to copy after s/he revises with them. The board summary of the class is given below:

1. Parents
2. Nurses
3. Teachers
4. Pharmacists
5. Doctors
6. Counselors

# ASSIGNMENT

The following exercise is given at the end of the revision.

1. List five persons we may ask for right information on drug use
1. ________________________________________
2. ________________________________________
3. _________________________________________
4. _________________________________________
5. _________________________________________
2. What is the difference between a pharmacist and a doctor?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

• What would you tell a friend that asks you about how many drug s/he should take?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

• Why must we ask the right person before using drug?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

# CONCLUSION

The lesson is concluded by collection, marking and returning of pupils’ notebooks. Then linking the lesson to the topic for the following week: Reasons for Consultations in this format:

“In this week’s lesson, we learned that we must ask trusted people for right information on drug use, but why? Why must we ask these people? Can we list the reasons?”

It is expected that they will be unable to mention more than one or two. Hence, the teacher tells them that they will learn more reasons the following week.

## Lesson Note: Third Term Grade 1 Week 2 Mathematics

Name of Teacher: ________________________________

## School:: _______________________________________

Date: _______________________________________

Period: usually first.

Duration: 90 minutes – 30 minutes per period/day.

Age: 9 – 12 years.

CLASS: Primary One

CLASS COMPOSITION: The class should be, as in most schools divided into two: fast learners making Grade Two A (Gold or something similar) and average/slow learners making up Grade Two B (Copper or something similar).  Where population is high, there may be more than one category for each set of learners. Similarly if the overall population is not too much, both set of learners may be combined. It is assumed that the set of fast learners will be moderately quiet while the set of average/slow learners is expected to more noisy if not cold.

SUBJECT: Mathematics.

TOPIC: Simple Multiplication (4-6 times table)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to solve simple arithmetic problems involving multiplication of one by one digit number from 1 to 6.

## REFERENCE

Ajogwu, E. L. (2014). Standard Schemes of Work in Line with National Curricular. Leasam Educational (Consultantancy, Training & Publishing).

## INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of Multiplication Table and a set of counters (minimum of 72)

## PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The pupils are required to already have learned the concept (meaning) of multiplication. They should also have been taught 1 – 3 times tables.

## METHOD OF TEACHING

At introductory stage, the teacher employs deductive method then proceeds to inductive method. Midway into the class, the teacher switches to guided discovery method.

## TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher shall group the class into different categories, assign works closely, monitor the pupils as and guide them in solving problems or in performing assigned activities. S/he will also demonstrate how to carry out multiplication with counters.

## LEARNERS’ ACTIVITIES

The pupils are shall perform multiplication activities with counters and recite 4, 5 and 6 times tables.

## PRESENTATION

The lesson is delivered as in the following order of steps:

DAY ONE

### Step1                : Introduction

To introduce the topic, the teacher upon entering the class makes a multiplication sign on the board then asks one or two pupils to identify it. After the teacher has aroused the pupils and gotten their attention, s/he tells them what sign s/he made. Thereafter, s/he tells the pupils that that is the topic of the week explaining the objectives of the topic.

### Step2                Meaning of Multiplication

Soon after the forgoing step, the teacher makes the pupils to pronounce the word – “multiplication= mul-tip-li-ca-tion”. S/he pronounces it for the pupils to pronounce after him/her. After this, the teacher asks pupils whether they remember what multiplication mean.  S/he receives a few answers/attempts before revising the meaning of multiplication with the pupils:

“Multiplication means to group or count a number into a given places and then adding all the groups together.”

S/he elaborates with the following examples.

Examples on the meaning of multiplication

• 2 X 3 means count 2 in 3 places then add all together. (teacher demonstrate using counters: oo oo           oo = 6
• 3 X 4 means count 3 in 4 places and then add all together. ( teacher demonstrate using counters: ooo 000         000         000 = 12

More examples should be given for deeper understanding. Individual pupil may also be asked to give the meaning or even solve a particular question which may be asked as in the given stage evaluation below.

Stage Evaluation Question (EQ): Asked Orally

• What is the meaning of 2 X 5? Ask (volunteer) pupil to solve on the board for other pupils to see. Other pupils should be allowed to challenge the answer and the volunteer pupil also to prove his/her answers if challenged.
• What is the meaning of 6 X 2? Do as above.

…………………………Teacher may stop here for day one……………………………

DAY TWO

### Step3                Other Names of Multiplication

Once the pupils understand the meaning of multiplication, the teacher teaches the pupils that the words – “times”, “multiply” and “product” may also be used in place of the multiplication sign. Hence, that:

2 X 3 can be written as “2 times 3” or “2 multiply 3” or the “product of 2 and 3”.

### Step4                Multiplication Exercise (with counters)

Succeeding the forgoing step, the teacher leads the pupils to carry out multiplication exercises with a set of counters as shown in the examples below:

• Solve 4 X 2

How To

The teacher, picking one counters at a time from the collection; creates two groups of four counters. S/he makes the pupils to count for or with him/her as she picks each counter. Once the two groups is complete, the teacher keeps the collection away from the groups then with the pupils once more, add all the counters in the two groups together.

• Solve 4 X 3
• Solve 5 X 2
• Find the product of 5 and 3
• Multiply 6 by 2
• Solve 6 times 3

…………………………Teacher may stop here for day two……………………………

DAY THREE

### Step5                Pupils’ Activities

Thereafter, the teacher gives the pupils (either in group or individually) the following activities to solve with their counters.

Stage Evaluation Questions

Note: Teacher monitor the pupils while they solve these exercises not only to ensure that all are participating but also to see that some ‘smart ones’ are not copying from their times table

• Solve 4 X 4 = __________________________
• Solve 4 by 5 = __________________________
• 5 times 4 = _____________________________
• 5 times 5 = _____________________________
• Multiply 6 by 4 = ________________________
• Find the product of 6 and 5 = ______________

### Step6                Reading of 4-6 Multiplication Table Chart

Once the forgoing exercise has been satisfactorily completed, the teacher displays 4, 5 & 6 times table chart on the wall. If this is not obtainable, the teacher distributes a printed A4 copy to the pupils. Then s/he explains to the pupils that the chart/tables contains standard answers for multiplications of (small) numbers and that they will proof it by comparing their answers with that of the tables. The teacher explains how the tables are used.

Thereafter s/he helps the pupils to compare their answers from the previous exercises with the tables. The comparison may be done uniformly – the teacher waits for every pupil to finish the exercise, then with their books outlaid on their desks and multiplication table distributed or displayed; the teacher directs every pupil to look up EQ One (4X4). If it is, the pupils put a check (  on the question if not, they leave it unchecked. This is repeated for each of the evaluation six questions in step 5.

Having proven to the pupils by the forgoing comparison, the teacher tells the pupils that they are going to learn to remember the answers contained on the tables so they won’t need to be using counter every time. S/he then reads the chart while the pupils repeat after him/her.

## EVALUATION

After series of readings, the teacher gives the pupils the exercises under assignment to see whether they understood topic. Nonetheless, before this exercises, the teacher should ask the questions orally in the class.

SUMMARY

The teacher revises the entire lesson by:

• Reminding them that:
1. Multiplication sign is X not +
2. Multiplication means to count a number into a given places and then add all the groups together.
• Multiplication is also the same as product, multiply and times
1. 2X3 may be read as “2 times 3” or “2 multiply 3” or “product of 2 and 3”
• Reading the 4, 5 and 6 multiplication table.

## Assignments

1. Use your counters or multiplication tables to check the following. Put a tick ( in front of ones and a cancel (X) in front of wrong ones.
• 4 X 1 = 4
• 4 X 2 = 10
• 4 X 3 = 12
• 4 X 4 = 16
• 4 X 5 = 20
• 4 X 6 = 22
• 4 X 7 = 32
• 4 X 8 = 28
• 4 X 9 = 36

1. Using nine different colour pencils, draw a straight line to match each to correct answers
• 5 X 1 15
• 5 X 2 30
• 5 X 3 5
• 5 X 4 30
• 5 X 5 10
• 5 X 6 20
• 5 X 7 45
• 5 X 8 25
• 5 X 9 35

1. If one packet of pencil contains 6 pencils. How many pencils will be in:
• 1 packet = 6 X 1 = ____________ pencils
• 2 packets = 6 X 2 = ___________ pencils
• 3 packets = 6 X 3 = ___________ pencils
• 4 packets = 6 X 4 = ___________ pencils
• 5 packets = 6 X 5 = ___________ pencils
• 6 packets = 6 X 6 = ___________ pencils
• 7 packets = 6 X 7 = ___________ pencils
• 8 packets = 6 X 8___________ pencils
• 9 packets = 6 X 9 = ___________ pencils

## CONCLUSION

The lesson is concluded by collection, marking, recording and returning pupils’ exercise books and making corrections where necessary. Finally the teacher tells the pupils that the next topic will be (counting in)/multiplying things that comes in 4s, 5s and 6s in the manner below.

“Now we have finished our class for the week. Next week, I’m going to be telling you some interesting stories of things that exist in 4s, 5s and 6s.

Would you like to listen to my stories? Well then, we will meet next week.”

## Introduction to Lesson Note: 1st Term Grade 5 Security education Wk 2-3

This 1st Term Grade 5 Security education Wk 2-3 is prepared based on (Olatoye, 2016, pp. 60-100) The Scheme of Work drawn in line with the new Standard Security Education Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council. Security Education is one of the major subjects under Religion and National Values (RNV) in the new national curriculum by Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). The other subjects being Civic Education, Social Studies, CRK and IRK. Accordingly, this note is suitable to be delivered in the fourth and fifth week of the third term of the academic year. All necessary components of a standard lesson note have been included.

Security Education teachers must understand that their role in the class stretches beyond the cognitive objectives as many would take it. S/he is a consultant, mind changer, a motivator, a patriot and an ardent promoter of patriotism. Especially at this moment of moral decadence when “the popular is seen as the right” and indigenous national values are being defaced; the teacher enjoys the duty of re-orienting the pupils in his/her classes.

# 1st Term Grade 5 Security education Wk 2-3

Week: 2—3

Subject: Religion and National Value (RNV)

There 4: Security Education

Topic:  Introduction to Personal Security: Meaning and area to be security conscious.

### REFERENCES

1. Ajogwu(PhD), E. L. Standard Scheme of Work in Line with National Curricular(UBE EDITION) for Middle Basic (Primary 4-6). Lesam Educational.
2. Healthy Children Magazine. (2016, Jan 25). Friend or Foe? Retrieved September 2, 2017, from Healthy Children.Org: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/gradeschool/Pages/Friend-or-Foe.aspx
3. (n.d.). Parents’ Guide to Preventing Child Abduction, Kidnapping, and Missing Children. Retrieved September 2, 2017, from KidGuard: https://www.kidguard.com/parents-guide-to-preventing-child-abduction-kidnapping-and-missing-children/
4. National Crime Prevention Counci. (n.d.). What to Teach Kids About Strangers. Retrieved September 2, 2017, from National Crime Prevention Council, U.S. Department of Justice: http://www.ncpc.org/topics/violent-crime-and-personal-safety/strangers
5. Olatoye, T. A. (2016). The Scheme of Work plus 20 things You should Know about the New 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. Lagos: Saint Hope Nigeria Limited.
6. Rowe, G., Wilkinson, S. B., & Lambert, N. (2004, October 5). The risks of eating and drinking. Retrieved September 2, 2017, from US National Library of Medicine : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1299206/

## INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL

• Board and Chalk/Marker
• Digital Display
• Video or chart of domestic crimes and other ill-event such as fire outbreak in residential building etc. And/or the narration of the scene in each case.

## ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

To understand the topic, the pupils should know the meaning of security or the concept of danger – from earlier class.

## OBJECTIVES

At the end of the topic, the pupils should have attained the following:

• Cognitive: define personal security and list the area one need to be security conscious.
• Affective: Appreciate (consciously) or become aware of the presence of dangers around them.

## PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Based on the curriculum, the pupils should have been taught the meaning of security and the meaning of security and (neighbourhood) danger in primary (grade) four.

## METHOD OF TEACHING

The teacher delivers the lesson by induction and discussion.

## TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher shall give thorough explanation of the meaning of personal security, initiates and directs class discussions, entertain questions and assess the pupils. Teacher shall also compile necessary instructional materials.

## LEARNERS’ ACTIVITIES

The pupils shall actively participates in the lesson discussion, ask and answer questions and carryout any given exercise.

## PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the class in a manner as stated below:

### Step 1:                     Introduction

To introduce he topic, the teacher revises the meaning of security and discuss/narrates examples of danger in the society with the video, slides or charts of domestic crime and bad occurrence.

Security or safety is when a person is free from fear of danger.

Danger is something that can harm (injure our physical body, cause emotional pain or destroy our GOOD life either in part or whole) or kill us.

Anything, animal, attitude (activity) or person that can cause harm is dangerous. Examples are dangerous thing like fire, dangerous animal like snake, dangerous attitude like stealing or dangerous person like thieves.

There are many dangers in our society. Examples of dangers in the society are kidnapping, armed robbery, electric shock, abused drugs, etc.

Discussion: Taking each of the dangers listed, the teacher asks volunteer pupils to tell the meaning of each. This is followed by short discussion after each. Some pupils may be eager to tell a story to relate to each crime. Teacher should allow them to freely do this though being cautious of available time. After the discussion, the teacher tells them that they shall learn more about such dangers at the course of the lesson. S/he also tells them that in subsequent lesson, they shall learn how to prevent such dangers from occurring to them.

Afterwards, s/he displays, projects or writes the topic on the board/screen for the pupils to see.

### Step 2:                     Meaning of Personal Security

Following the previous activity, the teacher explains the meaning of personal security:

Personal security is to keep oneself safe from things, animals and people that are dangerous to his/her health and body wherever s/he is.

NOTE: The teacher explains the meaning thoroughly, not just mere reading and pupils’ memorization. The pupils should be allowed the freedom to rephrase the definition provided the meaning is unchanged.

Succeeding the explanation of the definition of personal security, the teacher initiates a class discussion. S/he asks the pupils to name the things or persons that can be dangerous to them. The teacher writes each as it is mentioned. Following the listing, the teacher uses the video/charts (see instructional materials) to explain the meaning of each danger. S/he makes them more cautious of the presence of danger in the society by explaining how each of the dangerous thing/person (listed earlier) can harm them.

### SOME DANGEROUS THINGS/PERSONS IN THE SOCIETY

• Contaminated/expired/poisoned foods
• Abused drugs
• Wrongly used home appliance
• electric shock
• Thieves/armed robbers
• Strangers
• Snake
• Dogs

### Step 3:                     Areas to be security conscious

Subsequent to the explanation that followed the listing the starts another discussion. S/he asks the pupils where – which situations, conditions or places –they need to be careful so as not to be victims of the dangerous things, animals or persons.

For example, s/he may ask the following questions.

1. On what ground or condition do we need to be careful so as not to fall victim of contaminated/expired/poisoned food?

Answer: It is when eating/drinking or during food in-take

1. Which time can we avoid the influence of bad friends?

Answer: It is when making the friends – choosing good friends

1. How may we not fall victims of bad strangers (such as those that kidnap or steal)?

Answer: It is taking precaution when meeting them and when going to unfamiliar places.

1. When may we prevent harm resulting from wrong use of appliances?

Answer: That is at the time we are using the appliances.

1. Time to prevent dangers associated with abused drugs?

NOTES: teacher is not to give pupils the answer outright. Instead s/he allows each to be discussed, allowing the contribution of pupils’.

At the end of the answers, the teacher itemizes the answers and explains once more.

Areas to be security conscious

• Food intake
• Relating to strangers
• Friendship
• Going to unfamiliar places
• The use of home appliances
• Drug intake

Following this, s/he tells the pupils’ that they shall learn what to do to prevent danger in each case in subsequent lessons.

### Step 4:                     Note Writing/Summary

Prior to concluding the class, the teacher summarize the lesson into a concise note s/he writes, displays or projects the notes on the board or screen for pupils to copy. While the pupils write, the teacher moves round to ensure the pupils are writing as they should.

Personal security

Personal security means to keep oneself from things, animals and people that are dangerous to their health and body. Examples of things that are dangerous to us includes: bad food, drug abuse, wrongly sue home appliances and chemicals.

Examples of dangerous animals are dogs and snakes. While examples of people that are dangerous to us are thieves, kidnappers, rapist, bad friends etc.

Areas to be Security Conscious

We need to be careful in the following circumstances, this is because, if care is not taken they can be dangerous to our health and body.

• Food intake
• Meeting or discussing with strangers
• Making ‘friendship
• Going to unfamiliar places
• Use of home appliances and gadgets
• Drug intake

## EVALUATION

The teacher evaluates pupils understanding by asking the following questions:

• What is personal security?
• Mention two things that are dangerous to us
• Why must we be careful of what to eat?
• List three areas we need to be security conscious

## CONCLUSION

The lesson is concluding by marking the pupil notebooks. Later on, he/she revises the lesson once more. Finally, he/she links the week’s lesson to next topic. The teacher tells them that, since they now know the meaning of personal security and the area they need to be security conscious, they shall now discuss how to prevent danger on each area. That they shall begin with home security the following week.

# Introduction

This Lesson Note: Grade 1 Civic Education Third Term Week 2  is prepared based on the new Standard Civic Education Curriculum drawn by Dr Ajogwu Ejila in line with the (9-year Basic Edition) National curricular by National Education Research Development Council.  In is a second week, third term lesson note. Accordingly, the note is meant to be delivered in the second week, third term of an academic year. All necessary components of a standard lesson note have been included. Thus, it is suitable for use in any [Nigerian] school that implements the aforementioned syllabus after a little modification.

Name of Teacher: ________________________________

## School: _______________________________________

Date: _______________________________________

Period: ___________________________________

Duration: 30 minutes

Age: 9 – 12 years.

Class Composition: class is made up of about 30 pupils with mixed gender and abilities and it is moderately quiet.

## Subject: Civic Education

TOPIC: Meaning of Personal Hygiene

## REFERENCE MATERIALS:

1. Ajogwu, E. L. (2014). Standard Schemes of Work in Line with National Curricular. Leasam Educational (Consultantancy, Training & Publishing).
2. momjunction.com
3. livestrong.com
4. healthline.com
5. hygieneexpert.co.uk

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Comic book, Video/Slides, Charts

## OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to define personal hygiene; identify and differentiate between those people that practice personal hygiene and those that do not. The lesson should also result in adaptive change in the pupils.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: Although not a requirement for understanding the lesson, (based on the curriculum) pupils are assumed to have been taught the consequences of living in dirty environment the previous term.

METHOD OF TEACHING: Guided discovery and inductive

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES: Storytelling at introductory stage and continuous assessment.

LEARNERS’ ACTIVITIES: Listening, Discussing Asking and Answering of Questions; and self examination.

## PRESENTATION:

The lesson is delivered in such steps as follows:

### Step 1            Introduction

To introduce the topic, the teacher adopts one of the following approaches:

• Using Video Clips

This will by far leave the longest lasting memory on the pupils. Thus, this is the recommended approach:

Assuming that an electronic display is available for the teacher to use in the classroom under appropriate seating arrangement, s/he plays the accompanying video clip for this lesson note and explains each scene as the video plays (narration contained in the video park). By the end, the topic would have been excellently introduced.

• Using Comic / Narration

The teacher creates a storytelling environment, takes the pupils through each representation while explaining it to them.

• Outright Storytelling

In the event that none of the methodologies could be employed due to unavailability of resources, the teacher adopts a traditional storytelling method to introduce the topic using the story narration accompanying the note. Inasmuch as the effectiveness of this will be the same as the previous methods, it is still better than the usual “writing the topic on the board and explaining it” custom.

In each of these methodologies, the topic is well explained and the objectives are well capture and made obvious for the pupils to identify. The content of these introductory approaches also touches other aspects of the entire less which makes other steps a natural process.

### Step 2              Meaning of Personal Hygiene: Deeper Explanation

Even though the meaning of personal hygiene is well capture in the introductory contents, it is not a substitute for the teacher’s explanation. Hence, at this stage, the teacher writes/projects the definition of personal hygiene on the board/screen, then reads and explains it word for word. This way, the pupils not only get to know the meaning of personal hygiene but also the pronunciation and meaning of the words used in the definition.

### Step 3              Note Writing

The teacher copies/projects the definition on the board/screen for the pupils to copy down in their notebooks. At the time the pupils are writing, the teacher moves round to see that every pupil is writing well.

# EVALUATION

Once the note has been copied by the pupils, submitted to the teacher, marked and returned to the pupils; the teacher evaluates the pupils’ understanding of the lesson by giving them the exercises under assignment

# SUMMARY

This is the board summary which the pupils should copy into their notebooks. The teacher should also revise the note after s/he has marked the notebooks.

PERSONAL HYGIENE

Personal Hygiene means keeping our body and clothes clean all the time.

When somebody practice personal hygiene his/her environment is clean, his/her body is clean and does not smell or have bad odour and his/her cloth is always neat.

Environment means all the things around us.

ASSIGNMENT

The pupils’ understanding is evaluated by giving them the following assignment.

1. Write “Good”, “Poor” or “Bad” in front of each of the following to rate the level of hygiene in the following people.
• Dirty room, clean clothes, dirty and smelly mouth: ______________________
• Clean teeth, clean body, clean room and neat clothes: ______________________
• Dirty teeth, dirty body, dirty room and dirty clothes: ________________________
• Mal Umar’s room is dirty, his office is dirty, but his body is clean. His level of hygiene is ______________
1. Homework

Observe the following in your or your parent’s room, observe and write the following:

• Are clothes, books and cutlery scattered around the room? Yes/No
• Do you always press your uniform and all your clothes? Yes/No
• Take your uniform and smell it, does it smell? Yes/No
• While breathing through your mouth, block the air with the palm of your hand so that the air moves upward through your nose, does it smell? Yes/No
• Is your hair bushy/scattered? Yes/No
• Perceive your armpit, does it smell? Yes/No

# CONCLUSION

The topic is concluded by marking the assignment and returning the notebooks to the pupils or the right shelf. The teacher makes correction where necessary then ends the lesson by linking the week’s lesson to following week’s topic in something like this format:

“This week, we learned the meaning of personal hygiene. Next week, we shall learn the ways we can practice personal hygiene”.

[qsm quiz=3]

# Introduction

This Lesson Note: Primary (Grade) One Third Term Week 2 PHE is prepared based on Dr Ajogwu’s Standard Schemes of Work. The Scheme of Work was drawn in line with the new Standard Physical and Health Education Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the National Education Research Development Council. PHE alongside Basic Science, Basic Technology and Information Technology is classified under Basic Science and Technology in the new curriculum.  Accordingly, the note is meant to be delivered in the second week, third term of an academic year. Note that the focus of the note is on the content and not the lesson plan format. Nonetheless, any teacher can easily draw lesson plan from the note into his/her school’s format.

Name of Teacher: ________________________________

## School: _______________________________________

Date: _______________________________________

Period: ___________________________________

Duration: 30 minutes

Age: 9 – 12 years.

Class: Primary One

Class Composition: class is made up of about 30 pupils with mixed gender and abilities and it is moderately quiet.

## Subject: Physical and Health Education

TOPIC: Identification of Various Foodstuffs in the locality

# References

Ajogwu, E. (2014). Standard Schemes of Work in Line with National Curricular. Leasam Educational (Consultantancy, Training & Publishing). Leasam Educational (Consultantancy, Training & Publishing).

Binda, L. (2016). 10 Delicious Foods From Northern Nigeria Everyone Must Try. Retrieved 2017, from OMG Voice: http://omgvoice.com/lifestyle/10-delicious-northern-nigeria-foods/

Teach Yourself Hausa. (n.d.). Hausa Food (Abincin Hausawa)(Fuud). Retrieved 2017, from Teach Yourself Hausa: http://www.teachyourselfhausa.com/hausa-food.php

# Instructional Material

Basic Science and Health Education Step 3, Pictures, Charts, Videos of/or samples of foodstuffs

# OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to list common foodstuffs in the locality and identify a given foodstuff – both in local dialect and English language.

# Previous Knowledge

The pupils know the meaning of food and are able to list some examples of food probably in the local dialects

# ENTRY REQUIREMENT

No previous knowledge is required for the pupils to understand the lesson. However for the fact that this particular note was written in Hausa community (residence of author) pupils who have been residents of the locality will have added advantage. Notwithstanding, the lesson should be full of excitement even for the newcomers as it will be exploring the language of their new community with them.

# METHOD OF TEACHING

Chalk and talk, Excursion, Discussion

# TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES: Locating Nearby Restaurant, Cooking, Tasting, Supervision

This depends on available instructional materials. Assuming the teacher will adopts all the method of teaching given above; then s/he is expected to carry out the following:

• Locate a nearby eatery (restaurant) and make arrangement for the pupils’ visit. This includes sitting arrangement and selection/preparation of selected food varieties. Alternatively, if the school runs School Meal/School Lunch Program, the teacher should arrange with the Canteen Attendant.

N.B: The excursion arrangement also involves notifying the school management and parents. Be sure to discuss the excursion activities given under learners’ activities. Also, take note of pupils that are allergic to a particular food.

• Cooking, should the school neither run a cafeteria nor are there nearby restaurant or perhaps they may be restaurant but excursion not feasible; the teacher may resort to cooking the sample foods by himself/herself (perhaps funded by the school management) as another alternative. Last alternative will be assigning the foods to the pupils to bring as their lunch the day that step 3 will be taught.
• Tasting, the teacher should preferably taste the food before asking (interested) pupils to do same
• Supervision, during food tasting exhibition, teacher should ensure that pupils observe cafeteria etiquette.

NOTE: If majority of the pupils are native to the place, there may be no need for excursion or tasting exhibition since they probably may have eaten the foods before. A very good substitute will be to ask each child to bring a particular food for lunch on the day of the lesson.

# LEARNER”S ACTIVITIES

Assuming the teacher chose to embark on excursion with the pupils, they shall voluntarily observe and taste some food of choice. The pupils may be required to discuss their favourite food with classmates. At evaluation, the pupils should engage on Names of food Challenge.

# PRESENTATION

The lesson is presented as in the following progressive steps.

## StepI                Introduction

Upon entering the class, the teacher begins by asking the pupils the food each ate for breakfast, lunch and supper the day before. However, prior to using the words – Breakfast, Lunch and Supper, the teacher should use ‘in the morning’, ‘in the afternoon’ and ‘in the evening or at night’ respectively until the words have been explained. For example, “what did you eat for breakfast?” becomes “what did you eat in the morning today?”

It is likely that the pupils will answer by mentioning the traditional (vernacular) names of the food. The teacher writes the pupils’ answers as they mention the food. Afterwards, the teacher writes the topic on the board and tells the pupils that the week’s topic is identification of common foods in the community. Thereafter, s/he explains the lesson objectives.

## StepII             Meals of the day

Once the teacher explains the topic and its objectives to the pupils, s/he explains the terms that describe the different meal of the day:

Breakfast – the first meal of the day eaten in the morning.

Lunch—meal eaten at noon or in the afternoon

Supper – food eaten in the evening or at night before going to bed.

Note: Dinner is the heaviest food of the day whether lunch or supper.

## StepIII          Listing the common food in the (Hausa) community

As soon as the pupils grasp the meaning of the terms, the teacher leads them to list the common food in the locality. The teacher asks the pupils to name a food each (at this point, the pupils may be allowed to mention the names in the local dialect). In the end, the teacher adds from his list if necessary. The common foods in Hausa community have been listed here:

## COMMON FOODS IN HAUSA COMMUNITY

• Tuwo Shinkafa
• Tuwo Masara
• Miyan Kuka
• Miyan Taushe
• Miyan Kubewa
• Funkasau
• Kifi
• Kunu
• Nama
• Masa or Waina
• Dambu
• Zogole
• Fura da Nono
• Kosai
• Koko
• Alale
• Suya
• Zobo

• Talia
• Meat pie
• Plantain chips
• Doughnut

• Mangoro
• Lemu
• Kankana
• Ayaba
• Kwakwa
• Dibino
• Abarba
• Cucumber

## ENGLISH NAME or NEAREST ENGLISH DESCRIPTION

### SWALLOWS

Tuwon ShinkafaRice balls
Tuwon MasaraHard maize pudding

### SOUPS

Miyan KukaBaobab (ba-o-bab) Soup
Miyan TaushePumpkin Soup
Miyan KubewaOkra Soup

### SIDE DISHES

ZogoleSpiced Moringa
FunkasoMillet Pancake

### FRIED AND BAKED

GurasaThick Pancake
KosaiBeans Cake
Masa or WainaRice Cake

### DRINKS

ZoboRoselle (ro-zel) Drink
Fura da NonoFresh (cow) milk and Millet
KunuGruel
KokoPap

### MEAT (NAMA)

33)   KilishiJerky Meat
35)   Bushenshen KifiDried Fish
36)   Danya KifiFresh fish/ice fish

### FRUITS

37)   MangoroMango
38)   LemuOrange
39)   KankanaWater melon
40)   AyabaBanana
41)   GwandaPawpaw
42)   AbarbaPineapple
43)   DibinoDate fruit
44)   Nagidan GonaCucumber
45)   AgwalumaWhite Star Apple
46)   KwakwaCoconut

### OTHERS

47)   Shinkafa48)   Rice
49)   TaliaSpaghetti
50)   DoyaYam
51)   MasaraMaize
52)   AlcamaWheat

After listing the foods, the teacher may now take the pupils to the school cafeteria or nearby restaurant, where arrangement had been made. Or if the foods were cooked by the teacher or brought by the pupils, the teacher sits the pupils in an open well-lit and neat area. There, the teacher takes sample of each food, show it to pupils and tells them the English name. Although this would not yield equal understanding, in the event that samples are not available, the teacher uses pictures of foods. This also will be less fun for the pupils and the teacher will have to talk more.

For each food, after it had been identified – shown to the pupils and the English name taught, the teacher tastes it and asks pupils that are interested to also have a taste of it. After the second food had been tasted, the teacher asks the pupils to say which tastes better.

In the end, the pupils may be asked to say their favourite food, this time using the English names.

## StepV              Reading: Foods in Our Community

The teacher thereafter displays the food chart or writes both the Hausa and English names of foods on the board. S/he reads and asks pupils to read after him/her.

## StepVI           Note Writing: Foods in Our Community

The teacher then writes the note on the board for pupils to copy. While the pupils write, the teacher moves round to see that they are writing well.

# EVALUATION

This is done through challenge and exercises.

## Challenge

The teacher carefully pairs pupils. The pupils, taking turns, name a food in local dialect and demands that the partner tells him/her the English name. If the partner gets it right, s/he got a mark which the teacher records on the board after the class had clapped for him/her.  If the partner could not name the food in English, the pupil that asked tells the partner. If both got it wrong, the teacher tells the class and the class claps for the teacher.

Note: the teacher may choose to ask the pupils orally instead of the challenge.

## Exercises

After the class challenge activity, the teacher gives the exercises under assignment which may be done either as homework or class work.

# SUMMARY

This is the board summary of the class that the pupils shall copy on the board and which the teacher will also revise at conclusion.

# Food in Our Community

The foods we eat are called meals. Breakfast is the first meal of the day that we eat in the morning. Lunch is the meal we eat at noon or in the afternoon [from 11.30 am to 2 pm]. Supper is the food we eat before we in evening or at night.

## ENGLISH NAME or NEAREST ENGLISH DESCRIPTION

### SWALLOWS

Tuwon ShinkafaRice balls
Tuwon MasaraHard maize pudding

### SOUPS

Miyan KukaBaobab (ba-o-bab) Soup
Miyan TaushePumpkin Soup
Miyan KubewaOkra Soup

### SIDE DISHES

ZogoleSpiced Moringa
FunkasoMillet Pancake

### FRIED AND BAKED

GurasaThick Pancake
KosaiBeans Cake
Masa or WainaRice Cake

### DRINKS

ZoboRoselle (ro-zel) Drink
Fura da NonoFresh (cow) milk and Millet
KunuGruel
KokoPap

### MEAT (NAMA)

55)   KilishiJerky Meat
57)   Bushenshen KifiDried Fish
58)   Danye KifiFresh fish/ice fish

### FRUITS

59)   MangoroMango
60)   LemuOrange
61)   KankanaWater melon
62)   AyabaBanana
63)   GwandaPawpaw
64)   AbarbaPineapple
65)   DibinoDate fruit
66)   Nagidan GonaCucumber
67)   AgwalumaWhite Star Apple
OTHERS
68)   Shinkafa69)   Rice
70)   TaliaSpaghetti
71)   DoyaYam
72)   WaikeBeans
73)   MaizeMasara
74)

# ASSIGNMENT

1. ________________________ is the first meal of the day. (Breakfast/Lunch)
2. The meal eaten at noon is called ____________________. (Supper/Lunch)
3. The meal we eat at night is called _____________________. (Supper/Breakfast).

Using your ruler and a set of ten colour pencils – one colour for each food, draw a straight line to match the Hausa to the English Names of the food below.

Shinkafa                                                                                                                                                                               Yam

Orange                                                                                                                                                                                 Zobo

Miyan Taushe                                                                                                                                                                    Pineapple

Date fruit                                                                                                                                                                             Rice

Gwanda                                                                                                                                                                               Lemu

Doya                                                                                                                                                                                      Pumpkin Soup

Spaghetti                                                                                                                                                                             Dibino

Abarba                                                                                                                                                                                 Spiced Moringa

Roselle (ro-zel) Drink                                                                                                                                                      Pawpaw

Zogole                                                                                                                                                                                  Talia

# CONCLUSION

The lesson is concluded marking the assignment and returning pupils’ notes. Then teacher makes correction where necessary while revising the class and relates the week’s lesson with the following week’s – Sources of foods

[qsm quiz=3]

## Introduction to First Term Information Technology Lesson Note Primary One Week 1-2

This first term Information Technology lesson note primary one, week1-2 is prepared based on (Olatoye, The Scheme of Work plus 20 things You should Know about the New 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum, 2016, pp. 103-127). (Olatoye, 2016) drew the Scheme of Work in line with the new Standard Information Technology Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council. Information Technology is one of the four separate but related subjects compressed to form one major subject, Basic Science and Technology in the new curriculum. The other subjects are Basic Technology, Basic Science and Physical and Health Education. Accordingly, this note is meant to be delivered in the first and second week of the first term of the academic year.

Information Technology or Computer Studies teachers must understand that this is a practical subject. S/he must also remember the necessity of computing skills for effectiveness in this 21st century. Hence, the teacher must focus more on equipping the pupils with computing skills – what they will be able to do with a computing device – than what they would know. Nonetheless, both are necessary.  The teacher should delivers the class by demonstration and motivation while majoring his/her performance by what the pupils are able TO DO at the end of the lesson.

# First term lesson note: Primary or Grade 1- Information Technology, Week 1-2

SUBJECT: Basic Science and Technology

Theme 4: Information Technology

TOPIC: Meaning of a Computer, Similarities and differences between a computer and other related objects

# REFERENCES

1. Okenabirhie, E. (2012). MacAdams Approach to Computer Science for Primary School. Lower Basic 1. Benin city: Macadams Publication Ltd.
2. Olatoye, D. T. (2016). Scheme of work plus 20 things you should know about the New 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. Lagos: KR Publications.
3. Osumah and C.O. Omeiza. (2015). Computer Studies for Primary Schools. Benin City: Gateway University Publishers Ltd.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

1. A computer set, Typewriter, Phone, Radio, Calculator, Digital wristwatch, Fax Machine, Digital Video Camera, Television set, DVD Player, Organizer, Projector, POS machine.
2. If these things are not physically available but a digital display is available, then a video clip of each as it is being used should be used.
3. If neither the display nor the physical objects is available, full colored charts should be used. Preferably, a copy of the textbook should be use
4. Chalk/Maker, and board/Screen
5. Introductory video of a person (perhaps, a kid) who felt ashamed because s/he called a computer related device by a wrong name in an important function such party with peers. In the event that the teacher is unable to compile the video (we make this available on request, for free), s/he compose a short narration to portray the incident with illustrated pictures /chart

## Entry BEHAVIOR

This is no prerequisite requirement for understanding this topic. However, pupils that have had earlier contact with computer will be at advantage.

OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

• Identify (name) some computer related objects and state the use.
• They should be able to use some of the devices

## PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE:

The pupils must have learnt the meaning of computer from their earlier years. Also, some probably have computers in their homes. However at this present primary two level nothing has been thought.

## METHODS OF TEACHING:

The teacher teaches the lesson by Induction, Discussion and Demonstration.

## TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES:

The teacher shall sources and prepares the materials to use. He/she will demonstrate the use of the computer related devices and watch the pupils do same.

## LEARNERS’ ACTIVITIES:

The pupils shall participate actively in the in the lesson by listening, watching and practicing with the gadget. They shall also contribute to the class discussion by asking and answering questions.

PRESENTATIONS:

The lesson shall be delivered as in the following steps:

### Step 1:             Introduction:

To introduce the lesson, the teacher plays the introductory video. That is, if a digital display is used. If not, the teacher uses the illustrated narration charts and narrates the story to the pupils. A child that felt ashamed because s/he could not identify a computer related device in an important function such party with peers). Afterward, the teacher tells the pupils that they shall in the week’s lesson learn how to identify computer related devices so as to avoid similar fate as that of the child in the video. Following this, the teacher writes/projects the topic on the board/screen and proceeds to step two.

### Step 2:             Meaning of a Computer

The teacher tells the pupils that before they identify computer related objects, they have to identify computer itself. Therefore, the teacher asks the pupils who among them owns, have used or seen a computer before (it is expected that quit a number if not all of them would respond in affirmation). Hence, the teacher follows up by asking them that as an owner or having used of seen a computer before, what would they tell a stranger such as my grandfather that a computer is?

The teacher receives attempts while keeping the class interactive and democratic. The pupils will in their attempt likely give the use of a computer rather than the definition. Still at this, the teacher appreciates each pupil and writes meaningful attempts on the board. The teacher may, by means of questioning, steers pupils thought towards the definition in the form of intelligently countering them. For example, if a child says a computer is what he or she uses to play games, the teacher may counter (after appreciating the child), whether PS is a computer since it is also used in plying games.

After receiving several attempts, the teacher tells them that to define a thing is not just stating the uses of such thing but also providing some distinctive description. Hence, he/she defines a computer to them and gives a thorough explanation.

A Computer is an electronic device that accepts data as instruction process it and give out information

### Explanation of the simple definition of computer

• By Electronic device here (in its simplest form) means something that uses electricity. That is, computer is something that uses electricity.
• Accept data means a human being must give the computer data or instructions before it can work or do something.
• And data means what we give or input into the computer to work on. Data include letters (A – Z), numbers (0 -9), pictures, audios videos. The human being operating the computer usually possesses the data outside the computer then uses input devices to put into the computer.
• Instructions include pause, print, play, send etc.
• Process means the work that the computer performs when it receives data and instruction. Any work that a computer performs is called a computer process. Human being cannot see computer process with naked eyes.
• Information means the result of the work that a computer performs which it gives back to the human being. Information is also called output.

After the explanation, the teacher redefines computer in similar words.

A computer is something that uses electricity, and is able to work on any data or instruction that a human being gives and give out the result.

Hereafter, the teacher leads them to identify the various forms of computer – laptop and desktop (physically or using chats). If there is a computer, teacher should demonstrate how a (either of the desktop or laptop) computer accepts data, processes it and gives out output for pupils to see. This may be as simple as typing a word:

• Teacher writes a letter or number (data) on the board. Then tells the pupils s/he will now give the computer that (letter or number) data.
• Teacher presses the letter or number on the keyboard. S/he tells them that processing began as soon as the key was pressed. But as said earlier, they cannot see the process.
• The pressed key (letter or number) displays on the screen. That is the information – the letter or number on the screen.

NOTE: there may be no need to burden the pupils with the name(s) of input devices as they will learn them in later lessons.

QUESTION ON DEMONSTRATION: pupils may ask what work (process) was done since the key that was pressed displayed almost instantly. Answer to that is that the computer is extremely fast compared to human beings. A computer can perform up to hundreds of processes in splits of a second. That’s why the result was instant – it actually performed some jobs before the key was displayed. Now for the curious pupils, this is a summary of what work the computer did between the pressing of the key and the display of the letter or number:

• 1st: The teacher pressed the key
• The computer detected that a key has been pressed, but it doesn’t know which key.

This is so because the computer doesn’t recognize any letters or numbers except zeros and ones. These zeros and ones are called computer language. To understand what key the teacher pressed, it has to convert the key to zeros and ones. Thus

• The middleman between computers language (0, 1) and man our language (A-Z, 0, 1, 2-9) changes the key to computer language and sends it to the computer brain.
• The computer brain (who now understands what that teacher pressed) get the answer i.e. the letter or number and sends it to the intermediary at the monitor/display (still in form of zero and one)
• The intermediary at the display receive the (0s &1s) from the brain of the computer and changes it back to the key the teacher pressed
• The monitor now displays the last result.

NOTE: This is not exactly what happens but it conveys the idea of computer processing. More so, the teacher is not to explain this in detail neither are the pupils expected to remember anything about it apart from the idea of computer processing.

He/she performs other couple of activities such as printing, playing videos etc. (as giving by pupils earlier time when attempting to defined a computer).

### Step 3:             COMPUTER RELATED OBJECTS

Once the teacher has explained the meaning of computer, shown the pupils the various forms of computer and some of its uses (which the pupils probably know); he/she introduces the concept of computer related objects.

The teacher explains that some objects looks like a computer and can perform some functions of a computer. These types of objects are called computer related objects.

The teacher then ask the pupils to give examples of such objects – the objects have buttons or keys which we can press like computer, some of them have screen, when we switch them on, some gives same light (LED) as the computer . The teacher writes each on the board as each is mentioned. Afterwards, he/she picks one at a time, tell the pupils its use and (if available), show them how to use it or describes how to use each using the video clip (if digital display is being used), or full colored illustrated charts.

Some of such devices and the use are given below:

 S/N DEVICES Use 1. Typewriter For typing of document only 2. Television For displaying/watching news and movies 3. DVD Player For playing movies and music 4. Desk Calculator For calculations only 5. POS (Point of Sale) Terminal For making/accepting payments 6. Small Handset For making telephone calls, sending text messages, recording  and taking pictures 7. MP4 For playing video 8. MP3 For playing music 9. Radio For listening to news and music 10. Digital video/camera For recording moving and still objects 11. Telephone For making telephone calls 12. Fax machine For sending and receiving mails 13. Digital wrist watch Tells time and date 14. Play Station For playing games 15. ATM Withdrawing and transferring money and paying bills using ATM card.

NOTE: If any of these objects are available in the school or as many as are available, the pupils should practice how to use them individually, if not teacher should use video or charts to give a vivid description of how to use them. Others such as how to use ATM may be given to them as homework to be carried out with their parents. In that case, the following questions may be given:

Question 1: Visit any ATM with your parent or older one; use their ATM card to withdraw some money.

Question 2: describe how you made the withdrawal.

### Step 4:              DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A COMPUTER AND OTHER COMPUTER RELATED OBJECTS

After identifying and practicing/explaining how to use computer related devices, the teacher differentiates between the devices and computer. He/she explains that the general difference is that while  computers (desktop / laptop) are a multipurpose device, each of these can only perform one or two functions of computer while others are – but in reality, each of them are small computers because each accept data, process it and give output. For example the digital camera can only captures pictures but cannot play music or be used to type unlike the computer .

After this, the teacher display the various forms of computer, gives the pupils short activities to pair each computer related devices to the part of computer it resembles then state the differences between each pair.

Alternatively, the teacher displays the various forms of computer, desktop/laptops. Then picking one computer related object at a time, he/she ask the pupils to look at the form of the computer and tell him/her which part of the computer the object he is holding resembles. After which, they discuss the differences between the identified pairs.

### Step 5:             NOTE WRITING

Before evaluating, the teacher summarizes the lesson into a short but detailed note which he/she writes on the board for the pupils to copy down into their notebooks. While the pupils write, the teacher moves round to ensure that every pupils are writing correctly. At the end, he or she reads the note together with the pupils the give a summary to the class once more.

## EVALUATION

Evaluation of psychomotor objectives is made at the time of exercise or practice, while the following exercises are given to the pupils to assess cognitive objectives:

### 1.      Identification

Write the name of the following computer related object match to the use (check recommended textbooks, (Okenabirhie, 2012, p. 14)

### 2.      Differentiation and Similarities

Match to the part of computer each resembles

State one difference between each pairs

## CONCLUSION

The lesson is concluded by marking and returning pupils’ notebooks, reviewing the entire lesson and making corrections where needed. He/she in conclusion, links the week’s lesson to following week’s topic. He/she tells the pupils that in the following week lesson, they will be learning the names of the different parts of a computer that the computer related objects resemble.

## LESSON NOTE PRIMARY THREE FIRST TERM WEEK ONE & TWO BASIC SCIENCE

School: ______________________________________________________________________

Date: 26 & 27 September, 2016

Period: 6th & 3rd, 12:15 to 01:30 pm and 09:00 to 09:45 am respectively

Duration: 90 minutes, 45 minutes each

Age: 9 -12 years

Class: Primary Three

Class Composition: Population of about 30 pupils with mixed abilities and moderately quiet.

Subject: Basic Science

Topic: Changes in Nature

Sub Topic: Meaning and Types

Aims and Objectives:  At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to state the meaning of change with examples and the types of change.

# Reference Materials:

1. Asun, P., Bajah, S. T., Ndu, F. O., Oguntonade, C. B., & Youdeowei, A. (2010). Basic Science & Technology UBE Edition Book 4. Lagos: Longman Nigeria Plc.
2. Ikeobi, I., Wasagu, M., Asim, A., Eyetsemitan, P., Uyanne, M., Gankon, B., et al. (2009). STAN Primary Science. Ibadan: University Press PLC.
3. Ogunniyi, M. B., Egbugara, U., Okebukola, P. O., & Mahmoud, I. (1998). Macmillan Primary Science book 4. Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Ltd.

# Instructional materials

White board and temporary marker or chalk and blackboard (chalkboard), bean seeds, glass jars, saw dust, water and science notebook.

# Previous Knowledge (Entry Requirement)

No previous knowledge is required

# Method of Teaching

Talk and Chalk method and experimentation

# Teacher’s Activities

The teacher shall demonstrate and guide pupils in the observation activities, supervise each group’s work, check for proper reporting and mark the reports.

# Learners’ Activities

Observing the germination of seeds, burning of candle and pieces of paper, melting ice, e.t.c and accurate reporting

# Presentation

The lesson is presented in the following steps:

## Step 1              : Introduction

The teacher introduces the lesson is by carrying out an activity that stirs the pupils’ curiosity. Say, the teacher walks into the class, greets the pupils, asks them to watch while s/he lights a candle. Soon after the candle finish burning, the teacher then asks the pupils what happened, where his/her candle has gone to. The teacher receives different answers (opinions) before telling them that the candle has simply changed! S/he then writes the topic on the board.

## Step 2              : Definition of Terms

Following the introduction of the lesson, the teacher explains the changes in the candle. S/he explains that the candle changed from a (candle) stick to liquid candle (candle wax) and then changed from wax to a solidified wax again – but that the shape or form of the candle also changed from a candle stick to an irregular solid.

Following the explanation, the teacher asks the pupils the meaning of change. After some attempts, s/he writes the definition on the board and explains more thoroughly.

Definition of Change: A change is when something becomes different from its original form.

## Step 3              : Examples of Change

Once the teacher has explained the meaning of change, s/he explains that things around us do not remain the same all the time. S/he lists and explains examples of changes around us:

Some of examples of changes around us include the following:

1. Weather changes from hot to cool, windy to still or rainy
2. Candle changes to wax
3. Pieces of paper burn into ashes
4. Wood burn into ashes
5. New things become old
6. Water turns to ice

(The teacher asks the pupils to name more while s/he writes them on the board)

## Step 4              :  Types of Changes

Succeeding the examples of changes above, the teacher leads the pupils to categorize changes into the different kinds of changes.

First, s/he explains that all the changes around us – including the examples above – can be grouped into two. That means there are two types of changes. These are:

1. Temporary Change
2. Permanent Change

## Step 5              : Temporary Change

A temporary change is a change that happens for a short time and can be reversed.

Temporary changes occur as a result of change in position or condition in the environment. Examples of temporary change are as follows:

1. Water change to ice block when temperature is very low.
2. Ice block change to water when temperature increase
3. Chameleon change its colour when the colour of its environment change
4. Cold water changes to hot water when heated
5. Hot water change to cold water when taken from heat

(The teacher asks the pupils to name more while s/he writes them on the board)

## Step 6              : Permanent Change

Permanent change is a change that cannot be reversed. When something is not reversible, then it is irreversible. Examples of permanent changes are:

1. Trees cut into planks
2. Cassava processed into garri
3. A little child grown to an adult
4. Yam changed to pounded yam
5. Wood burnt into ashes

(The teacher asks the pupils to name more while s/he writes them on the board)

## Step 7              : Note Writing

The teacher then gives the pupils the note (all italicized above) to copy. S/he monitors the pupils to ensure their handwriting is legible and in accordance with the school handwriting policy.

## Step 8              : Evaluation

The pupils’ understanding of the lesson is evaluated by asking questions and making the pupils to carry out the sorting Activity 1.1 (contained in the attachment):

## Step 9              : Summary

Once evaluation proves that the pupils understood the lesson and the objectives of the lesson has been met, the teacher review the lesson once again with the pupils

## Step 10         : Assignment

The teacher, after the summary gives the pupils some homework based on the topic (questions included in the attachment file).

## Step 11         : Conclusion

The lesson is concluded by marking, recording and returning the pupils’ notes and making corrections where necessary. The teacher, after the final correction tells the pupils the topic for the following (week’s) lesson – The Differences between Temporary and Permanent Changes. Thereafter, s/he groups the pupils into groups of five pupils to carry out the following Activity 1.2 in preparation for the following topic: Changes in Plants

## Civic Education Lesson Note: Primary 4 Term 3 Wk 2-3 & 4-5

Civic Education Lesson Note: Primary 4 Term 3 Wk 2-3 & 4-5

INTRODUCTION:

This Third Term Lesson note on Civic Education for Grade Four is prepared based on (Ajogwu(PhD)) Standard Schemes of Work drawn in line with the new Standard Physical and Health Education Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the National Education Research Development Council. Civic Education is one of the major subjects under Religion and National Values (RNV) in the new national curriculum by Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). The other subjects being Security Education, Social Studies, CRK and IRK. Accordingly, this note is suitable to be delivered in the fourth and fifth week of the third term of the academic year. All necessary components of a standard lesson note have been included.

TEACHER:

SCHOOL:

DATE:

PERIOD:

DURATION

AGE:

CLASS COMPOSITION:

SUBJECT: Civic Education

TOPIC: Responsibilities of Constituted Authority

# REFERENCE MATERIALS

Ajogwu(PhD), E. L. Standard Scheme of Work in Line with National Curricular(UBE EDITION) for Middle Basic (Primary 4-6). Lesam Educational.

Campsilos.Org. (n.d.). Why take field trips? . Retrieved 07 05, 2017, from Campsilos.Org: http://www.campsilos.org/excursions/hc/fieldtrip.htm

CCMIT. (n.d.). IMPROVING OBSERVATION SKILLS. Retrieved 07 05, 2017, from CCMIT.MIT.EDU: https://ccmit.mit.edu/observation/

Daniel, J. S., & Christopher, C. (Directors). (2010). Selective Attention Test [Motion Picture].

Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council (NERDC). (2015). Civic Education for Primary Schools (9-Year Basic Education Edition). West African Book Publishers Ltd.

O, E. O., A, D. O., & B, A. A. (2015). Lantern Comprehensive Civic Education for Primary Schools book 4 (Nine Basic Education). Ikeja, Lagos: Literamed Publications (Nig) Ltd.

Penalysis. (2016, September 17). CONSTITUTED AUTHORITY AND TYPES. Retrieved July 05, 2017, from PENALYSIS: http://penalysis.com/constituted-authority-types/

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

• Chalk/Marker and Chalk/White Board
• Digital Display – LCD or projector
• Video clips/Slides/Charts of:
• A rioting community or group calmed by either a leader or security agency and/or a traditional ruler settling dispute
• An offender or (traffic) rule breaker being warned or arrested by appropriate agency
• A community, group, local or national leader awarding, supervising and commissioning developmental projects such as roads, hospitals, school, e.t.c.
• A military contingent warding-off terror or robbery attack
• Meeting of regional leaders or representatives
• A polling unit in which hoodlums preventing citizens from voting are being arrested by security agencies who also stays to ensure that citizens vote according to their will
• Lawmakers or monarch enacting law.

ENTRY BEHAVIOURS

The pupils should already know the meaning of constituted authority and the duties of citizens to constituted authority.

OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils are expected not only to be able to list the responsibilities of constituted authorities but also show behavioral change: they should thenceforth see constituted authority as important member of the society instead of “lucky lords” and should be able to teach others to do the same.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Based on the curriculum, the preceding topic is “Duties of citizens to Constituted Authority”.

METHOD OF TEACHING

Teaching by induction and field trip

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

• The teacher shall, before the commencement of the lesson, arrange for pupils excursion to the nearest traditional leader or government secretariat. These include visiting or obtaining permission from the school authority and the place and person to be visited as well as other necessary preparations.
• S/he shall guide/supervise the pupils to and from the excursion
• Assessment/Evaluation – the teacher shall evaluate the pupils at an ongoing basis and at the end of the lesson to ascertain whether the objectives are met.

LEARNERS’ ACTIVITIES

The pupils shall actively participate in the lesson by listening, asking and giving presentations.

PRESENTATION

The lesson is presented in such progressive steps as follows:

## Step 1: Introduction

Upon entering the class, the teacher impresses upon the minds of the pupils, the general but incorrect notion that political or traditional leaders (constituted authority) do not perform any work because they have servants to serve them and aids to assist them. This may be done in any way that is suitable to the teacher and which will yield expected result. Nonetheless, we suggest simple and interactive alternative way below:

• The teacher asks how many of the pupils are either from a royal home (i.e. whose relative is a monarch) or whose relative is a popular (high profile) political leader.

If there is none, proceed to the next step, or if there is, the teacher asks if such relative always work or does any work for the government to pay him/her and what work.

It is expected that the pupils will say that the relative does no tedious work.

• The teacher then tells the pupils the more common public opinion about political or traditional leaders – they are very rich people that do not do any work but instead, they have anything they want, any day, any time. S/he may give illustrations to make solidify the claim.
• Thereafter, s/he asks for the pupils’ opinion: Do they think that kings/queens and politicians work? Why do they think so (whether yes or no)? Teacher receives a couple of answer and allows a few minutes of discussion (talking mostly being made by and among the pupils).
• Following the discussion, the teacher introduces the topic by telling the pupils that the topic of the week is to know whether kings/queens and such popular politicians work and which work(s) they do.

However that not just kings, queens and popular politicians but that as they learned the week before that kings, queens and popular political are but only examples of constituted authority, they shall be learning the general responsibilities of constituted authority. Thereafter, the teacher explains the objectives of the topic to them and writes/projects the topic: RESPONSIBILITIES OF CONSTITUTED AUTHORITY on the board/screen then continue with step 2.

## Step 2: Explanation of terms

Before advancing further into the lesson, the teacher revises the last lesson and explains the meaning of responsibility to the pupils.

They had learned in the last lesson that constituted authority means an individual or group of people conferred with authority (power) and backed by the law to work on behalf of a community (group of people like association, village, town), state or country. For example,

At the family level, the persons that have the authority to act on behalf of the other members of the family are father and mother who are backed by natural and local law.

At school level, the constituted authority is (members of) the school management including the prefects, teachers, headmasters, head teachers, principals, rectors, provosts, vice chancellor e.t.c.

The teacher asks the pupils and together they list the constituted authorities at:

• Religious institutions (Churches/Mosques) level – pastors, priests, Imam, e.t.c.
• Town or community level – kings, queens, chiefs, e.t.c.
• Local government level – L.G Chairman and local government workers.
• State government level– governors and state government workers.
• Federal government level – the president, senators, ministers and other federal government workers.

After revising as given above, the teacher explains the meaning of responsibility as it is used in the topic: the works or duties that the constituted authorities ought to perform. S/he thereafter explains that although the responsibilities of the various constituted authorities vary from level to level, there are some responsibilities common to all of them.

The teacher then asks pupils to name some of such common responsibilities. After listing a couple, s/he asks for specific responsibilities of kings, queens or popular political leader (whichever they shall be visiting during the excursion). They are likely going to be unable to list more than two or three, consequently the teacher tells them that they shall be visiting such person to know more of his/her responsibilities. Thence, the teacher proceeds to step 3.

## Step 3: Excursion

Having made every necessary “external” preparation for the excursion earlier, the teacher now prepares the pupils for the excursion as follow:

• Discuss the purpose of the excursion – To know more of the responsibilities of the constituted authority.
• Teach Them Observation Skills – Teach them how to listen and observe critically for accurate description or gathering of information:
• They should learn to ignore distractionsuch as other kids’ watching or talking to or about them there.
• Pick and Focusthere, they should pick one thing (at a time) –seen or heard, that interests them, focus and pay attention to it and gather (by asking where necessary) as much information on it as possible[1].
• Sketch and Jotto remember what there had observed, they should learn how to describe by sketching and jotting on their notes (They may practice this by describing a given object in the class).
• Introduce Area Vocabulary – teacher should make a list of words that may likely be used during the excursion.
• Show Photographs or Poster of the place if possible
• Discuss how to ask good questions there – The class (teacher and pupils) should brainstorm and draw-up a list of open-ended observation questions that the pupils may ask to gather information during the visit.
• Assign Pupils to different roles – including who asks which question, how takes care of First Aid kit, e.t.c.
• Finally, discuss standard of conduct – what is the standard way of doing things such as greeting there? Let the class (teacher and pupils) brainstorm and formulate rules they must observe there.

Once the pupils’ preparation is complete and all papers and things taken, excursion begins!

## Step 4: Discussion

Upon return from the excursion, the teacher lets the pupils to discuss what they learned from the trip before progressing to the common responsibilities of constituted authorities in the next step.

## Step 5: General Responsibilities of Constituted Authority

Following the discussion, the teacher explains the common responsibilities of constituted authority with the video clips, slides charts. S/he plays or displays the clips then explains to the pupils what each clip means after asking their opinion of what they think was happening in the clips or charts. The responsibilities are listed below:

• Maintain law and order
• Settling disputes
• Developing the place
• Protecting lives and properties
• Representing the people
• Protecting the political rights of the citizens
• Making laws

EVALUATION

The pupils’ understanding of the topic is done through debate, presentation and assignments.

### ASSIGNMENT:

See assignments below.

### DEBATE

The essence of the debate is to evaluate he behavioral impact of the lesson on the pupils.

Narration:

Mr. Umar is a banker. On Monday, Mr. Umar was getting late for work so he drove as fast he could. Unfortunately, he got to a traffic light when it was only a second for the light to turn red. However, since Mr. Umar would be late if he delays any longer and there was no vehicle coming because it was at early hours, he tried beating the traffic. Too bad for him, traffic wardens were watching from a distance so he was arrested just before he crossed the light. The next day, Mr. Umar was fired for not going to work the previous day.

After the narration above, the teacher asks whether the traffic wardens did the right thing by arresting Mr. Umar, seeing that there were no vehicle on the road and the arrest cost him his job. Based on the pupils’ answers, s/he groups them into two: One group to speak in favor of the traffic wardens and the other group to counter the first group.

Each group is allowed to sit together to list and discuss their points. After some minutes, the teacher calls them for the debate.

### PUPILS’ INDIVIDUAL PRESENTATION

After the debate (and after teacher’s verdict), the pupils will be given homework: a 3-minute presentation on the topic: A Society without Constituted Authority which should be presented individually in their next class (the following week).

SUMMARY

Prior to hen end of the lesson, the teacher summarizes the entire lesson into a concise lecture note which is written/projected on the board/screen for the pupils to copy. Afterwards the teacher revises the lesson. The board summary is as given below (teacher may add where s/he deems fit).

## RESPONSIBILITIES OF CONSTITUTED AUTHORITY

Responsibilities of constituted authority mean the works or duties of constituted authorities perform or ought to perform. The common responsibilities of constituted authorities include:

• Maintain law and order
• Settling disputes
• Developing the place
• Protecting lives and properties
• Representing the people
• Protecting the political rights of the citizens
• Making laws

ASSIGNMENT

After revising the lesson, the teacher gives the following exercises either as class or home works to the pupils.

1. Which one best describes constituted authority?
1. An individual conferred with authority but not backed by the law
2. A group of people backed by the law without authority
• An individual or a group of people conferred with authority and backed by the law to act on behalf of the people.
1. Responsibilities means _________________________________________________________
2. Is class captain a constituted authority? Yes/No
3. Which one of the following persons is not a constituted authority?
2. Reverend Fathers
• Imams
1. Governors
1. Why the leader of bad gangs not a constituted authority is even though he acts (speaks) on behalf of the gang? _________________________________________________________________
2. Mention four responsibilities of performed by all constituted authorities
1. _____________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________
• _____________________________________________________________________
1. ______________________________________________________________________
1. Mention one thing you should do when a constituted authority fails to perform his responsibility:
1. ______________________________________________________________________

CONCULSION

The topic is concluded by marking and redistribution of pupils’ notebooks then linking the lesson to next topic: Traffic Regulations:

This week, we learned that it is one of the duties of constituted authorities to make laws (rules and regulations) while in the week before, next week we will learn about the rules our constituted authority has mad about traffic or road use.

[1] If digital display is being used, teacher may run the 1-minute video test by (Daniel & Christopher, 2010) of Monkey Business Illusion available Daniel’s YouTube Channel. Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJG698U2Mvo

## Basic Science Lesson Note: Term 1 Primary 1 Wk 1& 2

Basic Science Lesson Note: Term 1 Primary 1 Wk 1& 2

# INTRODUCTION

This lesson note is written in line with the new Nigerian National curriculum by Nigerian Education Research Development Council (NERDC)

CLASS: Primary One

SUBJECT: Basic Science

TOPIC: Identifying things in the classroom

# INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

• Video clips or charts of future interesting activities to be carried out in the subject such as learning to use observation tools and excursion to interesting places like airport, water board, natural spring, hydro-power station, e.t.c.
• Actual objects, models or chart of things in the classroom
• Digital display, board and marker/chalk

# OBJECTIVES

At the end of the topic, the pupils should have attained the following objectives.

Cognitive: be able to list objects in the classroom

Affective: The pupils should have developed interest in the subject and become conscious on the need to take care of objects in the classroom.

Psychomotor: They should be able to maintain useful objects in the useful objects in the classroom.

# ENTRY REQUIREMENT

This is the first major lesson in the subject at this level. Hence, no prerequisite knowledge or skill is required of the pupils.

# PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The pupils have un-organized (informal) knowledge of the classroom.

# METHOD OF TEACHING

The teacher shall teach the lesson through demonstration and discussion

# TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher shall first of all inspire the pupils’ interest in the subject before proceeding to the main lesson. S/he will also write on the board (if digital display is not being used) and draw a couple of objects in the class for pupils to copy. Finally, s/he may lead the pupils to re-design the classroom.

# LEARNERS’ ACTIVITIES

The pupils shall participate actively in the lesson by listening, asking and answering questions, and contributing to discussion such listing the objects in the classroom, copy down the notes and draw a couple of the objects. Finally, they shall carryout classroom design project.

# BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Ajogwu(PhD), E. (n.d.). Standard Schemen)s of Work in line with National Curricular (UBE Edition) for Primary 1-3 (Lower Basic). Lesam Educational .
2. Asun, P., Bajah, S. T., Ndu, F. C., Oguntonade, C. B., & Youdeowei, A. (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools Pupils’ Book 1. Lagos: Longman Nigeria Plc.
3. National Teachers’ Institute (NTI); Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC). (2010). Manual for Capacity Building Workshops of Teachers under the Federal Teachers’ Scheme (FTS) on Basic Science and Technology. Kaduna: National Teachers’ Institute (NTI).
4. Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools 1. Lagos: West African Book Publishers (WABP) Limited .
5. Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools Workbook 1. Lagos: West African Book Publishers (WABP) Limited.
6. Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2012). Teachers’ Guides for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC).
7. Ogunniyi, M. B., Obed, U., OKebukola, P. O., & Mahmoud, I. (2010). Macmillan Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools (UBE Edition) Book 1. Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited.
8. Olatoye, T. A. (2016). The Scheme of Work for Primary One Plus 20 Things you should know about the New 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. Lagos: KR Publications.
9. Science Teachers Association of NIgeria (STAN). (2011). STAN BAsic Science and Technology for Primary Schools (UBE Edition) Book 1. Ibadan: University Press Plc.

# PRESENTATION

The lesson is presented as in the following steps:

Step 1: Introduction to the subject

As stated earlier, since this is the first lesson in the subject (perhaps at this level), the teacher arouse pupils’ interest in the subject (Basic Science) before proceeding to the main topic. To do this, the teacher explains the summarized objective of the subject and links it to the topic of discussion:

S/he tells the pupils that the subject (Science or Basic Science) has ‘twin brother’ called Basic Technology. Afterwards, s/he briefly explains the meaning of both subject and how they relate to each other as given below.

Science is the study of both living and non-living things around us – at school, home, church/mosque, market, in the air, waters, and bush and under the ground; while Technology is the use of what we learn from science to make something which makes work easier, faster and make life better.

Therefore, in a sense, Technology is the reason for Science – that is, the reason why we learn about living and non-living things around us is to be able to make things that will make our work faster and easier and also make our life better or more pleasurable. For example, when human beings learned about air, they made things that can move in the air (aeroplane) which make transportation easier and faster.

And so, the teacher tells the pupils that even so, in their Basic Science and Basic Technology classes, they will be learning about things around them and how to use that knowledge to create other things which will make work easier and faster and also make life better – s/he thereafter plays the clip or displays the charts of future projects (things they will make) and excursions (places they will go and learn about) to be made at the Primary one level before they move to the next level (Primary Two). Some are given below.

### Basic Science Topic for Primary One – Things They Will Learn And Places They Will Visit to Learn About

• The school environment – they shall move around the school to see and learn about the things in the school environment
• The home environment – they shall move around their home to see and learn about the things there
• Laboratory – to learn about laboratory equipment such as binoculars, electroscope, microscope etc & the uses
• Hospital – learn about hospital equipment
• Zoo, museum, motor park, police station, bank, post office, library, restaurant, natural spring, Garden, hydro-power station etc.

### Basic Science Projects for Primary One – Things They Will Make or Do

• Classroom model
• Things at school & home
• Flying toy like aeroplane & Air experiment,
• A local telephone,
• Soil experiment,
• Water purification experiment,
• Colour magic activity etc

Invariably, the video of things to learn and do or the explanation thereof should make them eager to start learning how to make things. Consequently, the teacher explains that before they could make things (carry out they experiments), they must have some scientific knowledge (i.e. know about the things in our environment both living and non-living things) because they will use the knowledge to make whatever they want to make.

In continuation, the teacher informs the pupils that they shall begin with knowing the things in their most immediate environment. Thence, the teacher displays the gallery of classrooms and asks the pupils what it is that is in the pictures – s/he allows some moment of discussion then tells the pupils that it is Classroom (which they are).  Following this, s/he then projects /writes the topic on the screen/board and explain the objectives of the lesson to them.

Afterwards, the teacher proceeds to step2.

## Step 2: Meaning of Classroom

Prior to listing the things in the classroom, the teacher explicitly makes the pupils to know what classroom is through discussion: S/he asks the pupils whether they know what classroom is, and demand one or two volunteer to tell the class what classroom is. Afterwards, s/he explains what is meant by classroom (emphasizing in local dialect if necessary).

A Classroom is a room where students are taught.

NOTE: The teacher should also explain that the sophistication of classroom (in design and structures) differs from place to place.

## Step 3: Things in the classroom

Having explained the meaning of classroom, the teacher asks the pupils to look around the class and mention the things they could see. Afterwards, if there are not enough things in the class, the teacher displays the video/pictures of classrooms again and asks the pupils to identify the objects they could see in it. The teacher writes each object on the board as it is mentioned.

SOME OF THE OBJECTS IN A CLASSROOM

• Desk
• Table
• Chair
• Bell
• Dustbin
• Wall Charts
• Duster
• Chalk or whiteboard or interactive screen
• Toy
• Bookshelves
• Pencil
• Clock
• Flower pot
• Globe
• Fan/Air Conditioners

NOTE: Even if some of the items are missing from the class which you are, the teacher should explain that other classrooms (in other places) have more objects than theirs.

## Step 4: Care of Objects in the Classroom

Once the objects had been listed, the teacher, picking one at a time, asks the pupils the function of each and subsequently explains the use of each object. Next, the teacher leads the discussion on the need to take care or maintain the objects.

S/he asks what will happen if some keys objects were missing from the class – how it would affect the classroom.

## This will happen, if missing

Chalk/marker and boardThe teacher will not be able to write
Desks, chairs or tableThe pupils will have to sit on the  floor
DusterTeacher will not be able to clean the board
Dustbin or wastebasketThere will be no place for the class to discard garbage; the class will be dirty

NOTE: Question may be direct at individual pupil (chosen randomly) to call attention

Succeeding the forgoing activity, the teacher asks how many of the pupils would like such negative condition of classroom resulting from missing items: where teacher would not be able to write on t he board, they (pupils) would sit on the floor and the class will be dirty.

Invariably, none would like such condition. Hence, the teacher makes them to realise the need to take care of the objects how they may take care of them in the follow-up activities given below:

### Activity One: Immediate Class Cleanup

The teacher asks whether the class is dirty or not. If there are pieces of paper on the floor of the class, the teacher leads the pupils to pick them up and drop in the dustbin – and IF NECESSARY, they may sweep the class as well.

### Activity Two: Class Neatness Rules and Regulation

After the cleanup, the teacher leads the pupils to make rules and regulations that will help to keep the class neat. The rules should come from the pupils while the teacher clarifies or emphasis on each afterwards. The rules should contain what the pupils need to do to keep the class always neat.

The teacher may enrich the activity by making democratic. S/he does this by telling the pupils that they shall make the rules like those that make rules for our country, the National Assembly. Hence, the teacher describes the legislative procedure, the teacher being the house or senate leader while the pupils representing the house members or senators:

• The House or senate leader sees that every member or senator is seated then declares the session open.
• One member of the house or senator, at a time; raises a motion or gives a suggestion.
• The other member thinks about the suggestion whether it is good or bad and give their opinion
• The House or senate leader, after listening to the debate, take a vote by asking “Those in support say i!” and then “Those against say nay!” – Teacher explains the meaning of support and against.
• The leader (or someone in charge) count the votes and the leader declares the winner by saying “The i’s have it!” or “The nays have it!”

In like manner, the rules are drawn. The teacher writes them out say on a cardboard paper and places it somewhere in the class.  Advisably, the list may contain the names of the pupils that suggested them as shown in the sample table below.

# PRIMARY ONE GOLD: POLICY ON CLASS NEATNESS

## Motion by—

You must not sharpen your pencil in the class except into the dustbin or waste basketElse, such person will be made to pick the entire classSenator Chukwudi Bola Musa (member of the class)
You must not stand, walk or jump on the desksElse, such person will be made to wipe off or wash the entire desks in the classSenator Aisha Amarachi Femi (member of the class)

Questions such as the following are asked:

• What should they do when they see pieces of chalk or a marker on the floor?
• Is it good to walk or jump on the desk?

# SUMMARY

Prior to concluding the lesson, the teacher summarizes the topic into a concise note which s/he writes/projects or displays on the board/screen for the pupils to copy.

The summary is provided below. While the pupils write, the teacher moves round to ensure they are writing correctly.

## OBJECTS IN THE CLASSROM

A classroom is a room where students are taught.

The objects in a classroom are:

1. Desk
2. Table
3. Chair
4. Bell
5. Dustbin
6. Wall Charts
7. Duster
8. Chalk or whiteboard or interactive screen
9. Toy
10. Bookshelves
11. Pencil
12. Clock
13. Flower pot
14. Globe
15. Fan/Air Conditioners
16. Eraser
17. Sharpener
18. Toy
19. Ruler
20. Books

After copying the note, the teacher reads the note several times with the pupils and revises the lesson.

# EVALUATION

The teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding by questioning.

1. Identification

The teacher points at the objects, one after another, and asks pupils to name. Alternatively, s/he may name an object then asks pupils to point out or torch it.

1. Affective: Oral
2. Is it good to play with school chalk/marker? Yes/No :

Why? ____________________________________________________________________

1. What should you do when you see a piece of chalk (or marker) on the floor?

[A] Pick it up and keep it in its box or give it to the teacher

[B] Pick it up so that you can use it to play

[C] Walk over through

1. Why should you not walk or jump on desks?

___________________________________________________________________________

# ASIGNMENT

After the evaluation and a recap, the teacher gives the pupils the following exercise to do either as class or home work.

Question: Using the sample given to you and on either a cardboard or on a computer, design a classroom and identify the location or where you will place board, seats, dustbin, bell, teacher’s desk, bookshelves, chalk box, duster and other things you will like to place in your classroom.

Note: The classroom design may be done in group of three pupils… In that case, the teacher shall group the pupils based on abilities. Teacher should print and give a copy of each of the sample here to each pupil.

# CONCLUSION

The teacher concludes the lesson by marking, grading and recording the grade of the pupils. Then linking the topic to the following week’s – Objects in the school compound.

Each pupil or group presents their projects (the design) to the rest of the class: The pupil tells the class the meaning of classroom, objects in a classroom and how they have arranged objects in their design. If on the other hand, the project was done in group, the group leader describes the arrangement of the objects while the other two group members take the meaning of classroom and listening objects in a classroom each.

Comment: Teacher should take note of socially withdrawn pupils who may not be unwilling to partake in the presentation. In the event of this, the group leader should take the place of such group member.

The teacher grades the pupils based on the design and presentation. While the design attracts equal marks for each group members, the presentation mark is based on individual performance.