Introduction to Lesson Note JSS 2 First Term Computer Studies Week 1
I wrote this Lesson Note JSS 2 First Term Computer Studies Week 1 based on the newly revised Nigerian 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (UBE Edition). Particularly, I used the New Junior Secondary School Teaching Schemes of Work. The various state ministry of education and the Education Resource Centre, Abuja developed the teaching schemes between 2014 and 2016. Click here to download the most recent schemes of work for Pre-primary through Senior Secondary Schools. These schemes are the same for the 36 states of the federation and the FCT. Hence, this lesson note is suitable for use in any Nigerian school that adopts the National Curriculum.
Complete Lesson Objectives
As with the rest of our notes, the primary focus of this lesson note is to present an enriched content for the topic. This lesson notes, also like the rest, provide guide for teachers on how to deliver the content to attain the topic objectives. In this regard, I adopt the subject-specific modern teaching style in the FTS manual.
Unlike most lesson notes which focuses majorly on cognition, I brought out and set objectives to cover other domains of education – affective and psychomotor. This is to ensure a balanced learning experience for the learners.
Leading Guide to Adapting this Lesson Note
I wrote this lesson note in outline of standard lesson plans. However, I advise teachers that want to use this note for official purpose – i.e. to create their lesson plans which they will submit to their supervisors – to get our Lesson Plan Template. The layout of the template makes it easy for teachers to write a professional lesson plan and easily.
REMARK: If you find the terms lesson plan and lesson notes confusing, click here to quickly read myarticle on their differences.
Lesson Note JSS 2 First Term Computer Studies Week 1
Subject: Basic Science and Technology (BST) – Computer Studies/Information Technology
Topic: Definition of Operating System
At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:
- Define system software
- State the categories of system software
- Define Operating System (OS)
- Draw PC system layer to illustrate computer system design
- Appreciate the need for coordination/management
From the previous term in JSS 1, the students should be able to define computer software and mention the types of computer software.
Instructional & Reference Materials
- Chalk/marker and chalkboard/whiteboard
- Projector/smart screen
- Diagram of PC system layers
- Categorization of computer (system) software chart
- Model or chart of computer motherboard, ROM chip, RAM, Adapter card, flash disk, floppy disk, CD/DVD ROM, Hard disk
- Chart of the components of computer system
- Computer system with a new peripheral whose driver has not been installed
- Education Resource Centre (ERC). (2014). FCT Nursery Teaching Scheme. Abuja: Education Resource Centre.
- Kano Education Resource Department. (2016). Pre-Primary Schemes of work. Kano: Kano Education Resource Department (KERD).
- Lagos State Ministry of Education. (2016). Early Childhood Care Education Scheme (Mathematics). Lagos: Lagos State Ministry of Education.
- Folorunso, O., Aduroja O, & Elueze I. (2012). Melrose Computer Studies for Junior Secondary Schools 1. Sango-Ota, Ogun State: Melrose Books & Publishing Limited.
- Otuka, J., Akande, A., & Iginla, S. (2013). New Computer Studies. Ikeja, Lagos: Learn Africa.
The teacher delivers the lesson note JSS 2 First Term Computer Studies Week 1 as in the following steps:
The teacher uses one of the ways to capture and retain learners’ attention to introduce the topic. Here are some suggestions:
Display the least common among the instructional materials in (c) above. Then ask the students to identify it. They should also guess what they think you will use it for in the class.
At the end of the students’ attempts, explain that they will be able to use computer better if they know more of its parts. You may add that none may become a true expert of s/he does not have as much technical knowledge as possible.
Afterwards, you reveal that as they advance their level of expertise with computer – by the reason of their Computer Studies, they shall identify all of the components the teacher has displayed. Forth, the teacher writes/projects the topic on the board/screen; then s/he gives an overview of the lesson objectives.
Display the chart and ask if any student is able to interpret it.
At the end of the students’ attempts, the teacher explains that they had learned the meaning and types of computer software in their previous class (JSS1); and that the chart is a representation of advanced knowledge of computer software. The teacher further explains that they shall use the chart to better understand computer software. Hence, s/he concludes that by the end of the lesson; they should have attained the targets in the lesson objectives.
Ø Oppose the motion that organizations need management to function properly. Then let the students argue with reasons.
At the end of the ensuing discussion, the teacher explains that the inventors of computer system modelled it after real organizations – comprising of different entities working together to achieve assigned tasks. Therefore, computer requires manager just like organizations.
In conclusion, the teacher reveals that they shall in the week’s lesson learn the component of the computer system that serves as the manager – as well as how it goes about its managerial duties. Thence, the teacher gives overview of the lesson objectives.
Before the teacher continues with the lesson, s/he revises the meaning and computer system. And also, the meaning and types of computer software. I present summary of these as follows. I precede each point of note with task(s) & question (s) which the teacher may use to engage the students.
Computer as a System
Discussion: Why do we refer to computer as system?
We often refer to computer as a system. This is because it has many parts that work together to successfully perform an operation – such as playing video which requires the screen, keyboard or mouse, media player (video-playing software) and speakers.
Generally, system means a set of connected things that work together to accomplish a task.
Teacher should give examples of system: fan – made up of blades, switch, wire, stand, etc.; car – made up of tires, seats, steering, gear, brake, throttle, etc.
Demand students to give more examples of systems and the parts.
Components of computer system
After identifying computer as a system, the teacher lists the components of computer system.
First, s/he asks the students to mention the many parts of computer that work together for the computer to successfully perform an operation. The students may mention parts like the keyboard, monitor, mouse, system unit, etc.
Thereafter, s/he explains that we categorize the many parts of computer that work together for the computer to successfully perform operations into three broad groups. Then, the teacher displays chart of the component of computer system and explains that the three key components include:
Succeeding this, the teacher reminds the students that they had learned the basic things about these components in their junior classes – starting from primary school.
S/he furthers that as they go to higher classes, they learn about these components even in more details. Then, s/he concludes the reminder that they started with computer software in the previous class – when they learned the meaning and types of computer software.
Meaning of Computer Software
Proceeding, the teacher asks if any student is able to remind the class the meaning of computer software.
Following the resultant discussion, the teacher writes/projects the definition of computer software; then s/he explains to the students:
Computer software is a set of complete instructions that tells computer what to do and how to do it.
A set – means many related set of instructions; not just one. The instructions include command/order and procedure. Each complete set of instructions is called Computer Program. This means software a set of computer programs that perform some operations. For example, assuming there is a computer (robot) that is able to cook noodles; then the noodles preparation software will contain the following instructions:
- Robot switch on
- Robot stand
- Walk to the kitchen
- Pick a pot
- Fetch 1 cup of water
- Pour the 1 cup of water into the pot
- Switch on the stove
- Put the pot on the stove
- Let it warm
- Pick a sachet of noodles
- Open up the sachet
- Put the noodle inside the pot and cover it
- Throw the leather pack away
- Check if the pot of noodle is boiling
- If yes, cut the spice
- Pour the spice inside the pot of noodle
- Cover it and wait for 2 minutes
- Switch off the stove
- Pick a plate
- Turn the noodles into the plate
- Take it to the dining table
- Keep is it on the table
- Go back to your resting place
- Robot switch off
- If no, cover the pot
- Wait for 2 minutes then jump to step 14
Note: There will be program for telling the robot how to stand. Another complete set of instructions will tell the robot how to walk; then pick object such as pot and sachet of noodle, throw leather pack away, check if something is boiling; etc. This is because ordinarily, robot is not human that can think. So, programmers have to explicitly tell robot how to perform every operation they want it to perform.
More than that
The above example shows the least clue of how computer software looks like. There is complete set of instructions for every operation that a given computer or computer device is able to perform. There is a complete set of instructions for playing music; playing video; snapping picture; recording audio/video; every game; playing radio; sending message; etc. Similarly, every computing device has complete instructions for all the operations it is able to perform. For example, a game console has complete set of instructions for all the operations you can perform with it – such as moving players; shooting; selecting; etc. Keyboard has complete set of instructions for every operation that one is able to perform with it – typing; scrolling; navigating; etc.
Where is computer software stored? Can we see and change computer software?
We call those that write instructions for computer as computer programmers. Although computer programmers write computer software using letters, numbers and symbols that we can see; it is not possible to touch the individual letters, numbers and symbols with our hands.
When the programmer has finished writing the instructions and has packaged it for use; it is also not possible to read them with physical eyes except when we open it on a computer. However, even when we open software instructions with computer; only a computer programmer can change it. This is because programmers do not write software instructions in plain human language. Instead, they use special computer language which we call programming language. For this reason, we also call software instructions as codes and
Where Software is stored in Computer
With the above explanation, the teacher shows the students the computer system s/he has. Then reminds them the operations s/he is able to perform with the computer. After that, the teacher also reminds the students that s/he is able to perform the operations because the software – or complete set of instructions – is already stored in the computer.
Subsequently, the teacher asks the students where they think all the software is stored inside the computer.
Succeeding the discussion that will follow, the teacher teaches that we store or save software in the computer storage devices including Floppy disk, CD/DVD ROM and Hard disk – the teacher shows these to the students.
When someone does not already have a particular software in his/her computer; and s/he is saving it for the first time so that s/he can use it; then we say the person is installing the software on his/her computer.
Types of computer software
In the last part of the revision, the teacher explains that there are obviously several kinds of computer software – because there are several operations that computer can perform and there are also several kinds of computing devices. This is because each operation and each computing device has different software.
the teacher explains that we divide the many kinds of computer software into two. Then, s/he asks who among the students is able to remember to remind the class the two types of computer software.
In the end, s/he mentions, writes/projects the list on the board/screen and then explains thoroughly. The two major types of computer software are:
- System Software; and
- Application software.
The teacher concludes the revision with brief explanation of system and application software as follows:
System software consist of a set of programs that control and manage the operations of computer hardware.
Application software is a type computer software that users (people) use to work, learn, plan, entertain and to communicate. Application software is designed for a particular kind of task. The teacher presents a simple difference between system software and application software thus:
System software is software that the computer (system) use to function. While application software is the software that people use to perform tasks on a computer.
Finally, the teacher notes that they shall learn about the types of computer software more in subsequent lessons – beginning with system software in this.
Upon completing the revision above, the teacher accesses the students’ understanding by asking the following questions – orally, as quiz, or classwork.
- Why is computer often referred to as system?
- Mention the components of computer system?
- What is computer software?
- Professionals that writes computer software are called __________
- Computer software instructions are written in plain human language that everyone understands and are able to understand. True/False
- Within the computer, software is stored in the _________________, __________________, and ________________
- Installing software means ______________________________________________
- The types of computer software ____________________ and ___________________
- _______________ software controls and manage computer hardware; while _________ is used by man to solve his problems.
Once the teacher has ascertained the understanding of the students; s/he continues the lesson by initiating a discussion. To do this, the teacher reminds the students that man uses application software; but computer uses system software by itself. S/he adds that examples of the application software that man uses include games, word processing software to type and graphic software to design.
Then the teacher asks, but what are the system software that computer use? And is computer invented for itself, why does computer need system software?
To be continued…