Lagos Amends 2022/2023 Harmonized Calendar

Press Release:

The Office of Education Quality Assurance (OEQA) has announced a change in the dates earlier slated for the mid-term break of the Second Term in the 2022/2023 Academic year from Friday, 24th February to Friday, 3rd March, 2023, as approved by the Honourable Commissioner for Education, Mrs Folasade Adefisayo.

The Director General, Office of Education Quality Assurance (OEQA) Mrs. Abiola Seriki-Ayeni disclosed at a Stakeholders’ meeting held recently on the review of the 2022/2023 harmonised academic calendar due to the forthcoming general elections.

She explained that the essence of the engagement is to ensure that everybody is on the same page as regards the second-term school activities and the need to accommodate the forthcoming general elections in its entirety.

The DG, who was represented by the Director, Planning, Research and Statistics (OEQA), Mr. Remi Abdul noted that the earlier dates for the mid-term break falls within the election period hence the need for a shift in the date for a week to allow parents pick up their wards from school without hindrance due to the restriction of movement associated with the election days.

It was also noted that another important reason for the change of dates bothers on safeguarding and child protection and convenience as a result of the presidential and National Assembly elections slated for Saturday, February 25, 2023, coinciding with the date boarding school students are expected to resume in the earlier in the schedule for the Second term harmonized 2022/2023 academic calendar.

In furtherance to the change, the first half of the second term is to hold from the 9th of January to Thursday, February 23, 2023, whilst Open Day for Primary schools will be on Wednesday, February 22nd, 2023, and Thursday, February 23rd, 2023 for Secondary Schools.

The mid-term break would hold from Friday, 24th of February to Friday, 3rd of March, 2023. While the second half of the second term is expected to hold from Monday, 6th of March to Thursday, 6th of April, 2023.

Lagos Amends 2022/2023 Harmonized Calendar
How to Become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher

How to Become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher

How to become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher in Brief

How to become or inspire a highly efficient teacher recommends ages-long approach to boosting employee work performance.

Every Employee Wants to Do a Good Job

Newsweek magazine once quoted the President of Hyatt Hotels in the following words: “If there is anything, I have learned in my 27 years in the service industry, it is this: 99 percent of all employees want to do a good job”. And this is true. Starting from ourselves, there is hardly any time when you and I deliberately decided to do a shabby job. Or can you remember any time that you said to yourself, “today, I will do this work so bad that my supervisor (employer) will be angry at it”? I believe there isn’t any of such time. Or if there is, it will be far too less often to be significant.

And this is same for the majority of employees. Most employees want to be among the favourite. They want to be commended for jobs well done. They want bonuses, salary increment, and promotion. Every leader can attest to the trueness of this because they have experienced it first-hand.  Therefore, with 99 percent of employees falling within this category; it is rather illogical to think that any employee will deliberately choose to do a bad job.

Yet, Many Employees Perform Badly

Yet, we see them. Workers with very low turnover. Those that fall short of standard in the discharge of their duties. They have not too good attitude to work. Still, they desire commendations, bonuses, salary increment and promotion.

Are you a leader in any organization? Can you think of any member(s) of your staff that falls within this category? How many are there, 1, 2, 3 or more? Note their names, I will tell you what to do.

Also, if you are an employee; do you always feel unappreciated even though you always try your best at work? You never get a commendation, no bonuses, no salary increments and no promotion. Then, this piece is yours too, keep reading.

To the leader, did it ever occur to you that those (annoying) members of your staff desiring commendations and reward while they perform below standard are actually unaware of their score? Let me tell you.

As a school administrator, I have had to interview a lot of applicants in the last 7 years. And there is one particular question that naturally pops up in my mind during interviews. After perusing the CV of someone that has worked in “too” many organizations within a short period of time, my curiosity always asks why such applicant keep leaving the different organizations.

Who’s To Blame?

The answer I got as reply to this question in January of 2022, is the same as I have received on many occasions over the years. The applicants faulted their employer’s lack of appreciation for their service although they always do their best. No doubt, this says a lot about the applicant.

But the frequency of that same answer also tells me something unique about all workers; an insight that is invariably helpful to all leaders. And it is that most of the under-performers in your team, do not know they are not performing up to expectation. As far as they are concern, they believe that they are doing their best. This is no speculation but a well-known fact. And to help you put a figure to your organization’s unique situation; have your staff take the Employee Self-Evaluation test.  The result of such exercise will lead you to your individual staff’s inner perception of their performance. In addition, it will also help you infer more accurately, what they expect of you to keep the organisation growing.

Misrepresentation Performance Index

However, the misrepresentation of an employee work performance goes in two ways. It is not only that the employer may wrongly assume that every of his or her employees can accurately place their individual work performance index corresponding to theirs. But the employees can as well develop inaccurate perception of their delivery – like feeling they are doing their best when in truth, they have not hit the boundaries. For this purpose, every employee that feels he or she is underappreciated at work should head for individual Employee Self-Evaluation test. Do this, and be as sincere during the test to yourself as possible. Then, discuss the result with your trusted colleague(s) and your superior. This should clear the cloud of insatiable expectations cast by unreal perception of one’s performance.

Whether an employer/a leader conducts this test, or an employee individually takes the evaluation test; the result may reflect one or more common factors. One of such common factors you will find out, is that one or more member of your staff is underperforming. This may not be deliberate. But that does not stop it from negatively affecting your organization. As result, it is important that you tackle underperformance headlong.

Tackling underperformance is a matter of urgency. And any organization that wants to attain sustainable growth, must approach it as such. The underperformance of one member of staff left unchecked, can influence the delivery of other staff. In addition, it automatically adds to the daily stress of the employer/leader. You must understand that evil more influential than good, wrong than right. So, the underperformance of one member of staff is enough to neutralize the hard work of the rest of the team.

Solving the Problem

The question is not whether or not to tackle underperformance. Instead, it is about how to tackle it. Knowing that “99 percent of all employee want to do a good job” but majority often fail, how do we help those that fall short of standard smash their goals?

The answer begins with knowing why people do not perform up to expectation. Thankfully, a lot of researchers, life coaches and authors have done great justice to this question. Ferdinand F. Fournies gave the best answer to this question in his bestseller, “Coaching for Improved Work Performance”. According to Fournies, there are four common reasons why people do not perform the way they should. The four major reasons people do not perform the way they should is because they do not know:

  1. what they are supposed to do
  2. how to do it
  3. why they should; and if
  4. there are obstacles beyond their control

Making Your Staff 100% Efficient: Teachers’ Induction Training

Since we have identified the reasons for underperformance among staff, solving the problem becomes easier. However, before we discuss the solutions to the problem of inefficiency among staff, let us consider a few realities that relates to the causes. This will help you to diagnose your organization first-hand.

Fact 1: Majority of Teachers do not read to understand their job description in detail

The first solution to the problem of staff inefficiency is giving a concise job description at engagement. Sadly, some organization with rather casual approach to business do not have any form of contract with their staff say less a job description. We will address this later.

But assuming that your organization does have contract agreement with detailed job description; one will expect that new employees will read to understand such document. Let’s not put a figure to this because we know the reality: majority of employees do not read their job descriptions to understand it. Instead, they browse through and toss it around. Afterall, they have done this before.  

It does not stop there. Among the few that read and understand their job description, some soon forgets.

For these reasons, it is not enough for you to give job descriptions. It is equally important for you to work them through it thoroughly.

Are you an employee, this is where you deliberately create a checklist against each item on your job description. Beyond that, create a system for rating your capability in handling each task in your assignment.

Fact 2: Papers and length of years does not always translate to efficiency

If you have being an administrator long enough, you will agree to this fact. Some people are just too good at crafting killer résumé and performing at interviews. But that is it.

I am talking about people that have the necessary qualifications (papers) and years of experience. Yet, after you employ them; their performance does not reflect their qualifications. This is a sad reality of our country today. The fact that people have the qualification does mean they know how to do the job. As a result, we have to amplify the second reason for staff inefficiency according to F.F Fournies.

As an employer, you have to make it part of your corporate culture to always give employees hands-on training on how to do their job.

As a staff, you should understand the concept of doing your job within context. You do this by enrolling and participating in quality training that uniquely adapts to your workplace.

Fact 3: Majority of Teachers Have Lost Touch of the Reason for Doing Their Jobs

This fact does not need elaboration. But I will explain it from another context. More and more teachers have to understand the business dimension of education. As such, majority demands commensurate financial rewards.

Unfortunately, it is difficult for schools to offer such rewards if the teachers are not efficient. And since the teachers seek the reward to be efficient, it is deadlock! The result is that teachers continue to not have reasons for them to be efficient.

The Solution: How to Become or Inspire a Highly Efficient Teacher

So, schools must always lead the initiative. To attain sustainable growth like I discussed previously, schools must always give their teachers reasons to do their job efficiently. This does not necessarily mean financial rewards. In fact, before any financial reward, schools should first provide proper guidance. And the best way is through training.

Similarly, independent teachers that want to excel regardless of the school they work must continually seek reasons to do their job efficiently. They can do this by enrolling for relevant training.

All-in-One Teachers’ Induction Training

The LeadinGuides Teachers’ Induction Training is an all-in-one efficiency masterclass for teachers. Though, primarily targeted at new teachers, it is also a generic Continuous Professional Development programme for experienced teachers.

This training helps teachers and schools to directly and effectively tackle the problems of inefficiency at workplace.

In addition, it helps schools to align the minds of their teachers to the organization’s aspirations, draw out their untapped potentials and motivate them towards helping the school attain her goals and unlock unexploited growth channels.

Participants will develop “teacherpreneurship” mindset and improve on their practical teaching skills. At the end of the training, they will become top contributors to their organizations. Most importantly, they will learn how to establish themselves, to earn more and live a fulfilling life.

This is one of the highly valuable training programs we are delivering to the international audience at Northford Center for Advanced Studies, Abuja.

Click here to join LeadinGuides TIT today

Platform That Pays Teachers Real Money

Make no mistake about it, this is a new era. Technology have changed our world and the way we do things. It has changed us and will continue to do so. Education, being the originator of technology is not exempted from its twirl. In fact, it is at the forefront of its impact.

We have seen technology change how teachers teach and how students learn. Unlike in the past, one teacher can now teach unlimited number of students at once. Technology offers students wide range of choices for different kinds of learners. It is one of the major factors that affects students’ academic performance today – both negatively and positively.

Perhaps, the greatest impact of technology, especially the internet, on education is that it offers both teachers and students access to limitless number of resources as well as the opportunity for collaboration.

This way, the internet is solving the biggest limitation of education in the earlier centuries – i.e., lack of resources. Unfortunately, not enough number of teachers are taking advantage of this opportunity.

Many continue to constrain themselves to their textbooks and old strategies. To improve education, we must teach and encourage every teacher to take advantage of technology. It could be as simple as making them to research new resources.

As leaders in educational technology, LeadinGuides has launched the very first platform that pays teachers real money in 2023 and beyond.

What is the Platform That Pays Teachers Real Money?

The platform that pays teachers real money is a system that rewards teachers for website activities as encouragements to go technological. For each website activity, a teacher gains between 1 to 500 points which he or she can exchange for equal amount in local currency.

LeadinGuides designed the platform

What is the Limit of the Platform that Pays teachers Real Money?

Hypothetically, there is no limit to how much a teacher can earn from the platform. However, in reality, a teacher can currently earn up to ₦437 per day. This means you can earn up to ₦13, 110 per month.

How does a teacher earn from the platform?

There are many ways to earn from the platform. You earn for just visiting the website daily. You earn for using their lesson notes and even for connecting with other teachers.

We have listed out all the standard ways and how much you earn per activity on the Ways to Earn page.

Steps to join the platform

You can join the platform that pays teachers real money in Nigeria starting from January 2023 in 3 simple and free steps:

  1. Register on the website
  2. Confirm your registration
  3. Subscribe to a membership plan

How to register on LeadinGuides

  1. Visit the website –
  2. On the website, check under membership at the top menu and click on register.
  3. This will take you to the subscription plans page. Under free member, click on the join now button.
  4. This will take you to the registration page. Fill in your details. Only your username and name will be displayed on public directory if you choose to allow it. See our privacy policy and terms and conditions of service.
  5. Submit

That is it!

However, to complete your registration, you have to confirm your email address. Hence, after the registration, check your email box immediately and confirm your registration by clicking the link that we will send to you.

That is all, you will start earning immediately after you register.

LeadinGuides Partners Northford

LeadinGuides Partners Northford

We are glad to announce the news our first partnership of the year 2023 with Northford Center for Advanced Studies, Abuja.

Northford Center for Advanced Studies is one of the most elite training and business development institutions in Nigeria.

It is an autonomous training, research and entrepreneurial development center in the country’s capital. In partnership with renowned universities and institutions from across the world, it offers both an in-campus and online training and certify graduates and industry professionals in different areas of specialization.

Its Executive Training programs serve leaders of top multinational companies as well as public office holders in Nigeria.

This partnership see to the standardization of our teachers’ training. As a result, we shall henceforth be offering these our short courses at the institution:

  • Teacherpreneurship Training
  • Teacher’s Induction Training
  • Instructional Design Training
  • Strategies for Sustainable School Growth – for School Executives & Administrators

We shall be announcing the schedule of these short courses in an ongoing basis.

Inside Northford Center
Northford Conference Room
Northford’s Conference Room
LeadinGuides Partners Northford
Northford Office – 4th Floor, Katsina House, Central Business District, Abuja – Nigeria

Questions Paper – Primary 1 First Term Basic Science Week 3

  1. The world as a whole (object/ball) is divided into 3. Which one is not among the 3?
    1. Air
    2. Water
    3. Land
    4. Layer
  2. The part of earth that contains different kinds of air is called ____________________.
    1. Atmosphere
    2. Crust
    3. Land
    4. Ground
  3. Pick the one that is not a natural water body?
    1. Lake
    2. Ocean
    3. River
    4. Tap
  4. Which one is not another name for the part of earth called land?
    1. Ground
    2. Sky
    3. Earth’s surface
    4. Earth’s crust
  5. When scientists draw the different parts of earth’s surface from top to the innermost part, what name do the scientists call each part?
    1. Layers
    2. Sand
    3. Dirt
    4. Soil
  6. Which is the first layer of the earth’s surface?
    1. Stone
    2. Soil
    3. Rock
    4. Water
  7. Whenever rocks break into smaller pieces, it forms ______________.
    1. Rock
    2. Soil
    3. Sky
    4. Atmosphere

Lesson 2 Stage Evaluation Questions

  1. The things that get mixed with, and are present in soil are what we call __________.
    1. Components of soil
    2. Layers of soil
    3. Soft part of soil
    4. Hard part of soil
  2. Many pieces of different kinds of rocks that form part of soil are called ______________.
    1. Minerals
    2. Micro-organisms
    3. Organic matter
    4. Air
  3. ___________ are the tiny remains of dead organisms in the soil.
    1. Minerals
    2. Micro-organisms
    3. Organic matter
    4. Air
  4. What do you call tiny living things in the soil?
    1. Minerals
    2. Micro-organisms
    3. Organic matter
    4. Air
  5. _____________ is not among the components of soil.
    1. Air
    2. Water
    3. Organic matter
    4. Atmosphere
  6. Which one is correct?
    1. All soil contains the same amount of the component of soil.
    2. Different kinds of soil do not have different names.
    3. We get silt soil when hard rocks break into many pieces by force.
    4. When smooth soft soil combines with remains of dead organisms for a very long time it forms sticky smooth soil.
  7. __________ is not a type of soil.
    1. Sandy
    2. Clay
    3. Silt
    4. Minerals
  8. When three other types of soil mix up, they form ____________ soil.
    1. Silt
    2. Loamy
    3. Sandy
    4. Clay

Lesson 3 Stage Evaluation Questions

  1. Which soil is best for making ceramics like pots, flower vase and tiles?
    1. Silt
    2. Loamy
    3. Sandy
    4. Clay
  2. ____________ is the best type of soil for farming.
    1. Silt
    2. Loamy
    3. Sandy
    4. Clay
  3. What can you use sandy soil to do?
    1. Farming
    2. Making pots
    3. Building
    4. Making tiles
  4. Which one is not among the uses of soil?
    1. Farming
    2. Making ceramics
    3. Building
    4. None of the options
  5. The things we make from clay are called ____________.
    1. Ceramics
    2. Organic matter
    3. Silt
    4. Layer

Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term Basic Science Week 3

Introduction to Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term Basic Science Week 3

I wrote this lesson note based on the latest Basic Science Scheme of Work for Primary 1.  The Scheme is based on the latest 9-Year Basic Education National Curriculum. You can download the scheme from our store on paystack or contact us on WhatsApp.

In a bid to keep this guide concise, I did not include some components of standard lesson plan. At the end of the week, I will provide links for you to download the ready-made lesson plan along with the recommended instructional materials. However, you have to register on this website and subscribe to our newsletter to access the lesson plan and instructional materials.

Click here to register or click here to subscribe to our newsletter.

If the term lesson plan and lesson note confuse you, click here to get clarification.

Lesson Note – Primary 1 First Term Basic Science Week 3

CLASS: Primary 1

TERM: First

WEEK: 3rd

TOPIC: Soil – Types and Importance


At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

  • Define soil
  • Mention the types of soil
  • List the importance of soil



Instructional material:

  • A cupful each of sandy, loamy and clay soil neatly and separately packed into boxes/cartons. Label the boxes with either letters A, B, C or numbers 1, 2, 3.
  • Science workbook

Steps to introduce the lesson

  1. Divide pupils into group. Each group comprising of 3 pupils.
  2. To each group, give a set of concealed/packaged sand packs.
  3. Instruct them to identify the specimens, differentiate between them and decide an important thing to do with the specimen. For each exercise, guide them with the following instructions:
    Exercise A: Identification
    1. Go to your group table.
    2. Put these three boxes on top.
    3. Then, sit or stand round the table.
    4. Let the first member of the group open the first box (Box A or Box 1).
    5. All the group members should touch and fetch what is inside the box unto their palms.
    6. Tell each other what you think the material is.
    7. Once all the group members agree on what is inside the box, put the material back in the box then each of you should write the name in your book.
    8. Then do the same thing for the second and third boxes. The second group member is to open the second box while the third group member should open the third box.
    Exercise B: Differentiation
    1. Put the three opened boxes on the table.
    2. All the group members should look at the material inside the three boxes, touch it again and if any wants, smell it.
    3. Teach each other whether the materials in the three boxes are the same thing or not.
    4. If what is inside the three boxes are not the same, tell each other the difference between the three.
    EXERCISE C: Importance
    1. All group members should sit round the group table.
    2. First group member should remind other group members what was is in first box; second member, second box; and third member, box 3.
    3. Starting from first person, if the teacher gift (dash) the three packs to you; mention one way the content can help you.
  4. Recall the pupils from their groups and collect their workbook then keep them in a safe place for marking at a later time.
  5. Ask them the questions orally and receive attempts from willing pupils:
    1. What did you find inside box A, B & C?
    2. Are the contents of the three boxes the same?
    3. What are the differences between the content of the three boxes?
    4. If, I gift the three boxes to you; what important thing will you do with the contents, how are the contents useful to you?
  6. Here are the possible answers the pupils will give to each of the questions:
    1. The content of the boxes is sand or dirt.
    2. Yes, the three boxes all contain sand or dirt.
    3. There is no difference between the content of the three boxes.
    4. If you gift the content of the three boxes to me, I will play with it then throw it away.
  7. Start by hinting that the answers are not exactly correct though not particularly wrongs either.
  8. Tell them that they shall in the week’s lesson learn the correct answers to each of the questions.
  9. Thereafter, write/project the topic on the board and explain the lesson objectives.

Meaning of Soil

  1. Continue the lesson by providing the correct answer to the first question – content of the boxes.
  2. Tell the pupils that instead of sand or dirt, the content of the boxes is soil. Then explain the list and explain the l of soil as opposed to sand and dirt as follows. Use video, slides, posters or charts to aid faster comprehension. In-between the explanations, there are one or two questions. Use the question to induce interaction.

Earth as a whole (object) is divided into three parts.

The first part contains different kinds of air. This is called atmosphere. It starts from the sky above down to under our feet when we lift our legs.  Birds, bats and insects live in the air.

The second part of earth is water in natural places apart from the sky. This includes small water bodies like natural ponds, lakes, streams and large water bodies like rivers, seas and oceans. Fishes, turtles and frogs live in water – water is their home.

The third part of earth is land. Land is also called ground, earth’s surface or earth’s crust. It is the strong rocky surface that human beings can stand, walk, run, jump and live on. What other things live on land? Correct! Goats, dog, lizard and so on also live on land. Plants grow on land too.

Soil, is part of land. If you dug the ground down for 10 years without resting, what would you see?

Layers of Earth’s Land/Ground

Many scientists did the experiment many years ago. They found out that from the top where we walk, the ground is soft. Human beings, animals and plants can break the top soft part of the ground. The top soft part is mostly dark in color. After the soft part of the ground, there is the hard part. Human beings, animals and plants cannot easily break this hard inner part – but they still can with more effort or engine/machine. This part of the ground is usually brownish or reddish in color. After this part, there many harder parts deeper into the ground. The deeper you go, the harder until you hit the rocks. The rocks are followed by underground water. After the underground water, there is the hardest part of the earth. The last hardest part of the ground is very hot. In fact, the deeper you go from the top, the hotter it becomes.

When scientists draw the different parts of earth’s land/ground from the top to the innermost part, they call each part a layer. See the layers of earth’s land/ground below.

Source: World Atlas

Where is soil in all of these? What is soil?

Soil is the topmost layer of the earth surface. That means it is the top soft part of earth’s land that man and other animals live and plants grow. Whenever we dig a hole, scrub our feet against the ground or stamp our feet; we break the ground. The small piece that results from that breakage is what we call soil. Generally, whenever a stone or rock breaks, it forms soil – smaller pieces of that stone/rock. That is how we got the content of the three boxes in the earlier exercise. So, the content of the boxes is soil.

Stage Evaluation Question

  • End the lesson here for the first period.
  • Revise the entire lesson and assess their understanding of the lesson. Use number 1 to 7 in the accompanying question paper.
  • Don’t forget to give excellent feedback to the pupils. Where available, use reward stickers to this effect.

Second Period: Types of Soil

Continue the lesson with the following steps:

  1. Remind them of the earlier differentiation exercise and ask if them if the content of the three boxes is the same.
  2. After the discussion, clarify that the three boxes all contain soil.
  3. Thereafter, ask the pupils again if the different soils in the three boxes are the same. You may demand reasons for more interactivity.
  4. In the end, clarify again that the different soils in the three boxes are not the same – give one or two differences between the soil such as the color and how the soil feels when you touch them.
  5. Then ask them what they think made the soils to be different despite that all are same soil.
  6. Succeeding the discussion, explain that the soils are different because of where we get them from and also the condition that form them.

When a hard rock breaks by force into many pieces, it forms shiny and sharp soil. However, when a rock breaks into many small pieces by the smooth washing of fast-moving water, we get smooth soft soil. And when smooth soft soil combines with remains of dead organisms for a very long time, it gums together and become smooth sticky soil.

Components of Soil

  1. Explain that when the different kinds of soil form, they lie on top of the ground. So, when people walk on them, animals dig holes or rain drops and wind blows; soil gets mixed with other things. These things that get mixed with and are present in soil are what we call components of soil. The component of soil include:Many pieces of different kinds of rocks and these are called minerals.
    1. Tiny remains of dead organisms, and this is called organic matter.
    2. Very tiny living things called micro-organisms.
    3. Water
    4. Air

NOTE: Depending on your timetable, if you have up to 4 or 5 periods for this lesson; then carryout the experiment to demonstrate the presence of these components with the pupils. Click here if you need the guidelines.

What are the different kinds of Soil?

  1. After identifying/proofing the components of soil, explain that all soil do not contain equal samples of the components of soil.
  2. Further explain, with emphasis, that because all soil does not contain equal samples of the components of soil, and also because of how they are formed and what they have been through; there are different kinds of soil.
  3. Teach them that these different kinds of soil have names.
  4. Therefore, identify the names of the different kinds of soil with the pupils. Show them the sample of any kind you identify and give only one or two property to help them differentiate between them subsequently.
    1. The sharp shiny soil that forms when hard rocks forcefully break into pieces is called sandy soil. These are the kinds of soil with the largest particles/pieces.
    2. The soft smooth soil that forms when water gently and speedily washes rocks into pieces is called silt soil. The size of the particles/pieces of this type of soil is not too big or small.
    3. Finally, the smooth sticky soil that forms when smooth soft soil combines with remains of dead organisms for a very long time is called clay soil. This is the type of soil that has the finest or tinniest particles/pieces.
    4. Then, when the three kinds of soil mix together; they form loamy soil.

Therefore, the types of soil are:

  • Sandy soil
  • Silt soil
  • Clay soil and
  • Loamy soil

Tolerating Personal & Social Differences

  1. Give a brief talk on individual and social differences and the need for them to be tolerant towards all peoples. Teach them that at school and elsewhere, they meet different kinds of people. Some people looks dirty, others clean. Some are gentle, others rough. There are hungry people who are beggars, and there are others who have. Even our culture and religion is not all the same. Some cultures eat what other cultures don’t. Explain to them that just like soil, everybody is the way they are because of the environment they are from; or the things they have been through. Finally, encourage them to learn to tolerate differences. Teach them to relate to other people with their good behavior instead of reacting back with the bad way they are treated. Also, just  as they will not be happy when someone make jest of their culture and religion, that is how they must not do same to other people’s culture and religion.

Stage Evaluation Question

  • End the lesson here for the first period.
  • Revise the entire lesson and assess their understanding of the lesson. Use number 1 to 8 in the accompanying question paper.
  • Don’t forget to give excellent feedback to the pupils. Where available, use reward stickers to this effect.

Third Period: Importance of Soil

Follow these steps for the final part of the lesson:

  1. Revise the entire lesson so far:
    1. The earth as a whole (object) is divided into three major components – air (atmosphere), water and land.
    2. Land is also known as ground, earth’s surface or earth’s crust.
    3. Earth’s crust is divided into layers from the top to the innermost part.
    4. Soil is the topmost layer of the earth’s surface.
    5. Soil is made up of different components that include minerals, organic matters, micro-organisms, water and air.
    6. All soils are not the same. Soils are different because of how they are formed and the conditions they have undergone.
    7. The different kinds of soil are sandy, silt, clay and loamy soils.
    8. Just like soil, people and culture are different. We should respect our differences
  2. Refer to the third exercise at the introductory stage. Tell the pupils that since they now know more about soil, what would they do if someone gifts the different soil samples to them? You may expand the discussion by asking what if the soil samples span large fields.
  3. After the discussion, list and thoroughly explain the importance of soil. Use videos/slides or charts to illustrate each of the uses/importance of soil.
    1. Explain that a given type of soil is best suited for particular use.
      1. We use clay to ceramics like pots, plates, flower vase and tiles. Show videos/pictures of pottery making.
      2. We use sandy and clay soil to make blocks/bricks and build house. Show videos/pictures of block/brick making and brick layering.
      3. Silt and loamy are useful for farming. Loamy is the best of all the soil types for farming. Silt and loamy contains nutrients for plants and crops to grow and produce well. Show videos/pictures of farming.
    2. Teach the pupils that the amount of soil in a place is not endless. Soil gets finished. For example, if you start digging up the sand that is available in a place for a long time; the sand will finish up and you have to go look for it elsewhere.
    3. Explain that as a result, we have to take care of our soil. One way they can help to take care of soil is by not digging up soil everywhere.

    Evaluation (Summative Assessment)

    Before you conclude, summarize the entire lesson and revise it thoroughly. Then assess the pupils’ understanding by giving them all of the exercises in the accompanying question paper.

    Note that I expect you to conduct this assessment orally. In that case, I also encourage you to explain each question and option in local dialect for the pupils to understand before asking them to make a choice. However, this may not be necessary for some schools in the urban region.

    First, ask the questions serially. The, repeat it randomly.


    1. Mark pupils’ exercises, if you conducted the test other than orally.
    2. Record performance.
    3. Provide individual feedback.
    4. Revise the lesson and link it to next topic.

    Consulted Materials

    BYJUS. (n.d.). Types of Soil – Sandy Soil. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from BYJUS:,like%20granite%2C%20limestone%20and%20quartz.

    Geological Survey Ireland. (n.d.). The Earth’s Structure. Retrieved from Geological Survey Ireland:,the%20mantle%20and%20the%20core.

    ISRIC- World Soil Information. (n.d.). Why are soils important? Retrieved September 23, 2022, from ISRIC- World Soil Information:

    Kids Encyclopædia Britannica. (n.d.). Soil. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica:,animals%20and%20other%20living%20things.

    Rutledge, K., McDaniel, M., Teng, S., Hall, H., Ramroop, T., Sprout, E., et al. (2022, July 15). Silt. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from National Geographic:

    Taylor, G. (2020, February 28). All You Need to Know About Loamy Soil. Retrieved September 23, 2022, from Bob Vila:,a%20mixture%20of%20all%20three.

    Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Clay – Formation. Retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:,or%20released%20by%20plant%20roots.

    World Atlas. (n.d.). What Are The Layers Of The Earth? Retrieved from World Atlas:

Question Papers – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2

Introduction to Question Papers – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2

This is primary 1 History question paper for first term. It contains standard multiple-choice questions. You can use this for either Assessment for Learning (AFL) or examination.

However, we only recommend that you use these questions along with our History lesson plan. Otherwise, check the questions and be sure to pick only the questions on contents you have treated with your pupils. This is to avoid discrepancies.

To The History Teacher

Depending on your school, you may do the following exercises with your pupils orally. We recommend that you explain these questions and the options in local dialect before you ask the pupils to choose options.

—- Lesson 1 (First Period Assessment) Questions —-

  1. Napoleon Bonaparte was the emperor of ________________.
    1. France
    2. England
    3. America
    4. Nigeria
  2. Napoleon Bonaparte was a great ____________.
    1. Lawyer
    2. Doctor
    3. Soldier
    4. Teacher
  3. Which one of the following is not correct? If we know the history
    1. If we know the history behind important things, we will not respect them.
    2. If we know the history of good things, we will learn how to make them better.
    3. If we know the history of a problem, it will help us to solve it more easily.
    4. If we know the history behind our important culture, we will value it more.
  4. Which one is not a reason why we study history?
    1. To be able to solve present problem
    2. To value the time we have now
    3. To be able to make the future better
    4. So that we can revenge the past
  5. We become responsible members of the society by _____________________.
    1. solving the problems of the society to earn a living
    2. not following the rules of the society
    3. refusing to do our work
    4. creating problems for the society
  6. What is the first step to solve a problem?
    1. Understanding the problem
    2. Recreating the problem
    3. Avoiding the problem
    4. All the options are correct
  7. We understand a problem by ______________________.
    1. learning about its past
    2. forgetting about its past
    3. crying over it
    4. not thinking about it
  8. What is the meaning of past in history?
    1. The time since the beginning of the world.
    2. Everything that has happened since the beginning of the world.
    3. Places, people, animals and plants that existed since the beginning of the world.
    4. All of the above.
  9. Which one of the following does not belong to the meaning of history as the past?
    1. Your first day in Primary 1.
    2. The day you will finish University.
    3. Your best teacher in Kindergarten
    4. The time you were a baby that could not walk.
  10. An object or event in the present time which shows stories that happened in the past are called ___________.
    1. provable
    2. evidence
    3. story
    4. history
  11. Any story that does not have a proof is said to be a ______________.
    1. report
    2. rumor
    3. discussion
    4. preaching
  12. Learning about the provable stories of the past describes history as __________________.
    1. the past.
    2. study of the past.
    3. the present.
    4. study of the present
  13. What is the first thing to do if you hear a rumor of security threat?
    1. Ask for proof
    2. First avoid the threat
    3. Circulate the provable story
    4. Don’t believe the rumor

—- Lesson 2 (Second Period) Assessment Questions —-

  1. Those who study and write about history are called ______________.
    1. Archeologist
    2. Historians
    3. Old people
    4. Scientists
  2. Sources of history” mean ________________.
    1. Where historians work.
    2. Where historians live.
    3. Where historians get history from.
    4. Where historians teach history.
  3. How many major sources of history are they?
    1. 2
    2. 3
    3. 4
    4. 5
  4. What are the two major sources of history?
    1. Primary and secondary
    2. Nursery and primary
    3. Secondary and university
    4. Primary and university
  5. The time before human beings began recording history in writing is called ___________.
    1. historic time
    2. past time
    3. present time
    4. prehistoric time
  6. The study of human history by studying the things that ancient people made, used and left behind is called _____________.
    1. history
    2. archaeology
    3. proof
    4. evidence
  7. Which one is not among the primary sources of history?
    1. Artifacts
    2. Old letters
    3. Biographies
    4. Old drawings
  8. Which one is not among the secondary sources of history?
    1. Historical criticism
    2. Biography
    3. Documentary film
    4. Artifacts

Summative Assessment

We recommend that you ask the entire questions. First of all, do this serially – in the order of the lesson; then randomly.

Lesson Plan – Primary 1 First Term History Week 2

Lesson Plan For The First Week Ending Friday September 16, 202022

TermFirstWeek2Datewrite date here Teacherwrite your name here 
ClassBasic 1Age5 yearsPeriod write the periods hereDuration60 minutes
TopicMeaning of HistorySub-Topic Nil
Learning Objectives
  • Define History
  • State the sources of History
  • Mention the importance of history
  • Value Heritage
  • Demonstrate taking responsibility for actions
  • Solve the rope puzzle
    Previous KnowledgeEnter something here
    Resources & Teaching Aids
    • Slides/pictures of Napoleon Bonaparte and his sword, dinosaur & skeleton of a dinosaur
    • Several pairs of ready-made rope puzzles – entwined ropes
    • Charts of primary sources of history
    • Sample of historic music of the local people – music that tells a story of a people
    • Sample or image of local artifacts
    Method of TeachingInduction and DeductionDifferentiationSomething to be entered here
    Teacher’s ActivityLearners’ Activity
    • Prepare slides of required images for class presentation – may include printing some copies.
    • Setup display screen/projector or group pupils to carryout picture reading exercise.
    • Make a list of renowned successful people in the school locality and their business i.e., the societal problem they solve.
    • Improvise the rope puzzle tool – obtainable from LeadinGuides
    • Collate pictures of successful people in the locality
    • Identify pictures of sword & Napoleon Bonaparte in presentation or printed slides
    • Solve the rope puzzle – untie two wound ropes separately fixed unto a piece of wood.
    • Actively listen to the teacher, ask and answer questions
    • Copy down lesson the notes
    KeywordsNapoleon Bonaparte, Sword, Emperor, History, Evidence, Proof, Rumor, Speculation, Dinosaurs.
    Time______ to _______
    Stage/TimeContent/Teacher’s RoleLearner’s RoleComment/Resource
    Introduction: Set induction
    (5 minutes)
    • Show image of Napoleon’s sword and tell the story.
    • Show picture of Napoleon Bonaparte and narrate the story.
    • Relate both story to relevance of history.
    • Explain the objectives of the lesson.
    • Identify image of a sword.
    • Guess the worth of Napoleon sword.
    • Listen to teacher.
    • Slide/images of Napoleon Sword.
    • Slide/image of Napoleon Bonaparte.
    Meaning of History
    (10 minutes)
    • Inspire pupils on problem-solving.
    • Group pupils to practicalize problem-solving by doing the rope puzzle.
    • Explain/solve the rope puzzle for the pupils to see.
    • Projects/write on the board and read definition of history several times for the pupils to repeat.
    • Mention successful people in the locality and the problems each solves (their business).
    • Solve the rope puzzle in pairs or group.
    • Read/memorize definition of history.
    • Pictures of successful people in the locality.
    • Rope puzzles.
    • Digital display or chalk/marker and chalkboard/whiteboard.
    Explanation of the meaning of History
    (10 minutes)
    • Write the note on the board.
    • Read and explain the notes.
    • AFL.
    • Copy the notes into their notebooks.
    • Listen to the teacher.
    • Ask and answer questions.
    • Slide/image of dinosaur and skeleton of a dinosaur.
    (10 minutes)
    • Mark pupils’ exercise books.
    • Record marks.
    • Provide feedback.
    • Revise the lesson and link to topic for next week.
    • Submission of their exercise books.
    • Listening, asking and answering questions.
    • Pupils’ exercise book.
    • Digital display or chalk/marker and chalkboard/whiteboard.

    Meaning of History

    History is the past and the study of the past which helps us to understand the present and predict the future.

    Explanation of the Meaning of History

    History as the past means that all the things that have already happened, the places, things, people, animals, ideas and the time before NOW, the present time, are all history. This includes the food you ate this Morning and you can no longer go back to, the birthday you celebrated in the past, your old clothes that have worn out and you have thrown away, your pencil that has finished, etc.

    History as the study of the past

    History as the study of the past means that it is to learn about the provable stories of the past. That is, the provable stories of all the:

    • things that have happened on earth since its beginning,
    • people that have existed on earth since its beginning,
    • animals that have existed on earth since its beginning,
    • plants that have existed on earth since its beginning,
    • places that have existed on earth since its beginning.

    Provable means stories that have objects in the present time to show the past stories. Objects or events in the present time which shows stories that happened in the past are called evidences or proofs.

    Assessment for Learning (AFL)
    Classwork (Question or References)Homework (Questions or References)
    Questions 1 – 12 Questions 1 – 12 randomly (only for those that scores below pass mark in classwork)

    School Owner-Administrator Too Lenient? What to do

    A school owner-administrator too lenient? Yes, some are; and “uncontrollably” so. The problem is that been too lenient has repercussions, negative ones – for the administrator, staff and the organization. So, when a school owner-administrator is too lenient; what is the right thing to do? In this post, I discuss just that. In addition, I briefly discuss the possible reason for a school owner-administrator being too lenient and the negative effects it has in your school.

    Why a School Owner-administrator may be too lenient

    Answering the question, “what cause a school owner-administrator to be too lenient?”, may require deeper analysis. But one or two of the reasons is not far-fetched.

    For more than two years, a team of five organizational behaviour researchers conducted research into leniency at work place. The team included Marie Mitchell from University of Georgia; Kate Zipay from University of Oregon; Michael Baer from Arizona State University; Hudson Sessions from University of Oregon; and Robert Bies from Georgetown University. The team published the report of their research in 2021 in the Academy of Management journal. This report provides insight into the likely reason a school owner-administrator may be too lenient.

    According to the research, people who are lenient at the place of work are more likely to experience pride. In order words, you are too lenient because you want your employees to regard you as a kind person. It not necessarily about being kind. Instead, it may be about what they think of you. If you “punish” them for bad conduct, they will think you are wicked. As a result, you let them have their way every single time – this is what being too lenient means.

    But what’s in it for your school? No doubt, Ryan Holiday made a compelling case for empathy at work place. But Robert Kiyosaki once spoke on the brutal nature of the work place. Without throwing out the validity of the former, the later is proven in the negative effect of being too lenient as a school owner or administrator.

    Effect of being too lenient as a school owner-administrator

    Some of the negative effects of being too lenient as school owner or administrator include:

    • It causes conflicting emotions at work
    • Encourages misconducts
    • Lowers standards
    • Kills business

    Conflicting emotions at work

    Firstly, the earlier research showed that being lenient with misconduct leads to conflicting emotions at work. On the one hand, there is emotion of pride; then on the other, emotion of guilt. This is an unnecessary burden you carry as a school owner-administrator being too lenient. And with this, you cannot appropriately handle issues the right way. It is like when you are angry with someone but cannot talk it out. It fractures relationships and limits collaboration.

    Encouraging Misconducts

    If you do not discourage misconducts, then you encourage it. By failing to enforce the rule, you say it is ok not to break it. Therefore, it is no surprise that school owners-administrators too lenient experience frequent employee misbehaviours.

    Being Too Lenient Lowers Standards

    How does being too lenient lowers the standard of a school? It is simple. Standards are in themselves rules of what should be done and attained. So, if school staff have no reason to keep rules, it means they will not do what they ought to do. By extension, if staff do not perform their duties, then standards cannot be attained.

    Leniency Kills Business

    Lastly, a school owner-administrator too lenient has pronounced death sentence for his/her school. How? Majority of people patronize businesses for the quality they deliver. This is especially true for school business. Quality school attracts quality parents and students. This is one of the undeniable rules of sustainable school growth. Therefore, consistent drop in the standard of the school – due to the school owner or administrator being too lenient – leads inevitable loss of quality population.

    Over the last three months, more than about eight school owners and administrators have reached out to me. They have battled with the negative effects of being too lenient for long. Two of them said their staff usually take advantage of their leniency to misbehave at work. So, they sort advice on what to do in managing the situation.

    If you are a school owner or administrator who cannot help being too lenient, below are some suggestions for you.

    School Owner-Administrator Too Lenient? Things to do

    • Change your perspective on how you believe employees think of you
    • Create unique school policies
    • Delegate supervision and demand report

    Change your perspective on how you believe employees think of you

    According to the earlier research, the reason why some school owners-administrators are too lenient is because they believe it makes employees to think well of them. Such school owners/administrators believe that they do an erring employee a favour by helping them escape the responsibilities of their misconducts. Thus, they believe that in return of the favour, the employee should respect them.

    This may not be the case for every school owner or administrator that is lenient at the work. Some cite their temperament while others, their faith. Again, establishing what cause some school owners and administrators to be too lenient at work requires deeper analysis. But one thing is sure. This is the fact that you cannot attain genuine respect by being too lenient. It is rather ironical that you should expect an employee to obey you by encouraging him/her to break existing rules. Isn’t it? Well, things do not work that way.

    Common knowledge reveals that people respect the man of integrity more than they respect their accomplice. This is the first perspective you must change. If you are lenient because you believe your employees will like and respect you, you must understand that the opposite is the case.

    In addition, if you must command your employees’ respect by doing them favours; there are many right ways to do so. Compliment and reward their hard work, give them day(s) off or buy them gifts. These are more honourable and they will love you for it. But don’t be too lenient. Don’t be too quick to waive penalty for misconduct. Rather, always let the rules take its course.

    However, you should note that this does take away the place of empathy. There are one or two occasions where rare misconduct is excusable. Occasions such as when that punctual staff is late for a day in a blue moon; or when the most regular staff asks to be absent for a day, the natural thing to do is to be empathic. Find out what is wrong and help them through it.

    Create unique school policies to keep workplace misconduct at bay

    This is the one most important solution to the problems of being too lenient as a school owner or administrator. Good school policies are unique, that is, peculiar to your school. They contain what employees should do, procedures for doing them, what they cannot do and the repercussions of breaking rules.

    Talking of school policies, the problem is that many school owners and administrators tend to buy policies instead of drafting one. This is a bad practice. The policies you buy are often the product of another school. And while your school may have some things in common with other schools, it is also different in its own way. Policies are as complex and simple as the organization. Thus, it makes no sense for a simple school to buy the policies of a complex school. This is why some schools have challenges implementing policies.

    Draft policies that work for your school. It should carry the members of your staff along. Your policies may be working documents. Call a meeting. Table the misconduct you want to regulate and let the staff suggest the rules and regulations. Your duty will be to channel the discussion to what you want them to do. And you should do this intelligently. You shouldn’t do it in a way that seems like you are dictating for them. Let the staff feel they are part of the policy-making process. This way, when they default; they wouldn’t blame you for the penalty.

    The result of this is that it lifts the burden of guilt from you when you implement the rule. However, be sure that after making the policy; you see to its strict implementation. In doing so, bear in the brief talk on empathy.

    Maybe it is “your nature”. You just can’t let people bear the repercussions of their misconduct. It is a dilemma. You don’t want your staff misbehaving. But if they do, you also can’t punish them. So, how do you stop staff from misconduct? The next point is for you.

    Delegate supervision and demand report

    If you cannot enforce policies because you are too kind, you should delegate the responsibility to another worthy employee. It is not out of place to even hire an external supervisor, one of proven skill and character.

    The supervisor checks in from time to time to appraise the performance of the staff. However, if you can afford a full-time supervisor; it is all the better. The supervisor enforces the policies and furnishes report for you on periodic basis.

    Should any staff meet you with complaints, refer them to the supervisor. This is a pretty way of lifting the burden of guilt from yourself.

    Just these three ways, a school owner or administrator too lenient will be able to manage every situation.


    Melancon, M. (2021, October 21). Showing leniency with misconduct at work leads to conflicting emotions. Retrieved from Terry College of Business, University of Georgia:

    Zipay, K. P., Mitchell, M. S., Baer, M. D., Sessions, H., & Bies, R. J. (2021, April). Lenient Reactions to Misconduct: Examining the Self-Conscious Process of Being Lenient to Others at Work. Academy of Management, 351–377. Retrieved from

    Lesson Plan – Date: What is the correct date to write in lesson plan?

    Introduction to Lesson Plan – Date

    Lesson Plan – Date clarifies the correct date to write on a lesson plan for the week. Date is one of the most straightforward components of any good lesson plan. Yet, some teachers still find it confusing. This is especially so for new teachers – particularly those that did not study education.

    The confusion is somewhat justifiable. This is in spite of the fact that there are more than one dates that one could write in a lesson plan.

    For instance, one could write the date on which s/he is developing the lesson plan. Or, a teacher could also write the date s/he will deliver the lesson. There is a third possibility. That is the date s/he submits the lesson plan.

    So, which is the correct option? I always get this question. Therefore, I provide the answer in as simple term as possible in this post.

    Reason for Date in Lesson Plans and Lesson Notes

    Knowing the reason for writing date in lesson answers the most part of the question. So, let us start from there. Why do we write date in lesson plans? What is the rationale for date in lesson notes? This is obvious too. But congruity, I will itemize some reasons below.

    The reasons for date in lesson plans and lesson notes include:

    1.      Time Management

    The first reason for writing date on lesson plan is that it helps teachers to manage time. Dating lesson plan is more or less like booking an appointment. Once you have booked to do certain thing on a fixed date, it helps you plan for it. Whatever else you do, you ensure that other activities do not encroach into the time of the appointment. In other words, you learn to manage your time.

    Similarly, dating lesson plan helps teachers in the same way. There are many duties a teacher performs. This is why teachers specify date to deliver a particular lesson plan. Doing so enables teachers to plan ahead of the lesson. This may include gathering and setting up necessary instructional materials for the lesson.

    2.      For Proxy

    In early post, I discussed that the one of the reasons for lesson planning is for proxy. That is, if a teacher is absent and another has to deliver the lesson in their place. Lesson plan helps them to be able to deliver the lesson effectively. Without date on lesson plan, the teacher that is teaching by proxy may not know when to deliver the lesson.

    3.      Lesson Duration

    Dating lesson plan also gives teachers insight into the duration of the lesson. It is from the date that teachers calculate the duration of the lesson. This helps them to further plan better for the lesson.

    4.      Teacher Assessment

    Date on lesson plan also helps in teacher’s assessment. Education supervisors use the date to verify what the teacher has taught over time. Often, supervisors compare date on students’ notebooks with the dates on lesson plans. They do so to verify that the teacher actually taught the topic.

    5.      Student support

    The essence of lesson plan is for the benefit of the student. Should any student be absent with leave, date on lesson plan help teachers to quickly identify what such student miss – and determine the content of make-up classes.

    6.      Relevance of content

    Finally, date on lesson plan determines the relevance of the content. This is important in re-using of lesson plans. From the date on lesson plan, teachers are able to tell if there has been a change in the curriculum since its development. Thus, the date indicates the relevance of the content.

    Lesson Plan – Date: What is the correct date to write in lesson plan?

    From the reasons above, the correct date to write on lesson plan is clear. It is definitely not the date that the teacher submits the plan. And it is not the date that the teacher wrote the lesson plan either. This is because neither of these two dates aligns with the reasons for writing the date.

    Thus, the correct date to write on lesson plan is the date that the teacher [hopes to] deliver the lesson. It is this date that can help teachers plan ahead. Similarly, it is only by knowing the date that a teacher delivered a lesson that inspectors can tell what the teacher has taught over time.

    Although one may argue that it is the date that a teacher wrote a plan that determine its relevance; this does not invalidate the date of delivery for same purpose. On the contrary, this date of development only serves one of the reasons and not the others.

    Lesson Plan – Date: How to write date on lesson plan

    Now we know the reasons for writing date on lesson plan. In addition, we know the correct date to write on lesson plan. But what is the correct way of writing date on lesson plan?

    The general way of correctly writing date on lesson plan is simple. You can get the date from the time-table. Look up which day of the week your subject is allocated and then what date that is on the calendar.

    Teachers may also write the date as a range. If you are writing lesson plan for week 4, the ideal practice is for you to check you timetable; see the day(s) of the week your subject appears on the timetable. Then write the date. If, however, your subject appears multiple times on consecutive days – 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th of May; it is also appropriate to simply write May 15 – 18.

    Conclusion on Lesson Plan – Date

    In this post, we discussed date as a component of any standard lesson plan. The post state the reasons for writing date on lesson plan. It also clarifies the correct date to write on lesson plan. Finally, the post describes the correct way to write date on lesson plan.

    Lesson Note – Primary Three Third Term Mathematics Week 4

    INTRODUCTION TO – Lesson Note – Primary Three Third Term Mathematics Week 4

    I wrote this note based on Primary 3 Mathematics Scheme of Work. . If you don’t have the scheme, please click here to get a copy. This is a free lesson note for Nigerian primary schools 3.

    Focus of this lesson note

    Lesson Note – Primary 5 Third Term Basic Science Week 1 focuses on depth and pedagogy. This means it aims to provide an enriched lesson content. Then, suggest ways for teacher and parents to deliver the lesson.

    Turning this note to official lesson plan

    Please note that I do not intend this lesson note to take the place of lesson plan. These two are different. I discussed the differences in an earlier post. If you haven’t done so already; click here to read up the differences between lesson plan and lesson note.

    That aside, teachers can adapt this note into the lesson plan for the week. In fact, many teachers do. That is why we prepared a special lesson plan template for teachers.

    It helps teachers to easily and professionally plan their lessons by filling in the lesson-specific values of the standard components of lesson plan, in a clean and professional layout. Click here to download the lesson plan template.


    At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:

    1. Define day, week, month and year as unit of time
    2. Perform simple conversion between units.
    3. Mention the days of the week and months of the year and tell their order.
    4. Tell date from the calendar
    5. Mention dates of key feasts and observances within the year
    6. Appreciate the concept of planning/time management


    The teacher presents the lesson in order of steps as follows:


    To introduce the lesson, the distributes copies of printed calendar to the students. The calendar should contain all dates from January to December. Then, the teacher challenges the pupils to circle the dates that s/he will randomly call. They may also name the day of the week that each date falls. Another useful challenge that the teacher may give to the pupils include asking them how many days to certain feast or observance like Christmas and Id El-Kabir.

    At the end of each challenge, the teacher retrieves the calendars. And tell the pupils that s/he will keep the calendars until the end of the lesson. By the end of the lesson, they will check to see whether or not they got it correctly.

    Eventually, the teacher writes/projects the topic on the board/screen. Then s/he lists and explain the objectives to the pupils.

    Other Units of Time – Day, Week and Month

    In continuation of the lesson, the teacher explains day, week and month as other units of time. First, s/he revises the previous lessons on time. The teacher can do this either deductively by means of interactive questions and answers. Or, s/he does so inductively by explicitly listing and briefly explaining the key points of the previous lessons on time. Interactive discussion is better. But induction is preferable if there is want of time. However, combining both methods is the best.

    Following the revision, the teacher explains as follows:

    Seconds, minutes and hours are not the only units of time. There are other units of time. These units are longer than seconds, minutes and hours. They include:

    • Days,
    • Weeks,
    • Months and
    • Year

    A second is the shortest unit of time. While a year is the longest unit of time.

    Time Metric System

    The relationship between the units of time is given in time metric system. The time metric system is as follows:

    1. 60 seconds make 1 minute
    2. 60 minutes make 1 hour
    • 24 hours make 1 day
    1. 7 days make one week
    2. 4 weeks make 1 month
    3. 12 months make 1 year.

    After the explanation, the teacher makes the peoples recite the metric system a few times for memorization. S/he follows this with simple exercises on how to convert between pairing units – e.g., from seconds to minutes & minutes to seconds; from minutes to hours and hours to minutes; etc.

    Exercise Examples

    Useful hints

    Prior to the exercises, the teacher guides the pupils to highlight the following useful hints.

    First, s/he leads the pupils to identify the sizes and order the various units.