## INTRODUCTION TO – Lesson Note – Primary Three Third Term Mathematics Week 4

I wrote this note based on Primary 3 Mathematics Scheme of Work. . If you don’t have the scheme, please click here to get a copy. This is a free lesson note for Nigerian primary schools 3.

### Focus of this lesson note

Lesson Note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1 focuses on depth and pedagogy. This means it aims to provide an enriched lesson content. Then, suggest ways for teacher and parents to deliver the lesson.

### Turning this note to official lesson plan

Please note that I do not intend this lesson note to take the place of lesson plan. These two are different. I discussed the differences in an earlier post. If you haven’t done so already; click here to read up the differences between lesson plan and lesson note.

That aside, teachers can adapt this note into the lesson plan for the week. In fact, many teachers do. That is why we prepared a special lesson plan template for teachers.

It helps teachers to easily and professionally plan their lessons by filling in the lesson-specific values of the standard components of lesson plan, in a clean and professional layout. Click here to download the lesson plan template.

## OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

- Define day, week, month and year as unit of time
- Perform simple conversion between units.
- Mention the days of the week and months of the year and tell their order.
- Tell date from the calendar
- Mention dates of key feasts and observances within the year
- Appreciate the concept of planning/time management

## PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson in order of steps as follows:

### Introduction

To introduce the lesson, the distributes copies of printed calendar to the students. The calendar should contain all dates from January to December. Then, the teacher challenges the pupils to circle the dates that s/he will randomly call. They may also name the day of the week that each date falls. Another useful challenge that the teacher may give to the pupils include asking them how many days to certain feast or observance like Christmas and Id El-Kabir.

At the end of each challenge, the teacher retrieves the calendars. And tell the pupils that s/he will keep the calendars until the end of the lesson. By the end of the lesson, they will check to see whether or not they got it correctly.

Eventually, the teacher writes/projects the topic on the board/screen. Then s/he lists and explain the objectives to the pupils.

### Other Units of Time – Day, Week and Month

In continuation of the lesson, the teacher explains day, week and month as other units of time. First, s/he revises the previous lessons on time. The teacher can do this either deductively by means of interactive questions and answers. Or, s/he does so inductively by explicitly listing and briefly explaining the key points of the previous lessons on time. Interactive discussion is better. But induction is preferable if there is want of time. However, combining both methods is the best.

Following the revision, the teacher explains as follows:

Seconds, minutes and hours are not the only units of time. There are other units of time. These units are longer than seconds, minutes and hours. They include:

- Days,
- Weeks,
- Months and
- Year

A second is the shortest unit of time. While a year is the longest unit of time.

#### Time Metric System

The relationship between the units of time is given in time metric system. The time metric system is as follows:

- 60 seconds make 1 minute
- 60 minutes make 1 hour

- 24 hours make 1 day

- 7 days make one week
- 4 weeks make 1 month
- 12 months make 1 year.

After the explanation, the teacher makes the peoples recite the metric system a few times for memorization. S/he follows this with simple exercises on how to convert between pairing units – e.g., from seconds to minutes & minutes to seconds; from minutes to hours and hours to minutes; etc.

#### Exercise Examples

##### Useful hints

Prior to the exercises, the teacher guides the pupils to highlight the following useful hints.

First, s/he leads the pupils to identify the sizes and order the various units.

Second → Minute → Hour → Day → Week → Month → Year.

The above means that second is shorter than minute; minute, shorter than hour; hour, shorter, shorter than day; day, shorter than week; week, shorter than month; and month, shorter than year. It is also true in reverse. That is, year is longer than month; month is longer than week; etc.

Secondly,

###### Exercises

**Which one of the following is the shortest?**- Day
- Month
- Minute

**Answer:** c (minute)

**Select the longest among the following**- Day
- Week
- Hour

**Answer:** b (week)

**If 60 seconds make one minute, 120 seconds will make how many minutes?**

Explain to the pupils that if we are to change longer to shorter unit, we should multiply. And if they are to change shorter to longer unit, they should divide.

In this example, the question gave us 120 seconds to change to minutes. Since second is shorter than minute, we divide. Therefore, the

**Answer is**: *120 ** 60 which is equal to 2. That means, 120 seconds will make 2 minutes. *

**12 months make 1 year. How many months are there in 8 years?**

The question wants us to change 8 years to months. This means we are changing from longer to shorter unit. And to change from longer to shorter unit, we multiply. Therefore, the

**Answer is:** *8 ** 12 which is equal to 96. This means, there are 96 months in 8 years.*

- 24 hours make 1 day. And 7 days make 1 week. How many hours are there in 3 weeks?

This question wants us to change 3 weeks to hours. And a week is two units longer than an hour. So, we must first change from weeks to days. Then, we will change the days to hours.

Let’s change 3 weeks to days. 7 days make 1 week. A week is longer than a day. Since a week is longer than a day, to change weeks to days; we need to multiply. Therefore, 3 weeks = 37 = 21 days.

Now let us change 21 days to hours. 24 hours make 1 day. A day is greater than an hour. Again, since a day is longer than an hour, to change days to hours; we need to multiply. Hence, our final

**Answer is:** *21 days = 21 ** 24 which is equal to 504*.

The teacher gives as many examples as possible. Then s/he gives the pupils similar exercises – either as classwork or homework.

This concludes the lesson for the first day.

### Days of the Week

On the second day of the lesson, since the pupils now understand the concept of the other units of time; the teacher explains day in particular and guides the pupils to list the days of the week as follows:

A day is a period of 24 hours. This means from one 6am to another 6am is a day because it is 24 hours. From one 3pm to another 3pm is also a day because it is 24 hours. The teacher displays a clock on which s/he counts the hours with the class while resetting it.

The teacher explains that although a day can be within any given 24 hours; on a general basis, a day starts at 12 midnight and ends at the next 11:59 pm. This is why the current date on our calendar changes to the next at midnight (12:00 am).

The teacher explains further that people usually use events to differentiate one day from another. In fact, there are different names for different days. The names of the days in a week are:

- Sunday
- Monday
- Tuesday
- Wednesday
- Thursday
- Friday
- Saturday

Teacher explains this thoroughly. Identify the days in local dialect, if necessary. S/he teaches the moral lesson of having different days of the week. This relates to planning and time management. After the explanation, the teacher leads the pupils to identify the days for common weekly activities.

S/he can do this through question and answer as follows:

#### Questions

- How many days are there in a week?
- Which is the first day of school every week?
- Which is the last day of school every week?
- Which days do you come to school?
- On which days do you not come to school?
- Which is the market day in your area?

### Months of the year

*Check back…*