LESSON NOTE – 1ST TERM PRIMARY 5 BASIC SCIENCE WEEK 2

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This post with keywords: lesson-note-1st-term-primary-5-basic-science-week-2 is a guide to help Primary 5 BST school teachers in Nigeria to prepare their Week 2 Basic Science lesson plan. The guide is also useful to parents who are looking for a way to help their Primary 5 children keep up with their Science curriculum. Primary 5 school children who are able to read and understand will find this guide very useful. Studying it before the class will make them understand the topic better and faster when their teacher delivers it. If they study it after the class, it will also help them remember more and they will get deeper understanding. School owners and administrators can help their Primary 5 BST teachers to deliver better by simply suggesting this note to them.

I wrote this lesson note guide based on (Olatoye, 2016) and (Ajogwu). Both Doctors Olatoye and Ajogwu drew their Scheme of Work in line with the new Standard Basic Science Curriculum (9-year Basic Edition) by the Nigerian Educational Research & Development Council. Basic Science is one of the four separate but related subjects compressed to form one major subject, Basic Science and Technology by the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC). The other subjects are Basic Technology, Physical and Health Education and Information Technology (IT) – formerly Computer Studies. However the lesson covers more depth to meet private schools standard. If you would like to have any of these Schemes of Work for any class, let me know via WhatsApp: +2348067689217.

For teachers that are looking for lesson plan on the topic; it is important to note that you may not submit this guide directly to your supervisor exactly as I have written it here – except if your supervisor is OK with it. Most schools have a particular lesson plan format that they accept. The note does not favour any particular lesson plan format. Instead, it is a general suggestion that can be adapted to any format of choice – for this reason; I include the general components of standard lesson plans. The focus of the note is to provide enriched lesson content and then suggest ways of delivering such content qualitatively.

Talking about qualitative delivery, this is my short note to all BST Teachers

Basic Science Technology teachers must understand that this is a practical subject. Hence, the success of its delivery stretches beyond the cognitive objectives. A BST teacher is a demonstrator, mind influencer and a motivator that inspires his/her student TO DO.  As a result, the teacher should classes by demonstration and motivation. Similarly you should measure your performance not only by what your pupils are able TO REMEMBER, but also by what they are able TO DO and the CHANGE IN THEIR MINDSET AND/OR CHARACTER at the end of the lesson. Set individual goals for each child. Help nurture them to attain these goals – one at a time. Acknowledge their every step in the development process and praise them for it. When a child misses a step and you need to correct him/her, do so with the understanding and love. Remember, if you get wrong answers consistently; the question may be wrongly worded and is being misunderstood – rephrase it. If they would not understand something you have repeatedly explained you may need to change your approach. Do not hesitate to call for help.

If you do this no matter what, nature by its law of compensation will cause everything and everyone to conspire for your reward – at some point – and posterity will remember you for it. And to fail in this, does not only represent incompetence but you have fail to build a nation of innovators and problem solvers when you had the opportunities. Nature also has its rewards for this.

NOW THE GUIDE: LESSON NOTE – PRIMARY 5 1ST TERM BASIC SCIENCE WEEK 2

Teacher: Ankpa PiusJoe

School: LeadinGuides Educational Technology

Term: 1st

Week: 2

Date: Look up your calendar

Period: Look up your timetable

Duration:  4 periods a week totalling to about 120 – 160minutes depending on length of each period.

Age: Between 9.5 and 11 years

Class: Primary Five

Class Composition: see details here

Subject: Basic Science

Topic: Changes around us (Erosion)

REFERENCED MATERIALS

Ajogwu(PhD), E. L. Standard Scheme of Work in Line with National Curricular(UBE EDITION) for Middle Basic (Primary 4-6). Lesam Educational.

Asun, P., Bajah, S. T., Ndu, F. C., Oguntonade, C. B., & Youdeowei, A. (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools Pupils’ Book 5. Lagos: Longman Nigeria Plc.

National Teachers’ Institute (NTI); Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC). (2010). Manual for Capacity Building Workshops of Teachers under the Federal Teachers’ Scheme (FTS) on Basic Science and Technology. Kaduna: National Teachers’ Institute (NTI).

Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools 5. Lagos: West African Book Publishers (WABP) Limited .

Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2011). Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools Workbook 5. Lagos: West African Book Publishers (WABP) Limited.

Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC). (2012). Teachers’ Guides for the Revised 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and DevelopmentCouncil (NERDC).

Ogunniyi, M. B., Obed, U., OKebukola, P. O., & Mahmoud, I. (2010). Macmillan Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools (UBE Edition) Book 1. Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers Limited.

Olatoye, T. A. (2016). The Scheme of Work plus 20 things You should Know about the New 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum. Lagos: Saint Hope Nigeria Limited.

Science Teachers Association of NIgeria (STAN). (2011). STAN BAsic Science and Technology for Primary Schools (UBE Edition) Book 1. Ibadan: University Press Plc.

National Geographic Society. (2018, March 20). Erosion. Retrieved from National Geographic Society: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/erosion/

National Snow and Ice Data Center. (n.d.). What is a glacier? Retrieved from National Snow and Ice Data Center: https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/glaciers/questions/what.html

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Erosion. Retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erosion

Wikipedia. (n.d.). Glacier. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glacier

National Ocean Service. (n.d.). Currents (Tidal Currents 1). Retrieved from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Department of Commerce: https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/tutorial_currents/02tidal1.html

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

  1. Video, slides or pictures of eroded site to illustrate the meaning of erosion
  2. Video, slide or pictures of each type of erosion
  3. Video, slides or pictures of causes of erosion such as
    1. Video/Animation of raining washing off top soil
    2. Video/animation of different kind of wind carrying soil
  4. Video, slides or pictures of erosion predisposing factors
  5. Video, slides or pictures of the effects of erosion
  6. Video, slides or pictures of erosion prevention and control measures
  7. Science Notebook

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR

This lesson assumes that the pupils know the meaning of changes and types of changes. Nonetheless, these are revised in the lesson

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

The pupils probably have casually seen erosion/eroded site.

OBJECTIVES

At the end of the lesson, the pupils should have attained the following:

·         Cognitive:

They should be able to define erosion; mention the types of erosion; identify and differentiate between the different types of erosion; list the agents of erosion; mention factors that predispose an environment to erosion; state some effects of erosion and mention some prevention/control of erosion.

·         Affective:

The pupils should be able to internalize the concept of change, apply the concept of change to improve a particular character. The pupils should also recognize the need for erosion control and prevention exercises; and propose, join as well as persuade others to participate in environmental sanitation.

·         Psychomotor:

The pupils should be able to clear drainage, dispose refuse properly, create terracing and plant trees.

METHOD OF TEACHING

The teacher shall deliver the lesson by:

  • Induction (preferably using Computer Aided Instructions),
  • Excursion or field trip (if time permits), and

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES

The teacher shall source the instructional materials, make arrangements for excursion (if it is to be employed) to erosion site in the locality, organize erosion control project, assess the pupils and give proper feedback to the pupils.

LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES

The pupils shall actively participate in the class discussions by asking and answering questions and giving personal opinions. They shall also embark on excursion to erosion site, prepare and make presentations. Finally, they shall carryout erosion prevention and control project.

PRESENTATION

The teacher presents the lesson in order of progressive steps as I outline below. I recommend that the teacher treats Step 1 through 4 in two periods. Then field trip on the third period and step 5 through 7 on the fourth period.

Step 1:  Introduction

To introduce the topic, the teacher gives a brief moral talk on change – pursuant of the affective objectives.

First, s/he revises grade 4 definition of change.

Change is when something becomes different from its original form

The teacher makes the pupils to read this a couple of times for memorization. Forth, s/he explains and demonstrates the meaning of change.

Following this, the teacher explains that change is a constant occurrence in our world. The teacher gives these instances of change:

  • At one time we are babies, then adults at another;
  • New things become old;
  • Bad things become good;
  • Civilization turns forests to cities;
  • The poor become rich;
  • The young get old;
  • Day turn to night;
  • The weak become strong;
  • Losers turn champions;
  • The last become first;
  • Bullies turn friendly;
  • The arrogant/stubborn become humble; and
  • The lazy become hard-working.

The teacher concludes the examples that ours is the world of possibilities – it is possible for almost all things to change.

Succeeding this, the teacher further explains that the numerous changes in our world are natural or man-made; positive or negative – the teacher gives examples of each. S/he also explains that one of the essences of education is to make them create positive change. Hence, as they (the pupils) grow in their level of education – move to higher class such as moving from Grade 4 to 5, the society expect them to continually change and create change in positive ways.

Self-Examination and Changing Misbehaviours

Consequently, the teacher leads the pupils to a brief self-examination exercise. S/he gives the pupils the following questions:

1.       What bad behaviours do many people – parents, family members, friends, and teachers – always complain about you?

NOTE: Teacher should differentiate between actual misbehaviour and steadfastness to yield to negative demand. Both may offend people. But the first offends people the pupils know really love them and wouldn’t do anything to hurt them – trusted people. Steadfastness to yield to negative coercion on the other hand, offends bad people – even though they may look good and caring.  Paedophiles and bad friends may actually get offended when they refuse to yield to their demands.  One important thing that the teacher should make them know that bad behaviours as we mean in this question are those things that offend many trusted people not just any one or two persons. They (the pupils) should themselves know those bad behaviours – What they do and their conscience tells them is wrong.

2.       In what good ways do you want to change?
3.       What good change do you want to create in your community – starting from the family and the school?

The teacher makes each pupil to answer the self-examination questions – either in a sheet of paper or in their notes. However, s/he first of all charges the pupils to be sincere with their answers.

Once the self-examination exercise is complete, the teacher encourages them to earnestly pursue their change decisions. S/he does this by teaching them to learn from how nature creates change – through persistent. Nature creates change gradually but persistently and consistently. Thereafter the teacher gives the pupils guidelines on persistent change creation as follows.

Guidelines on persistent change creation in misbehaviour

1.       Apologize

The pupils should apologize to the (trusted) people who they constantly offend through their misbehaviours.

2.       Assure

The pupils should tell the (trusted) people the good ways they (the pupils) want to change.

3.       Write down

The pupils should write down (preferably in their dairy or daily journal) the good ways they want to change and the good change they want to create in their community. They should write in simple-past tense as in the format below:

“My name is _______________. On this _______ day of ______, 20___; I stopped being stubborn to my parents and a bully to my friends at school (the bad behaviours to change). And I promised to make my stubborn friends at school and at home to be humble (good changes to make in the community)”.

Signed

4.       Believe

Once they have autographed their change pledge, they have to start believing that the change is done thence.

5.       Persist

This means the will continue to try practising the change no matter how many times they fail.  If they do the thing(s) they promised not to do again; they should consider it as a mistake. They apologize, assure and read their change pledge many times. Whether this or not, they should read their change pledge at least 3 times daily: first thing in the morning after awakening from sleep, just before launch time (break) at school and just before dismissal from school.

Erosion as natural change in our environment

Once this change exercise is done, the teacher relates the general concept of change to the topic of the day. Foremost, s/he observes that although we are surrounded by numerous changes; some people live too casually to notice and study the pattern of these changes. S/he supplements that as a result, such people encounter many avoidable problems. For example, residents of a building who did not notice the cracks on their house until the house collapses; a farmer who does not study the pattern of flood and the farm is annually swept by flood, etc.

The teacher then teaches that differently, being students of science, the pupils are expected to live with full consciousness of their environment – they should always take note of changes in their environment and study it, whether negative or positive. If it is positive, studying it will enable them replicate it. And studying negative change will help them prevent recurrence. They should also find out all possible ways of remedying negative changes.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher reveals that scientists have studied some changes in our environment that affect us negatively. S/he furthers that these changes are divided into two based on their causes – natural changes and man-made changes. Thereafter the teacher explains that the week’s lesson is one of the major natural changes that are a problem all over the world. The teacher then continues by telling the pupils a real devastating story of the occurrence of erosion – possibly with a video, slides or pictures. See these following discussions:

  1. See World Bank’s Nigerian Erosion story
  2. See the Kenyan Erosion story on Stanford News
  3. See a number of Erosion stories on National Geographic

The narration should include what caused the erosion and the effects.  Afterwards, the teacher tells the pupils that the week’s lesson is to study such occurrence – which is called Erosion. The teacher thereafter writes or projects the topic on the board/screen and then explains the objectives of the lesson.

Step 2: Meaning of Erosion

To explain the meaning of erosion, the teacher refers the pupils to the story in the last step above. Then s/he asks them that having seen erosion in the story, how they would define erosion.  The teacher receives several attempts and appreciates every child that made attempt. At the end of the attempts – which the teacher receives with full consciousness of time – or when a pupil got the answer, the teacher projects/writes the definition of erosion on the board/screen and explains it thoroughly.

Definition of Erosion

Erosion is the washing and carrying away of the top soil from one place to another on the earth surface by water and wind.

After explanation – of definition and the keyword, the teacher makes the pupils read the definition a couple of times for memorization.

Step 3: Agents of Erosion

Succeeding step 2, the teacher explains that agents of erosion are the things that remove top soil from one place to another – that is, things that causes erosion. Thence, s/he teaches that there are two main agents or causes of erosion. These are:

  1. Water
  2. Wind

Following the identification of the agents of erosion, the teacher explains how each of the agents causes erosion.

How Water Causes Erosion

Water causes erosion in the form of rain, tidal current (waves) and ice glaciers.  Starting with rain, the teacher asks the pupils how each of these forms of water causes erosion.

After a few minutes of discussion, the teacher with the aid of the accompanying video/slide explains how each causes erosion.

How Rain Causes Erosion

When there is a downpour – teacher plays the video or shows the slide one of water erosion – it results in excess water on the ground. Teacher pause the video and asks the pupils where the water goes afterwards. After a short discussion, the teacher continues the video and explains that:

First, the hitting of fast and forceful raindrops loosens up soil particles. And then some portion of the water sinks underground while other part of the rain water flows or runs off to open water bodies like streams and rivers. These small water bodies will then overflow their banks and the water again flows or runs off to large water bodies like oceans and seas.  As the water runs off to the water bodies, it washes along soil particles.

How Ice Glaciers Cause Erosion

Ice Glacier is a thick and large mass of ice that is formed when snow gathers and remains at a place for a long time. Ice glacier is always moving under its own weight. When ice glacier moves it scrapes, cracks and carries bedrocks into soil particles which it carries from one place to another.

How Tidal Current causes erosion

Tidal current is the forceful and speedy movement of water due to rise or fall in sea level. When tidal current hits banks of river bodies and cliffs, it breaks and sweeps soil particles from one place to another.

How Wind Cause Erosion

When strong wind like whirlwind such as dust devil and tornado blow, it picks up and carries away loose soil particles from one place to another. Wind also carries relatively heavy objects into the air, when such objects fall to the ground they loosen the soil and make it easier for wind to carry.  The soil particles (mostly sand) that wind carry usually accumulates at a place. This accumulation is called sand dune.

The teacher explains each of the agents of erosion thoroughly with the aid of appropriate video/slides/pictures.

Stage Evaluation Question

Before the teacher proceeds to the next step, s/he assesses the pupils understanding. S/he does this by asking them the following questions.

  1. Define change
  2. Apart from the ones given, state three other examples of changes in our environment
  3. What are the five steps to change a bad character?
  4. Based on their origin, what are the two divisions of the changes around us?
  5. Which group of the division above does erosion fall into?
  6. What is erosion?
  7. What is meant by agent of erosion? State the agents of erosion
  8. The accumulation of snow over a period of time into a large mass of ice which constantly moves under its weight is known as ____________________________________
  9. State all the forms that water causes erosion
  10. Differentiate between ice glacier and sand dune

Step 4: Types of Erosion

Following the stage assessment above, the teacher continues the lesson with the following explanation. S/he explains that when wind and water cause erosion as we discussed earlier, it results in different forms and level of damages. One form/level of damage may be more than another. We identify the various forms and levels of damages that wind and water erosion cause by different names. One of the reasons that it is important to do this is because each form may require different prevention and control measures. Knowing the form or erosion or kind of damage that affects an area will make it easier to determine the correct control measures.

After the explanation above, the teacher teaches that there are two main types of erosion – water erosion and wind erosion. Thereafter, the teacher explains each type of erosion as below.

Water Erosion

Water erosion is the erosion is the damage that results when water wash away top soil from one place to another. When water erosion happens, it causes different forms of damage. Consequently, there are different names that identifies each form of damage that water erosion cause.

Types of water erosion

1.       Splash Water Erosion

This is when very fast rain drops scatter top soils. This kind of water erosion causes only little physical damage to the soil. Nonetheless, it causes good enough problem to plants because it increases soil pores which make water to drain too quick into the soil.

2.       Sheet Erosion

This is the removal of thin layer of soil as water flows or runs off. This level of damage is also not too severe to physical eyes but to plants – it carries soil nutrient along with the topsoil.

3.       Rill Water Erosion

This is the formation channel/cracks on land by water. This can cause major or severe damage to land and plants.

4.       Gully Water Erosion

This is the formation of wide and deep channels/rills on land by water. This is the summit of the damages that water erosion cause. In gully erosion, water cuts up large field and form wide holes/pits known as gullies.

Wind Erosion

Wind Erosion is the damage of land as a result of wind removing soil from an area. Most often, wind erosion occurs on flat land in dry or sandy areas.

NOTE: The teacher explains each type of erosion with appropriate chart/slides/video.

FIELD TRIP

After the explanation/discussion on the types of erosion and before the continuation of the lesson, the teacher organizes a short excursion to the already-selected erosion site(s) in the locality.

Preparation for the trip

In addition to other preparations, the teacher should visit the erosion site before the excursion day. During this time, s/he identifies different spots with different type of erosion. S/he names these spots and prepares questions for the pupils to answer for each spot during the trip – either onsite or when they return to camping ground or school.

At the excursion site

On the excursion day, pupil should go with the science notebook and writing materials. Camera is a must – at least one for all. At the spots, the pupils inspect the kind of erosion and jot down their observation – description and inference. Upon their return, each pupil studies his/her jottings and the pictures from each spot, then independently describes and identifies the type of erosion.

After the excursion

The teacher, after marking the notes – probably before the end of that day – but before making corrections; groups the pupils based on their answers – i.e. those that wrote similar answers into the same group. Subsequently, the teacher demands that each group, drawing from the jottings of all group members and the pictures, prepares and make group presentation on their answers – why they believe their answers are correct. Presentation may be on the day of wrapping up.

Wrapping up

In conclusion of the excursion, probably another day of the subject other than the day of excursion; the teacher uses the pictures and explains the type of erosion at each spot and why. Subsequently, s/he distributes the pupils’ notes, gives appropriate feedbacks and then proceeds to the last part of the lesson.

Step 5: Factors that Predispose land to Erosion

In continuation of the lesson, the teacher leads the pupils to discuss and list the factors that predispose land to erosion.

S/he begins by revising what they have learned so far. After that, s/he explains the meaning of the subheading – Factors that predispose land to erosion:

This means the things that encourage erosion. When these things are present, erosion occurs or occurs faster/more. And when the things are absent, erosion does not occur or it occurs minimally.

Next, the teacher asks the pupils why erosion happens in some places but not in others. Why the place they visited was eroded but the location of their school or some other places not? Naturally, the (smart) pupils should correctly say that it is because the predisposing factors were missing in the location that is not eroded. Notwithstanding, to induce more critical thinking, the teacher further asks them to mention examples of such factors. The teacher writes the factors as the pupils make attempts.

After the pupils have mentioned a couple of the factors or if answers were not forthcoming, the teacher proceeds with explanation of the factors.

Factors that predispose lands to erosion

Some of the things that encourage erosion are natural while others are man’s activities.

The natural factors are:

1.       Topography or sloppiness of the land

A sloppy land make water to run off faster thus removing more top soil whereas plain or flat land does not.

2.       Vegetation

Vegetation means the kind of plants that grows in a place. A place that has lot of trees and grasses does not experience erosion as much as those that do not. This is because the trees and grasses will cover the topsoil from direct wind and raindrops.

3.       Rainfall

Some places have more rainfall a year than others places. The places with heavy rainfall are more prone to erosion than the other areas.

4.       Soil Type

Some type of soil (sandy) absorbs or drains water faster than others (clay and loamy). Hence, little rain results in little erosion. In other words, sandy particles are lighter than others. As a result, sandy soil is more readily eroded especially by wind than other type of soil. Clayey soil does not readily absorb water and the particles are compact. Hence, water accumulates and eats up the soil causing rill erosion as the water reacts with chemicals in the soil and cracks it up.  Loamy soil on the other hand is most susceptible to run off. Thus, more gully erosion occurs on loamy soil.

5.       Wind Factor

Some areas naturally have windy weather than others while the speed and strength of wind also differs from place the place, areas with faster. Areas with faster and stronger wind will experience more wind erosion.

Man Activities that predispose lands to erosion

1.       Deforestation

Deforestation means cutting down of trees or destroying forest. When man cut trees, he exposes the land to wind and water which causes erosion.

2.       Exploitation of natural mineral resources

Exploitation of natural resources means removing natural mineral resources from the ground for use. Mineral resources are useful chemical substances that we can use to make other things. Mineral resources include things like gold, tin, crude oil, etc. When man removes these minerals, he digs up the soil and breaks up rocks. These make soil to become loose and easy to be carried by wind and water.

3.       Road Construction

To construct roads, man fall trees and uses heavy cars to grade the path. Sometimes they even dig up the ground. These also expose the soil and loose soil particles making it easy for erosion to occur.

4.       Bush Burning

People set bush on fire to hunt or for farming purpose. Bush burning also exposes the land to erosion by removing the covering grasses.

5.       Poor Drainage

When there is no proper channel for rain water to flow away from an area or when the inside of the gutter is not cemented, the water eats up the drainage and expands the gutter, washes away the soil and result in a gully.

6.       Poor method of Waste Disposal

When people dumb refuse on waterways or gutter; rain water creates ways for itself by washing off other areas.

Step 6: Effects of Soil Erosion

After step 5 above, the teacher initiates discussion on the effect of erosion. However, s/he first of all explains the meaning of effect:

Effect means the result of something on another thing.

The teacher explains further that although effect may be good or bad, in effect of erosion; we mostly imply the bad ways that erosion affects us and the environment.

Succeeding the explanation, the teacher asks the pupils to mention some of the ways they think erosion affect us negatively. S/he writes each on the board as the pupils mention the effects of erosion. After that, the teacher gives thorough explanation of the effects of erosion.

Effects of Erosion

  1. Destruction of the environment
  2. Loss of lives and properties
  3. Damage of roads
  4. Waste of resources – useful land and money in checking erosion
  5. Loss of soil nutrient and fertility
  6. Poor crop yield
  7. Shortage of food

Step 7: Control of Erosion

Having learned so many things about erosion and its devastating effort, it is obvious that it has to be prevented. Or where it is already in existence, we have to prevent it from getting worse. The teacher explains that this is what erosion control means – preventing erosion from occurring or getting worse.

Furthering, the teacher explains that preventing erosion can easily be derived from the human activities that predispose land to erosion. Since we said doing those things encourages erosion, then not doing them or doing the opposite will prevent erosion.

The teacher asks the contributions of the pupils. S/he picks each of the man’s activities that encourage erosion and asks the pupils the opposite of such activities.  Afterwards, s/he wraps it with a thorough explanation.

1.      Afforestation

Afforestation means planting trees – opposite of deforestation.

2.      Sustainable Exploitation

This mean exploitation that is environment-friendly. Government should make law to make sure companies and industries adopt sustainable exploitation.

3.      Proper Road and Drainage Construction and Maintenance

Government should make sure road construction companies construct very good road that will last for a very long time. The companies should also construct good drainage and cement it to prevent water from eating up the edges. And the roads and drainages should be very well maintained – whenever they notice any little damage, it should be repaired to avoid it from expanding. People should also take care of the drainage in their residential and business environment.

4.      Government should make laws against bush burning

Government should also teacher farmers and hunters environment-friendly way of doing their business.

5.      Proper Refuse Disposal

Government should make law against indiscriminate dumping of refuse. People should carryout periodic sanitation of their environment. Government and communities should employ the services of community waste management agencies or companies.

NOTE: We have no control over natural factors. However, the prevention measures to correct human-oriented factors also help to control natural factors. For example, planting trees will solve serve as a check for wind erosion.

EVALUATION

·         Assessment of Cognitive Objectives:

The teacher evaluates the pupils understanding by giving them exercises based on the topic. Check back later for Multiple Choices and other cognitive evaluation questions.

·         Assessment of Affective Objectives

The teacher may also assess the affective objectives of the lesson by the kind of question they ask at the end of the lesson. The concluding part of the lesson leaves some issues open. With the low confidence in Nigerian governments, questions like how to make the government enact the laws under the control measures is an indication of affected traits. However, the teacher must see that as an opportunity to educate the pupils on the modus operandi of the governments. The pupils should understand the accessibility of public office holders and the legal demand for their accountability. In fact, if the pupils did not ask; the teacher should still proceed with the discussion.

·         Assessment of Psychomotor Objectives

Activity 1: Clearing drainage

The teacher ascertains whether the school’s drainage needs clearing. If it does, s/he asks for volunteers and supervises the pupils to clear it at free time.

Activity 2: Influencing Change

The teacher groups those that did not participate in activity 1 and tasks each group with:

  1. Identifying one major erosion predisposing factor in the locality – one for each group
  2. Identify needed action(s) to prevent (further) erosion of the site
  • Writing to persuade the necessary authority to take the necessary action(s)
  1. Presenting their letters to the class
  2. (Optionally but highly recommended) submitting the letter to the authority under the guidance of the teacher and bringing feedback back to the class

NOTE: The greatest achievement of this lesson will be the teacher guiding the pupils to either visit or write to their legislatures at different levels to move the motions for these laws. They may as well call the attention of the ministry of road and transport to any wearing or worn road or problematic drainage; and also the ministry of environment for any waste disposal issues. The era of learning for the result is far gone. This is the generation of applied knowledge and how beautiful that you the teacher is leader thereof.

Activity 3: Tree Planting Project

On a fixed date, the teacher demands every pupil to pick a tree they are interested in planting and bring the seed to school. They pupils will also carry along their nursery bed materials for the tree they want to plant. The teacher therefore guides the pupils to plant the seed on their nursery bed. The teacher thereafter tasks all the children with the care of the plant through germination phase and until examination period (i.e. week 10-11) when all of them will bring their plant. The more healthy and cultured plant gets higher mark. The teacher may call for the plant monthly to ascertain their progress.

SUMMARY

Following the evaluation, the teacher summarizes the lesson into a concise note. S/he gives the note to the pupils to copy unto their Basic Science note.

CHANGES AROUND US – EROSION

A change is when something becomes different from its original form. There are many changes around us. Some of the changes are natural others are man-made. Whether natural or artificial, changes have either positive or negative effects on us or the environment. One of the most common changes that affect us and our environment is erosion.

What is Erosion?

Erosion is the washing and carrying away of the top soil from one place to another on the earth surface by water and wind.

Agents of Erosion

Agents of erosion are the things that remove top soil from one place to another or the things that cause erosion. There are two main agents of erosion. These include:

  1. Wind
  2. Water

How does wind cause erosion?

When strong wind like whirlwind such as dust devil and tornado blow, it picks up and carries away loose soil particles from one place to another. Wind also carries relatively heavy objects into the air, when such objects fall to the ground they loosen the soil and make it easier for wind to carry.  The soil particles (mostly sand) that wind carry usually accumulates at a place. This accumulation is called sand dune.

How does Water Cause Erosion?

Water causes erosion in the form of rain, tidal current (waves) and ice glaciers.

Rain

When there is a downpour it results in excess water on the ground. First, the hitting of fast and forceful raindrops loosens up soil particles. And then some portion of the water sinks underground while other part of the rain water flows or runs off to open water bodies like streams and rivers. These small water bodies will then overflow their banks and the water again flows or runs off to large water bodies like oceans and seas.  As the water runs off to the water bodies, it washes along soil particles.

Ice Glacier

Ice Glacier is a thick and large mass of ice that is formed when snow gathers and remains at a place for a long time. Ice glacier is always moving under its own weight. When ice glacier moves it scrapes, cracks and carries bedrocks into soil particles which it carries from one place to another.

How Tidal Current causes erosion

Tidal current is the forceful and speedy movement of water due to rise or fall in sea level. When tidal current hits banks of river bodies and cliffs, it breaks and sweeps soil particles from one place to another.

Types of Erosion

There are basically two types of erosion. Wind Erosion and Water erosion.

Wind Erosion

Wind Erosion is the damage of land as a result of wind removing soil from an area. Most often, wind erosion occurs on flat land in dry or sandy areas.

Water Erosion

Water erosion is the erosion is the damage that results when water wash away top soil from one place to another. When water erosion happens, it causes different forms of damage. Consequently, there are different names that identifies each form of damage that water erosion cause.

Types of water erosion

1.       Splash Water Erosion

This is when very fast rain drops scatter top soils. This kind of water erosion causes only little physical damage to the soil. Nonetheless, it causes good enough problem to plants because it increases soil pores which make water to drain too quick into the soil.

2.       Sheet Erosion

This is the removal of thin layer of soil as water flows or runs off. This level of damage is also not too severe to physical eyes but to plants – it carries soil nutrient along with the topsoil.

3.       Rill Water Erosion

This is the formation channel/cracks on land by water. This can cause major or severe damage to land and plants.

4.       Gully Water Erosion

This is the formation of wide and deep channels/rills on land by water. This is the summit of the damages that water erosion cause. In gully erosion, water cuts up large field and form wide holes/pits known as gullies.

Factors that Predispose Land to Erosion

Factors that predispose land to erosion mean the things that encourage erosion. Some of the things that encourage erosion are natural while others are man’s activities.

The natural factors are:

1.      Topography or sloppiness of the land

A sloppy land make water to run off faster thus removing more top soil whereas plain or flat land does not.

2.      Vegetation

Vegetation means the kind of plants that grows in a place. A place that has lot of trees and grasses does not experience erosion as much as those that do not. This is because the trees and grasses will cover the topsoil from direct wind and raindrops.

3.      Rainfall

Some places have more rainfall a year than others places. The places with heavy rainfall are more prone to erosion than the other areas.

4.      Soil Type

Some type of soil (sandy) absorbs or drains water faster than others (clay and loamy). Hence, little rain results in little erosion. In other words, sandy particles are lighter than others. As a result, sandy soil is more readily eroded especially by wind than other type of soil. Clayey soil does not readily absorb water and the particles are compact. Hence, water accumulates and eats up the soil causing rill erosion as the water reacts with chemicals in the soil and cracks it up.  Loamy soil on the other hand is most susceptible to run off. Thus, more gully erosion occurs on loamy soil.

5.      Wind Factor

Some areas naturally have windy weather than others while the speed and strength of wind also differs from place the place, areas with faster. Areas with faster and stronger wind will experience more wind erosion.

Man Activities that predispose lands to erosion

1.      Deforestation

Deforestation means cutting down of trees or destroying forest. When man cut trees, he exposes the land to wind and water which causes erosion.

2.      Exploitation of natural mineral resources

Exploitation of natural resources means removing natural mineral resources from the ground for use. Mineral resources are useful chemical substances that we can use to make other things. Mineral resources include things like gold, tin, crude oil, etc. When man removes these minerals, he digs up the soil and breaks up rocks. These make soil to become loose and easy to be carried by wind and water.

3.      Road Construction

To construct roads, man fall trees and uses heavy cars to grade the path. Sometimes they even dig up the ground. These also expose the soil and loose soil particles making it easy for erosion to occur.

4.      Bush Burning

People set bush on fire to hunt or for farming purpose. Bush burning also exposes the land to erosion by removing the covering grasses.

5.      Poor Drainage

When there is no proper channel for rain water to flow away from an area or when the inside of the gutter is not cemented, the water eats up the drainage and expands the gutter, washes away the soil and result in a gully.

6.      Poor method of Waste Disposal

When people dumb refuse on waterways or gutter; rain water creates ways for itself by washing off other areas.

Effects of Erosion

Effects of erosion mean the negative ways that erosion affects man and the environment. The effects of erosion include:

  1. Destruction of the environment
  2. Loss of lives and properties
  3. Damage of roads
  4. Waste of resources – useful land and money in checking erosion
  5. Loss of soil nutrient and fertility
  6. Poor crop yield
  7. Shortage of food

Control of Erosion

Control of erosion means the ways of preventing erosion from occurring or getting worse. The ways of preventing erosion are:

1.      Afforestation

Afforestation means planting trees – opposite of deforestation.

2.      Sustainable Exploitation

This mean exploitation that is environment-friendly. Government should make law to make sure companies and industries adopt sustainable exploitation.

3.      Proper Road and Drainage Construction and Maintenance

Government should make sure road construction companies construct very good road that will last for a very long time. The companies should also construct good drainage and cement it to prevent water from eating up the edges. And the roads and drainages should be very well maintained – whenever they notice any little damage, it should be repaired to avoid it from expanding. People should also take care of the drainage in their residential and business environment.

4.      Government should make laws against bush burning

Government should also teacher farmers and hunters environment-friendly way of doing their business.

5.      Proper Refuse Disposal

Government should make law against indiscriminate dumping of refuse. People should carryout periodic sanitation of their environment. Government and communities should employ the services of community waste management agencies or companies.

NOTE: Notes should preferably be given during or at the end of each lesson. This ensures that it does not accumulate to become too much for the pupils. After each note, the teacher should ensure the pupils read it together for many time. This will aid memorization.

At the end of the last note, the teacher revises the entire lesson with the pupils. S/he encourages them to ask questions to which s/he provides simple and straightforward answers. The teacher should also ask the pupils a lot of oral questions.

CONCLUSION

To conclude the lesson, the teacher marks the pupils note, records their scores and distributes them. S/he gives appropriate feedback to individual pupil. Especially those that fell behind average, s/he sets goals for them to re-do the lesson and retake the assessments. Finally, the teacher links the week’s lesson with the following week’s topic – Changes around us, pollution.

S/he says that for the week, they studied natural change around us. However, in the following week, they shall study a man-made change that is also a major problem in our world.

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