Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students.

Spread the love

Introduction to this post with keywords – Factors Affecting Students’ Academic Performance

It is a well-known maxim in the education world that “no child is dull”. More so, majority of the educators agree that you should not write any child off. However, it is undebatable that certain learners just wouldn’t perform well in their academics – even as others continue to fly academically. This tends to create some philosophical inconsistency – for if no child is dull, then all should perform well. Why then do some students perform well while others do not?

I strongly believe that a number of factors are responsible for this disparity. Consequently, in this post; I discuss a few factors that affect the academic performance of students.

Why this article about factors affecting Students’ Academic Performance?

For the development of individuals, community, nation and the world at large; education is pivotal. To bring about needed improvements in all aspect of the human life and to be able to utilize innovative methods and techniques, enhanced educational skills are needed. However, educational stakeholders must pay attention to the factors that have the potential to affect the performance of students negatively or positively.

Education is one of the cardinal aspects that not only inculcates the essential skills,
abilities and knowledge among students, but also leads to overall growth and progress
of the students, community, nation and the world as a whole. An educated person is not only able to accomplish his desired goals and objectives, but is also able to render an efficient contribution towards the well-being of the community. The development of academic knowledge, skills, abilities and proficiency among the individuals is enhanced through learning and academic performance.

The academic performance of students in secondary schools determines the future goals, interest of student; what course they will student at tertiary level and what career path to choose and build. The extent to which a student can learn and develop is to a large degree affected by many factors.

            The Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Students

The factors that affect the academic performance of students are as follows:

1.      Student’s Attitude:

Every student from secondary schools to tertiary institutions posse the ability to differentiate what is ideal and what is not ideal. Every student that succeeds possess a positive feeling towards his or her education and is conscious of his or her performance also. Such student possesses the character of diligence, discipline and resourcefulness; they are passionate readers. They give much off their time to studies, and less time for leisure activities. It is also important that such student possess a positive thought in terms of their schools, teachers and all academic subject. The lack of this traits in most students will explain low or under performance of the student. Positive attitude of student involves being goal-oriented. That is, studying for self-development and not only to pass examination. Having a clear picture of a desired future is the bed rock for a positive attitude of student.  A positive attitude of student will help the student to devote their time to tireless and passionate study.

2.      Resources of the school:

Within schools, it is vital to make provision of resources that can be utilized to enhance the academic performance of students. The textbooks, notes, learning materials, technology, library facilities and laboratory facilities, especially in science subjects should include the essential materials. When students are provided with the necessary tools and equipment, they will be able to acquire a better understanding of what is been taught in schools. In some cases, especially the students who are deprived, marginalized and socio-economically backward and are unable to afford the books and materials required for learning; they tend to depend only upon the library and other facility of the school.

3.      Skills and Abilities of the Teacher:

Teachers have an imperative role in influencing
the academic performance of the students. They are bestowed with the authority to direct all the classroom activities and administer learning. It is therefore vital for the teachers to possess the traits of professionalism and conscientiousness. They need to possess an approachable nature, listen and provide solutions to the problems experienced by the students. They should possess adequate knowledge and information regarding the subjects that they are teaching, usage of technology, modern and innovative methods in the teaching and learning processes, managing discipline and directing all of the classroom as well as school activities and functions in a well-organized manner. The teachers in some cases are strict, but strictness should be maintained within limits. The main objective of the teachers should only be to enhance the academic performance of the students and lead to their effective development

4.      Classroom Environment:

The academic concepts are made known to the students by
the teachers within classroom. Teachers have the main job duty of completing the subject
syllabus. Therefore, it is vital that classroom environment should be disciplined, and well-ordered. Within the classroom, it is vital for the teachers and the students to
implement or show the traits of morality and ethics. It is vital to promote mutual understanding and co-operation among the teachers and students as well as among the fellow students. The efficiency in the management of the classroom, consequently, introduces a well-organized and efficient management of the lesson plans, instructional strategies, teaching-learning processes and so forth. When there is discipline and effective communication among the individuals, then it would help the students learn better and improve their academic performance.

5.      Role of Parents:

Home is referred to as the place from where the foundation of
learning and education takes place. In order to produce good academic outcomes, it is vital
for the parents, children and other family members to encourage a learning atmosphere within homes. For instance, when students experience problems in certain subjects, then parents are responsible for providing help. This help may be in the form of private tuitions or they themselves may teach their children. They make provision of technology and other learning materials at home to enhance the academic performance of their children. Parents play an important role in leading to operative growth and development of their children. In schools, whatever problems that children go through regarding academics and other
areas, they normally communicate to their parents. Parents are sources of security,
encouragement and help their children in providing solutions to their problems.

6.      Social Circle:

Children get enrolled in schools not only to learn academic concepts,
but they also learn, how to interact and socialize with others. Students usually form friendly
terms and relationships with the fellow students. Forming a social circle and friendships have a positive effect upon the academic outcomes of the students. As when one has to work on a project or prepare for a test, then group study is in most cases beneficial. It also causes social satisfaction and happiness in one’s student life (Kudari, 2016). Forming a social circle proves to be beneficial to the individuals in number of ways, such as, solving academic problems, getting involved in leisure activities, sharing one’s joys and sorrows, and so forth.

7.      Motivating and Encouraging Students: –

In academic learning, some of the concepts
are difficult to learn and understand. When problems and difficulties are experienced by the students, then they need to obtain assistance from others. When students are unable to
achieve the desired grades, then instead of getting angry on them, the teachers and parents
need to make provision of help and assistance. They should motivate the students and
encourage them to do well in future. They need to understand their weaknesses and help
them. When students find certain areas difficult to learn, then teachers should repeat the
concepts, provide them class and homework assignments, so that they are able to acquire
complete understanding of the concepts

8.      Development of Study Skills: –

In order to enhance one’s academic performance, it is
vital for the individuals to develop study skills within themselves. The students themselves
need to generate awareness regarding study skills, so that they are able to produce desired
academic outcomes. Some of the study skills include, memorizing from the textbooks or
other materials, making notes, practicing writing essays and articles, especially in languages, practicing calculations in mathematics and so forth. One of the important areas is, when one is studying, it is vital to completely concentrate towards one’s studies. Inability to completely concentrate is one of the factors that leads to undesired academic outcomes. Memorizing is regarded as one of the rare techniques, hence, the teachers encourage students to acquire understanding of the concepts instead of memorizing.

9.      Time Management:

Students in secondary schools have a busy schedule, hence it is
vital for them to generate awareness in terms of effective time management. Research has
indicated that the normal schedule of the secondary school students comprise of school hours, then they need to spend some time in completion of home-work assignments. They also get involved in some kinds of extra-curricular activities and sports. Playing and getting engaged in creative activities, not only help them concentrate better, but they are able to stimulate their mind-sets. For the secondary school students, it is important to get engaged in extracurricular activities and for this purpose, they need to implement proper time management skills. It is essential for the students to create a balance between all the tasks and activities. The activities that are more important should be given more time and lesser amount of time can be spent on the activities that are less important.

10.  Teaching-Learning Methods:

The teaching-learning methods and strategies should
be appropriate and encouraging to the students. The teachers in school are the ones that
contribute an imperative part in promoting learning among the students. It is essential for
them to ensure that the teaching methods used should prove to be beneficial to the students.
For instance, if the students are able to learn better through dictation of notes, then teachers
should provide notes. If the students are able to learn better through verbal explanation, then they should promote verbal explanation and so forth. Within home, if students are taking
private tuitions of certain academic subjects such as, mathematics or science, or their parents teach them, then too, it is vital for the parents and tutors to make sure that effectual teaching-learning methods are implemented, which may encourage learning among the students and help them understand better.

11.  Approachability and Professionalism:

The teachers in school are required to be
approachable and professional in their conduct. They are the ones, whom students approach, in case they have any problems and difficulties. When the teachers are friendly and generous, then the students feel comfortable in not only approaching them, but also in clarifying their doubts. The professionalism and approachable attitude on the part of the teachers is of utmost significance in influencing the academic performance of the students in a positive manner. On the other hand, at home, parents or tutors are the ones, who supervise their studies, hence, it is vital for them to be professional in their conduct. Teaching should be implemented in a calm and pleasant manner. Any kind of harsh attitude should be avoided, as it may demotivate the students

Check out our lesson notes, school management tips and Nigerian Education reformation issues

    Works Cited

The works that I consulted include:

  • Kapur, R. (2018). Factors Influencing the Students’ Academic Performance in Secondary School in India. 1 – 25.
  • Al-Zoubi, S.M., & Younes, M.A.B. (2015). Low Academic Achievement: Causes and
    Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(11), 2262-2268. Retrieved April 25, 2018fromhttp: www.academypublication.com/ojs/index.php/tpls/article/viewFile/tpls05112262 2268/477
  • Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Vol. 15, No. 5, October, 2015, pp.49-63.doi: 10.14434/josotl.v15i5.19068
  • Entwistle, N. J. & Ramsden, P. (1983). Understanding student learning. London: Croom Helm.
  • David, N.M. (2014). Determinants of Poor Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Sumbawanga District, Tanzania. Sokoine University of Agriculture. Morogoro Tanzania. Retrieved April 25, 2018 from
  • http://www.suaire.suanet.ac.tz:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/622/Davi %20Melack.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  • Brophy, J. (1986). Teacher influences on student achievement. American Psychologist, 41, 1069-1077
  • Sanders, W. L., & Rivers, J. C. (1996). Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement. Knoxville, TN: Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center.
  • Wenglinsky, H. (2000). How teaching matters: Bringing the classroom back into discussions of teacher quality. Princeton, NJ: Policy Information Center.
  • Robinson, K. (2013, April). How to escape education’s Death Valley [Video file]. http://www.ted.com/talks/ken_robinson_how_to_escape_education_s_death_valley? language=en
  • Srinivas, P., & Venkatkrishnan, S. (2016). Factors Affecting Scholastic Performance in
    School Children. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 15(7), 47-53. Retrieved March 25, 2020 from http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jdms/papers/Vol15 Issue%207/Version-1/J150714753.pdf
  • Lizzio, A., Wilson, K. & Simons, R. (2002). University students’ perceptions of the learning environment and academic outcomes: implications for theory and practice, Studies in Higher Education, 27(1), 27–51