Introduction to First-Term-Basic-Technology-Lesson-Note-JSS-One-Week-1-2
I prepared this First-Term-Basic-Technology-Lesson-Note-JSS-One-Week-1-2 based on KERDC’s Scheme of Works for the new Standard Basic Technology Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council for Junior Secondary Schools 1. Basic Technology is one of the four separate but related subjects compressed to form the composite Basic Science and Technology in the new national curriculum. The other subjects are Basic Science, Physical and Health Education and Information Technology (IT) – formerly Computer Studies. Accordingly, this note is written to be delivered in the first and second week of the first term of the academic year.
To Basic Technology Teachers
Basic Technology teachers must understand that this is a practical subject. Hence, the success of its delivery stretches beyond the cognitive objectives. A Basic Technology teacher is a demonstrator, mind influencer and a motivator that inspires his/her student to DO. As a result, s/he delivers the class by demonstration and motivation while majoring his/her performance by what the pupils are able TO DO at the end of the lesson.
Name of Teacher
Name of School
CLASS: JSS One
SUBJECT: Basic Technology
Theme: One – You and Technology
Basic Technology is a compulsory subject in the (Nine) 9-Year Basic Education programme. The National Educational Research and Development (NERDC) outline the objectives of the subject to include:
- Inculcation of technological literacy;
- Exposure of students to the world of work to match their talents for wise vocational choices; and
- Inculcation of positive attitudes towards work as a source of human identity, livelihood and power.
In order to achieve these objectives, the Basic Technology curriculum is divided into nine (9) themes including:
- You and Technology
- Materials and Processing
- Drawing Practice
- Tools and Machines
- Applied Electricity and Electronics
- Energy and Power
Each of the themes is thereafter subdivided into topics. The week’s topic is under theme one – You and Technology which generally introduces the students to technology. This theme will still be the centre of discussion until the next three (3) weeks.
Funk, K. (1999, September 1). Technology and Christiian Values. Retrieved June 13, 2017, from Oregon State University.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Library. (n.d.). Objects and Plan of an Institute of Technology. Retrieved 06 16, 2017, from MIT Libraries: https://libraries.mit.edu/_archives/exhibits/objects-plan/index.html
Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council. (2007). 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum, Basic Technology for JSS 1-3. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Education – Nigerian Educational Research Development Council.
Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council. (2015). NERDC Basic Technology for Junior Secondary School 1. Lagos: Learn Africa.
Pain, R. (1937). Technology and State Government. American Sociological Review , 2, 860.
Schatzberg, E. (2006). Technik Comes to America, Changing Meanings of Technology before 1930. Project MUSE Scholarly Journal Online , 487.
THIERER, A. (2014, April 29). Defining “Technology”. Retrieved June 13, 2017, from The Technology Liberty Front: https://techliberation.com/2014/04/29/defining-technology/
Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. (2017, June 2). Technology. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology#cite_note-6
- Chalkboard/Whiteboard and Chalk/Maker
- Projector or similar digital display with a computer set. Preferably, the computer/display should have a wireless control.
- Charts of some Innovations and corresponding pre-innovative period. This is requirement is only for those who have no digital display
- Sample of simple primitive tool and its modern alternative. For those in Northern Nigeria, a very good example which we recommend and shall thus use in this note is a Koranic slate (or tablet) and book
Customarily, some of the students believe that technology relates to computers and complex machines only. Also, there is the general perception that technology and its industry is exclusive to men – technology work is men’s work.
- Cognitive: At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to :
- Coin the definition of technology in their own words;
- List the benefits of technology
- Mention some products of technology
- Link technology to other discipline
- Describe and apply a problem solving model to solving contemporary problem
- Affective: The pupils should:
- Develop and show interest in the subject and seek to apply their knowledge to make new thing or solve problem.
- Change their perceptive and persuade others to correct the perceptive that technology is exclusive to men
- Correct the notion that technology applies only to computer and complex machines
The students have elementary knowledge of technology from primary school. They use products of technology and are familiar with the term Information Technology, Information and Communication Technology or Computer Technology.
METHOD OF TEACHING
Deductive – the teacher shall explain the concept of technology using Computer Aided Instruction (CAI)/ charts so clear as to make the students able to deduce the definition of technology.
Prior to the commencement of the lesson, the teacher shall collect samples of simple primitive tool(s) and the modern alternative (s). S/he shall also collect and prepare necessary instructional materials – videos, slides or charts.
The students shall listen and contribute to the lesson/definition of technology. Contributors may be asked to defend their point by fellow student in a form of debate – but not necessarily.
The lesson is presented in such steps as follows:
Step 1: Inspiring Interest in the subject – Basic Technology
In order to arouse the students’ interest in the lesson and subject in general, the teacher explains or teaches the relevance of the subject in this manner:
S/he asks the students the reason they are in school and receives as many answers as possible. Among probable answers will be:
To learn – to which the teacher further asks why we learn. Of course, that is after appreciating the student for initial answer.
In respond to the forgoing question, the students should give random answers. However the teacher should look out for something like, we learn so as to be able to earn a leaving and help other people. As soon as such or nearly same answer is given by any of the student, the teacher appreciates all the respondents and make the students understand that technology has somewhat the same objective as going to school or learning – it helps us to learn how to help other people and earn a comfortable life.
Thence that to help other people, the helper looks for the problems or challenges of those to be helped – be it in their works, family or general way of life – then proffers the appropriate solution(s) to such problems/challenges.
Following the disclosure above, the teacher uses the invention chart/video or slides to further explain the concept of problem/solution oriented meaning of technology. For each invention/inventor, s/he tells the pupils the motivation of the inventor (which problem s/he observed), the invention (what he invented to alleviate the plight of the people) and how it actually helped the people after invention or entry into the society.
Step 2: Motivation: Selflessness or Selfless Thinking as the first step to innovation
Succeeding the first step, the teacher consolidates the idea with a short period of motivation on selflessness as the first step to innovation.
Selflessness or Selfless Thinking as the First Step to Innovation
The nature of every man (i.e. how God made him) is such that he is inclined to be self-centered or egocentric. It takes some kind of mind development (mostly religious exercise) to suppress this natural inclination of self-seeking or excessive desire of the feeling of importance or respect. This is why selflessness is referred as an act of heroism, not all man wants or can be selfless.
Consequently, man naturally desires popularity and power – in form of money, education, leadership or success of any kind that will make others to respect him and give him the feeling of importance. Nonetheless, Nature (God or Divine Providence) has also designed it that before any man attain the level of success that attracts such attention or respect, he first must pay attention to others – he must be able to solve someone else’s problem.
This has been the message or lesson of nature communicated to man through the lives of fellow men (and businesses) that have accomplished such success.
Take for examples all the inventors we just learned about, they became important (or more important) after their invention (solution to a particular problem of others).
The aim of Basic Technology is to equip students with the knowledge and skills necessary to identify other people’s problem and not only develop suitable solutions but also earn a good living from the aid you provide.
Step 3: Meaning of Technology
At this stage that the students’ mind is prepared for the lesson and the subject in general, the teacher explains the meaning of technology to them.
NOTE: the teacher ensures that the students do not just memorize a particular definition as may be suggested by rote. S/he engages the students in defining technology – explains the concept so that they could define it with their own words. This is one of the propensities of revising the national curricular.
To explain the concept of technology in an engaging way, the teacher follows these steps:
- S/he explains the different but (somewhat) accepted definitions of technology – i.e. explains what each author means.
- S/he then asks each student which of the definitions they agree with. Thereafter, the teacher groups those that chose or agreed with the same definition. Each group is then allowed to discuss why they chose it. After about 5-10 minutes, each group (leader) makes a short presentation (on the reasons) to the class. Members of other groups may be allowed to support or oppose the point of any given group.
- In conclusion, the teacher picks out the prevalent (key) words (or ideas) in the different definitions and explains them. The teacher then coins a definition using the key words – and/or let the students do same.
The Various Meanings (Definitions) of Technology
Even though we are unsure of the meaning of technology, as soon as the word is mentioned many technological advances come to our mind. Hence, to begin the definition of technology, the teacher plays a video of some groundbreaking applications of technology. This helps them to instinctively develop the meaning of technology within. After the video, the teacher proceeds to the origin and variant meaning of the word – technology.
Origin of the word – ‘Technology’
Technology comes from two Greek words: techne and logos (Funk, 1999). Techne means art, skill, craft, the way, manner or means by which a thing is gained. Logos means word, the utterance by which inward thought is expressed, a saying or an expression.
Literary Meaning of the word – ‘Technology’
Dr. Kenneth H. Funk is an Associate Professor in the department of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering at Oregon State University. After studying the origin of the word, ‘technology’, he defined technology literarily thus: Technology means words or discourse about the way things are gained (Funk, 1999).
This literal definition means that any form of conversation about how to get anything at all would qualify to be called technology. For example, if I wanted to eat meat and approached my dad, he would engage me on discussing how to (knowledge of procedures, skill and tools) get meat out of animals such as goat to gratify my need or want. The implication of the literal definition of technology is that at the end of our simple (forgoing) discussion, we would have achieved or practiced technology.
The teacher then asks students’ opinion of whether or not they agree with the definition and entertain a few minutes of discussion before proceeding to next definition.
Technology as study of useful art or useful art
Another researcher and author, Eric Schatzberg, an associate professor in the Department of the History of Science, University of Wisconsin–Madison, who also studied the history of technology, said that technology originally means the science or study of useful art (Schatzberg, 2006).
This definition means that technology is a field of study (just like a school subject) that teaches practical arts like woodworking or needlework – this includes knowledge of procedures, skills and tools
Technology as a school or level of education
In 1861 William Barton Rogers founded The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to improve industry by furnishing young men with training in science that they could apply in the pursuit of practical goals, producing better results with greater efficiency (Massachusetts Institute of Technology Library) – that is, to teach technical skills.
Although such (advanced) technical schools at that time were called Polytechnics, William chose not to call his new school a polytechnic (something that might have been Massachusetts Polytechnic) but technology.
As a result of his choice, William invented another (new) meaning of technology as a higher technical education (Schatzberg, 2006, p. 492).
This meaning implies that technology is a school that is dedicated to equipping students with the knowledge and practical skills of particular occupation for a better result.
Read Bain’s Definition of Technology
Read Bain, one of Miami University’s most prolific scholars wrote that technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them (Pain, 1937, p. 860).
In Bain’s opinion, technology consists of the things produced to meet our needs or solve our problems combined with the skills we need to make the things.
Technology as Idea or Process of doing something
Finally, there are some other groups of people who believe that technology is the idea in producing things. While some other people say technology is a new or better way of doing something like a college typist who used to type with a typewriter but now uses computer.
To be update later in the day with downloadable PDF