Introduction to Factors Affecting the Performance of Students Part Two

this post titled, Factors Affecting the Performance of Students Part Two, further outline some factors that affects student performance. Here, we examined these factors from the parent and school effects.

Academic performance refers to the level of performance in school, accomplishment or success in school. This is the core of educational growth. academic performance as the process of developing the capacities and potentials of the individual student so as to prepare that individual to be successful in a specific society or culture. It is important to keep in mind that academic performance may largely be a function of the context in which it takes place, and therefore the necessary abilities may also vary according to the context. In this regard, we can conclude that the concept, meaning and criteria of academic success may also vary according to the context.

In the initial part of this write-up, we had examined factors such as student attitude, skill and abilities of the teachers, classroom environment, development of study skill, time management, teaching-learning methods and so forth.

If you have not read the part one of this write up, simply click Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students. to go through it.

More of these factors that affect the academic performance of student are:

  1. Large Number of Students in a Class

Class congestion is  disadvantageous to the academic performance of students. Class teachers are the once who normally face this problem. It reduces their class manageability; their deliverable – they are unable to implement the appropriate teaching-learning processes and instructional strategies, which in turn affect the performance of the student academically.

The teachers are unable to make provision of personal attention and as a result of which, academic performance of the students may undergo detrimental effects. In some cases, when the number of students are large within classrooms, the teachers provide explanation of the academic concepts on black-board or through the use of technology and give class and home-work assignments. They correct the assignments, submitted to them by the students. Some students perform well, whereas others depict errors. In case of errors, the teachers usually ask them to learn from the students, who have performed well. Hence, teachers tend to move on to the next lesson in the next class, as they need to complete the syllabus within limited time.

(Maganga, 2016), also explained that, in science subjects, when teachers are providing training to students on the implementation of experiments by making use of school laboratory equipment like test tubes, other equipment and procedures, it becomes very difficult or impossible for the teacher to monitor the performance, understanding and right implementation of such practical. There are high tendencies that some of the students may not understand the procedures explained by the teacher, hence are unable to perform the experiment independently.

  1. Self-efficacy and Motivation

Self-efficacy is how people feel about themselves and how much they like themselves, especially socially and academically. Through the many pressures and daunting responsibilities of being a student, one learns and understands the importance of having a high self-efficacy in college. Having one’s academic achievement meet one’s academic expectations and desires is a major key to most college students’ self-efficacy. Having a high self-efficacy has many positive effects and benefits, especially among college students. Students who feel positive about themselves succumb less easily to pressures of conformity by peers, are more persistent at difficult tasks, are happier and more sociable, and most pertinent to this study is that they tend to perform better academically.

On the other hand, students with a low self-efficacy tend to be unhappy, less sociable and are more vulnerable to depression, which are all correlated with lower academic achievement. High academic performance influences perceived competence and motivation.

  1. Parental and Home Factor

Parental and home or environment factors greatly have effects on the academic performance of the students. Quite true that some of these parental and home/environment factors have positive effects on student’s performance; a lot of these factors tend to have negative impact on the academic performance of the students. These parental and home/environment factors are:

  • Level of Parents Education

Parents’ educational qualifications are  important aspects that  enhance the academic learning of their children. Well educated parents who are professionals such as doctors, lawyers, engineers, administrators, educationists, teachers, researchers, academicians, etc. can provide good education to their children. They can send their children to reputed schools and also provide them with all the needed materials and resources needed to promote learning. On the contrary, when parents are illiterate or have low level of literacy and how financial ability, there are unable to provide qualitative education to their children. It is also common to find with low level of education or who are out-rightly illiterate to low interest in the education of their children. This is because such parents may not have low or no understanding of the importance of education in.

  • Poverty

The problem of poverty is one of the major barriers within the course of academic achievements. The individuals residing in the conditions of poverty and backwardness experience this major problem in terms of finances. When their per capita income is low, then they experience problems in not only meeting the educational and school requirements. Also, there will be problems in meeting their living requirements, such as diet and nutrition, health, medical and so forth. Therefore, the problem of poverty is critical factor that hinder the academic performance of the students. When they do not possess the essential sources to enhance their learning, they will be unable to improve their grades.

  • Large Family Size

Extended family system and  polygamous homes often leads to large family. When there are more than two children within the family, then it is considered as a large family size. With three or more children within the family, then, usually it becomes difficult for the parents to meet all their needs and requirements, especially, when the family belongs to economically weaker sections of the society. When parents are working or are engage in full time jobs, they will experience problems in finding time for interaction with their children or in meeting their needs and requirements. More children imply increased costs. The fact remains that the upbringing of children involves large number of costs. The academic performance of the students undergoes detrimental effects as a result of large family size.

This can only be offset when there is a corresponding or higher increase to income with. If it is not so, then, more children and limited income, means reduction in the ability to provide quality education to children. It usually becomes difficult to meet the requirements of every child, in the face of large family with limited income.

  • Resources

The lack of resources, civic amenities and infrastructure are barriers towards the acquisition of qualitative education. It is vital to make provision of adequate diet and nutrition for the students, so that they are able to wholeheartedly concentrate on their studies. Civic amenities, such as, clean drinking water, electricity, technology, textbooks, stationary and other are essential to enhancing.

Lack of resources and civic amenities may impede the concentration, interest of the students upon their studies, as a result desired results may not achieve. however, with a strong determination, students may still be able to understand concepts of studies with limited civic amenities. But then, it remains a general growth what when ‘equipment’ is not available, even the most courageous will find it difficult to achieve set or desired goals. Same vein has it is economically true that input affects output. All things being equal, a student who is provided with needed resource will outperform the other student who is has poor or little resources.

  • Viewpoints and Perspectives

In the present existence, especially in rural areas, individuals who possess the viewpoints that education is meant for boys while girls are meant to learn the household chores exist. They are of the perspectives that when boys get educated, they would be able to obtain employment and enhance the well-being of their On the other hand, girls have to eventually get married; hence, it is vital for them to acquire training regarding the performance of household chores. These mainly include, preparation of meals, cleaning, washing, fetching water, and taking care of siblings and other elderly members of the household. These factors discourage girls from acquisition of education and their academic performance suffers a setback, even when they are in schools.

  1. School factors

Students’ performance has a significant relationship with the availability of enabling academic environment with facilities. Such facilities are library, experimental lab, computer laboratory, etc. in the institution. Study effort from student and the proper use of the facilities; a good match between students’ learning style enhance the student’s performance. Student performances are linked with use of library and level of their parental education. The use of the library enhances the student performance. The academic environment is the effective-variable for students and has positive relationship with fathers’ education and grade level. Provision of adequate learning facilities enhances student performance.

The contribution of school factors in influencing the academic performance of the students have been stated as follows:

  • Professionalism of Teachers

Professionalism of teachers is important, especially in their dealings with students. In this aspect, the continuous enhancement of teachers’ teaching skills, knowledge matters towards improving learning and development of the students. Professionalism of the teachers is shown primarily in the teaching-learning processes, instructional strategies, communication and their approachable attitude. Teachers who shows professionalism in these areas are acknowledged and appreciated by other staff and teachers; they are also appreciated by the students and they take pleasure in learning from them. When teachers are unhappy because students fail to complete their homework assignment and at the right time. In such cases, professionalism is shown when teachers are decent in their communication. They should explain the consequences to the students in a calm manner and any kind of harsh behavior should be avoided

  • Extra-Curricular Activities

Students usually take pleasure in the learning and acquisition of education, especially, when there is adequate provision of extra-curricular activities. Activities in school such as artworks, handicrafts, music, singing, dancing, role playing, sports, games and so forth, are extra-curricular. Students normally take pleasure in them. They are not only pivotal to the development of creativity among the students, but also in getting their, interest and willingness via the engagement in extra-curricular activities. They are able to develop their concentration towards learning through these activities. When students  involve in extracurricular activities, they perform well in their assignments and tests.

  • Rewards

Rewards, as important factors,  help in motivating the students to be more committed toward academic pursuits. They are incentives to arouse students’ interest, performance. In secondary schools, students enjoy playing and engaging in recreational and leisure activities. They in some cases neglect their studies. Especially, when they are unable to understand the concepts or have to watch a television show and so forth. Parents at home create means of motivating their children. This can be by  giving them their favorite ice-cream, take them out for dinner or give them gift etc.

People consider as stimulating factors that contribute positively in the improvement of the academic performance of the students. As teachers communicate about rewards within the classroom, then students develop the keenness to work hard for good grades. They believe that through their good performance, their parents and teachers, both would get pleased.

  • School facilities

The facilities of a school is also a factor that affect the academic performance of students. Examples of such facilities are library facilities, laboratory facilities etc. The library is the place, where students obtain the materials that used of to enhance one’s learning. Library is a building or a room that houses the collection of books, tapes, newspapers, articles and journals. Individuals read and borrow them. Library is important in the teaching-learning processes. It is regarded as one of the most important educational services. The main purpose of the school libraries is to make provision of books and the necessary materials.

Laboratory is  a room or a building, specially built for teaching by demonstration of a theoretical phenomenon into practical terms. Teachers use laboratory in  teaching-learning processes and experiments primarily related to science subjects. Within the laboratory, the teachers provide practical demonstration of the concept. The students tend to recall more what they observe rather than what they hear. Practical work in the learning of academic concepts involves students in activities. These activities are observing, counting, measuring, experimenting, recording, investigating, testing, analyzing and field-work.

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