As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson note, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the modern teaching style in Mathematics as NERDC specified. Unlike most lesson notes you may find around which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor.
The teacher to deliver this lesson must understand that teaching numeracy at the early age entails much more than rote memorization and singing/demonstrating rhymes. Yes, these are effective tools for teaching the pupils how to remember what you have taught them. But much more, the question of numeracy – much as all of the topics at this level – serves as the foundation for the pupils’ progress in the subject in future academic engagements.
Major Cause of Mathematics Anxiety
After teaching Mathematics at pre-primary, primary, secondary as well as tertiary level; I can categorically say that the majority of the numerous issues that students have in Mathematics is due to poor foundation.
A common point that most early years’ teachers miss in teaching numeration and notation is the aspect of the concept of numerical values. Any Mathematics Teacher in higher classes starting from Primary 4 upward will attest to the fact that majority of the learners finds Number Bases difficult due to their lack of understanding the concept of values of numbers. Even now, you can take the percentage of the primary level learners upward that truly understands the concept of value of numbers above 10. A simple question to test this is: Why do we write 10 as 1 and 0?
What you should do?
Despite that many early years’ teachers are coming to understand this and consequently adjusting the focus of their classes, more are yet to. Consequently, you should not only measure the success of your class by how your Nursery One pupils are able to recite and perhaps identify and write numbers 1 – 500. You should also evaluate to see how many of them truly understands the underlying concept of every topic. It is in this regard that I urge you to also focus on the affective objective of this lesson.
Lesson Note Nursery One First Term Mathematics Week 11
Class: Nursery One
Subject: Mathematics/Number Work
Topic: Counting and writing numbers 1 – 50
At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:
Count numbers 1 – 50
Identify numbers 1 – 50
Arrange numbers 1 – 50 in a given order
Identify missing numbers
Write numbers 1 – 50
Fill in missing numbers
Demonstrate/internalize the concept of numerical values of numbers 1 – 50
Concrete writing patterns or equivalent cardboard cut-outs for vertical, horizontal, convex and concave
Number models – plastic, metallic or cardboard cut-outs – consisting of several 1’s through 9’s including 0’s
Stand counters of 50 beads
Several counters – bottle covers, blocks, pebbles, etc. in bundles of 10. I recommend bottle covers in tens packed into an improvised container that can contain no more than 10 counters – 4 and a half (i.e. 45) for each pupil
Chalk/Marker and black/white board
Number charts of 1 – 50
Flash Cards of numbers 1 – 50
Several (carton) boxes for each pupil
Education Resource Centre. (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre.
Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). (2012). Mathematics Teachers’ Guide for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Yaba, Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).
The teacher delivers the lesson as in the following steps:
To introduce the lesson, the teacher does the following:
Writes the topic on the board
Ø Orally asks the pupils questions based on the previous lesson
What we say or write to tell people how many things we have is called ___
We have _____ numbers/How many numbers do we have?
Every number has different name and how to write it
What is nothing (in local dialect) in English?
How do we write zero?
One bundle of number is called ___________
How do we write one bundle and nothing?
Two bundles or two tens are called ____________
47 is called ____________
43 is called __________
Two tens and 7 is called __________
Which is more, 19 or 28?
If I give 12 sweets to Musa and 17 to Eze, who has more sweets?
If one bundle is called ten, then two bundles (twenty) is 2 tens
What is 46 in local dialect (call the language e.g. Hausa)?
Go and bring 3 packets of chalk
Count the pieces of chalk, how many are there in 1 packet?
Everyone (a row or pupil at a time) come and pick 45 counters
Which shape has 3 sides?
Which shape has 2 short sides and 2 long sides?
What is the name of the shape that has 4 equal sides?
Mention the shape that has no corner
Ø S/he revises the previous lesson
A number is what tells us how many things we have
There are many numbers because we can have many things
Each of the many numbers has its special name and way it is written
Teacher writes different numbers (one at a time) between 1and 45; then asks the pupils the name of each.
Teacher displays chart of numbers 1 – 45, names a number and require a pupil to come point at it on the chart
One added to 9 makes a bundle. And a bundle is called ten
Ten is written as 10. 11 is called eleven and it means one bundle and one.
Two tens (bundles) is called twenty. Twenty is written as 20.
Three tens (bundles) is called thirty. Thirty is written as 30.
Four tens (bundles) is called forty. Forty is written as 40.
Shape means how something looks like when the out lines are joined
There are many types of shapes – that means, different things can look in different ways when their out lines are joined
Examples of shapes are rectangle (show), square (show), triangle (show) and circle (show)
Teacher concludes introduction by telling the pupils that they shall learn a few more numbers and revise how to write numbers 1 – 10. After this, s/he explains the objectives for the week and then proceeds as I describe below.
i. Recognizing Numbers 1 – 50
Following the introduction, the teacher revises the concept, values and symbols of numbers 1 – 50 as I discussed in the previous lessons.
ii. Counting Exercise
Succeeding the revision above, the teacher leads the pupils to repeat the counting exercises.
General counting with stand counters
After the revision, the teacher leads the pupils into general counting:
He or she puts up the stand of 50 counters. Then sliding each counter to the other side, s/he together with the pupils, counts until the counters finish from one side. The teacher repeats this by sliding each counter back to the original position and again – several times. The teacher may invite willing pupils to lead the counting by sliding the counters as the entire class counts.
Group and Individual Counting
After the general counting, the teacher further strengthens the pupil’s memorization of the names and order of numbers through group counting.
The teacher groups the pupils into pairs
Going to each group and while the pupils watch, the teacher counts different number of counters for each pupil
Then the teacher directs each pupil to count differently given number out of his or her counter and give it to the partner
Individual pupil counts the new number of counters in their possession and tells the teacher
The teacher confirms the number then make the pupils to repeat the process – exchange some counters and count
Oral Counting without Counters
After the pupils are able to count very well with the counters, the teacher directs them to put the counters away. Then s/he leads them to count orally without using the counters. The teacher and the pupils do this several times. S/he may invite different willing pupils to lead the oral counting as well.
NOTE: The teacher may make the counting into rhymes to aid memorization. S/he may begin that with common counting rhymes such as one, two, buckle my shoes, one two three four five, once I caught a fish alive, etc.
The teacher may assess the individual pupil’s counting ability by:
Asking them to orally count from a number that s/he states to another
Sending them to go and fetch a given number of item for him/her
Asking them to count the number of items in the class
Pick a currency note (one of N5, N10, N20 and N50), and ask the pupils how much is it.
Combine any two of the currency notes and ask the pupils how much is the two notes together
Get a voluminous book, open to certain page; ask the pupils what page is that?
Look out for numbers in everyday life and ask what number there are – clock, shoe size, etc.
Mix up several of the shapes you discussed in the last lesson and ask pupils to identify and count
Give them the exercises in the worksheet
Count and circle
Revise recognition of the symbols of Numbers 1 – 50
After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each of the numbers has its own way that we write it. Thus, s/he explains that they are now going to learn how to we write each number – 1-50.
Consequently, the teacher starts from zero and forth; explains that:
Zero means nothing and is written as 0
One is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 1
Two is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 2
Ten (one bundle and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 10.
Eleven (one bundle and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write 11
– – –
Twenty (2 tens and nothing) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 20
Twenty-one (2 ten and 1) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 21
Twenty-five (2 ten and 5) is a number which means – (in local dialect) and we write it as 25
Thirty (3 tens and nothing) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 30.
Thirty-one (3 and 1) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 31.
Thirty-five (3 and 5) is a number which means ____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 35.
Forty (4 tens and nothing) is a number which means _____ (in local dialect) and we write it as 40.
Forty-one (4 and 1) is a number which means _______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 41.
Forty-five (4 and 5) is a number which means _________ (in local dialect) and we write it as 45.
Forty-six (4 and 6) is a number which means ______ (in local dialect) and we write it as 46.
Fifty (5 and 0) is a number which means _________ (in local dialect) and we write it as 50.
NOTE: The teacher uses the concrete number models, charts and white/black board to demonstrate each number.
Succeeding the explanation, the teacher writes the numbers 1 – 50, serially on the board or uses the large number chart, then points at each number and asks the pupils to name the number – then in reverse, the teacher calls the name of a number then calls pupils to points at each.
The teacher may call the local names of numbers and asks pupils to mention the English equivalents.
Following this, the teacher uses the number chart of 1 – 50, and lead the counting once again – several times. S/he may invite pupils to come, point at the numbers and lead the counting.
The teacher evaluates the pupils’ ability to recognize the numbers through physical exercise thus:
S/he places different number of counters into the boxes. Then gives the boxes to the pupils with the number models or cardboard number cut-outs. Thereafter, the teacher directs the pupils to open up each of the boxes, count the number of items in the boxes and then pick the corresponding number model/cut-out and place on/inside the boxes with the counters.
The teacher moves round or collects the boxes, confirms the counters and the number model/cut-out that is in it.
Ordering of Numbers 1 – 50
Succeeding the revision of the symbols of numbers 1 – 50, the teacher teaches the pupils the concept of ordering of numbers.
S/he explains displays the number charts (1 – 50) and reminds the pupils that the numbers show the size – quantity – of things. The teacher explicitly explains that the size is according to the arrangements of the numbers.
The teacher draws/displays the vertical number line and explains that the first number which is at the bottom – i.e. zero – is the smallest of all numbers. It means nothing – This means if you have zero, then you do not have anything at all.
Moving upward to number 1, the teacher explains that just as number one is above zero in the number line, so is the size more than zero. S/he repeats for subsequent numbers upward. This should lead to the general rule that as you move up, the size of number increases – from smallest to biggest.
Building on the concept of ascending order, the teacher explains that as you come down, the size of the numbers reduces. Hence, 50 is greater than 49; 49 than 48; 48 than 47; 47 than 46; etc.
Before proceeding to the rest part of the lesson, the teacher assesses the pupils’ understanding of the order of numbers. The teacher does this through the following activities:
1. Find the number in wrong order
The teacher writes numbers 1 – 50 on the board but mixes up the order. Then s/he asks the pupils to find the numbers in the wrong order.
2. Rearrange the numbers in the correct order
S/he writes numbers within the range of 1 and 50 on the board but in the wrong order. Then asks the pupils to identify the numbers in the wrong order and also to say where the number (s) ought to be.
3. Fill in missing number
The teacher may write numbers within a given range – not more than 50 – but deliberately omitting some numbers within the range. Then s/he asks the pupils to asks the pupils to say the missing number – which either the pupil(s) or the teacher fills in the space(s).
NOTE: These exercises should first be done on the board several times. Also make it interactive and fun. The same exercise will be given in their workbook.
i. Writing numbers 1 – 50
In the final part of the lesson, the teacher teaches the pupils how to write numbers 1 – 50.
First, s/he revises the exercises on recognizing numbers 1 – 50; counting and recognition of the symbols in that order.
Next, the teacher makes the pupils to understand the general rule of progression in writing numbers – inductively:
Write numbers 1 – 50 in 10 by 5 table
Explain the pattern of the numbers – that they only have to remember 0 – 9; after 9, they simply write 1 bundle and nothing; then continue with 1 bundle and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, & 9 again. One more than 1 bundle and 9, they go to 2 bundles and nothing; then 2 bundles and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 & 9; and so on.
Once the pupils have understood the pattern, the teacher asks if any pupil could write 0 – 9 offhand. If there is volunteer, the teacher allows the pupil to write 0 – 9 on the board. Once the pupil has done this, the teacher applauds him/her then encourages and assures the entire class that they could as well. Hence, s/he makes all of the pupils to write numbers 0 – 9 on their paper offhand. The teacher ensures that every child participates – s/he supports those that may need assistance.
Then gradually, the teacher makes the pupils to write numbers 1 – 50 offhand after the style in 0 – 9 and in intervals of 0 – 9, 10 – 19, 20 – 29, 30 – 39, and 40 – 50.
The teacher assesses the pupils understanding of the lesson by giving them the following exercises.
Exercise 1: Oral counting
The teacher asks the pupils (either individually or in small groups) to count numbers 1 -50. S/he observes those that may have difficulty pronouncing or missing one or two numbers – so as to help them and/or recommend assistance for their parents.
Exercise 2: Shape Recognition and Counting
Teacher draws or shows the pupils each of the shapes and asks them the name of the shapes – one at a time.
S/he shows the pupils common objects with the shapes that was discussed and demands the pupils to identify the shapes
Mix up many of the shape models and ask the pupils to pick and count all of a named shape
Show the car model below and ask the pupils to identify the shapes
S/he may give them to build
Give them the exercises in the accompanying worksheet
count shape and circle exercise
shape matching exercise
Which shape has 3 sides?
Which shape has 2 short sides and 2 long sides?
What is the name of the shape that has 4 equal sides?
Mention the shape that has no corner
Exercise 3: Recognition of numbers 1 – 50
The teacher uses a number chart or a handwritten numbers 1 – 50; points at each number and ask individual pupil to name it – then the reverse and randomly.
The teacher calls the local names of numbers and demands pupils to mention the English equivalents.
S/he gives the pupils the matching exercise contained in accompanying worksheet.
Ask the pupils the names of numbers on common surfaces – book pages, clock, currency note, etc.
Exercise 4: Numerical Values
Teacher collects some items (recommended is biscuit or sweet); divides the items into two groups – one being more than the other.
The teacher asks pupils to count each group; thereafter, reminds the pupil the number of each group, then asks the pupils to pick either the smaller or greater.
Then the teacher gives the corresponding exercise in the worksheet
The teacher gives pupils simple ordering of numbers – see worksheet
Teacher gives pupils greater/less than exercises
count and circle the greater/lesser
Fill in missing number
Exercise 5: Writing Exercise
The teacher gives the pupils the writing exercise in the worksheet that comes with this note.
The teacher concludes the lesson by recording pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents for needed home assistance.
Starts from child’s strength – attentiveness in class, willingness to learn, happiness to participate in activities, participation in class discussion, numbers s/he has mastered – counting, recognition, value, writing, etc.
Express optimism in child’s ability to improve in all areas
Weak areas – numbers the child finds difficult to count, recall, recognize, conceptualize or write
State possible reasons for weakness or assure that the occurrence is natural