Name of Teacher: ________________________________
Period: usually first.
Duration: 90 minutes – 30 minutes per period/day.
Age: 9 – 12 years.
CLASS: Primary One
CLASS COMPOSITION: The class should be, as in most schools divided into two: fast learners making Grade Two A (Gold or something similar) and average/slow learners making up Grade Two B (Copper or something similar). Where population is high, there may be more than one category for each set of learners. Similarly if the overall population is not too much, both set of learners may be combined. It is assumed that the set of fast learners will be moderately quiet while the set of average/slow learners is expected to more noisy if not cold.
TOPIC: Simple Multiplication (4-6 times table)
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to solve simple arithmetic problems involving multiplication of one by one digit number from 1 to 6.
Ajogwu, E. L. (2014). Standard Schemes of Work in Line with National Curricular. Leasam Educational (Consultantancy, Training & Publishing).
The teacher will teach the lesson with the aid of Multiplication Table and a set of counters (minimum of 72)
The pupils are required to already have learned the concept (meaning) of multiplication. They should also have been taught 1 – 3 times tables.
METHOD OF TEACHING
At introductory stage, the teacher employs deductive method then proceeds to inductive method. Midway into the class, the teacher switches to guided discovery method.
The teacher shall group the class into different categories, assign works closely, monitor the pupils as and guide them in solving problems or in performing assigned activities. S/he will also demonstrate how to carry out multiplication with counters.
The pupils are shall perform multiplication activities with counters and recite 4, 5 and 6 times tables.
The lesson is delivered as in the following order of steps:
Step1 : Introduction
To introduce the topic, the teacher upon entering the class makes a multiplication sign on the board then asks one or two pupils to identify it. After the teacher has aroused the pupils and gotten their attention, s/he tells them what sign s/he made. Thereafter, s/he tells the pupils that that is the topic of the week explaining the objectives of the topic.
Step2 Meaning of Multiplication
Soon after the forgoing step, the teacher makes the pupils to pronounce the word – “multiplication= mul-tip-li-ca-tion”. S/he pronounces it for the pupils to pronounce after him/her. After this, the teacher asks pupils whether they remember what multiplication mean. S/he receives a few answers/attempts before revising the meaning of multiplication with the pupils:
“Multiplication means to group or count a number into a given places and then adding all the groups together.”
S/he elaborates with the following examples.
Examples on the meaning of multiplication
- 2 X 3 means count 2 in 3 places then add all together. (teacher demonstrate using counters: oo oo oo = 6
- 3 X 4 means count 3 in 4 places and then add all together. ( teacher demonstrate using counters: ooo 000 000 000 = 12
More examples should be given for deeper understanding. Individual pupil may also be asked to give the meaning or even solve a particular question which may be asked as in the given stage evaluation below.
Stage Evaluation Question (EQ): Asked Orally
- What is the meaning of 2 X 5? Ask (volunteer) pupil to solve on the board for other pupils to see. Other pupils should be allowed to challenge the answer and the volunteer pupil also to prove his/her answers if challenged.
- What is the meaning of 6 X 2? Do as above.
…………………………Teacher may stop here for day one……………………………
Step3 Other Names of Multiplication
Once the pupils understand the meaning of multiplication, the teacher teaches the pupils that the words – “times”, “multiply” and “product” may also be used in place of the multiplication sign. Hence, that:
2 X 3 can be written as “2 times 3” or “2 multiply 3” or the “product of 2 and 3”.
Step4 Multiplication Exercise (with counters)
Succeeding the forgoing step, the teacher leads the pupils to carry out multiplication exercises with a set of counters as shown in the examples below:
- Solve 4 X 2
The teacher, picking one counters at a time from the collection; creates two groups of four counters. S/he makes the pupils to count for or with him/her as she picks each counter. Once the two groups is complete, the teacher keeps the collection away from the groups then with the pupils once more, add all the counters in the two groups together.
- Solve 4 X 3
- Solve 5 X 2
- Find the product of 5 and 3
- Multiply 6 by 2
- Solve 6 times 3
…………………………Teacher may stop here for day two……………………………
Step5 Pupils’ Activities
Thereafter, the teacher gives the pupils (either in group or individually) the following activities to solve with their counters.
Stage Evaluation Questions
Note: Teacher monitor the pupils while they solve these exercises not only to ensure that all are participating but also to see that some ‘smart ones’ are not copying from their times table
- Solve 4 X 4 = __________________________
- Solve 4 by 5 = __________________________
- 5 times 4 = _____________________________
- 5 times 5 = _____________________________
- Multiply 6 by 4 = ________________________
- Find the product of 6 and 5 = ______________
Step6 Reading of 4-6 Multiplication Table Chart
Once the forgoing exercise has been satisfactorily completed, the teacher displays 4, 5 & 6 times table chart on the wall. If this is not obtainable, the teacher distributes a printed A4 copy to the pupils. Then s/he explains to the pupils that the chart/tables contains standard answers for multiplications of (small) numbers and that they will proof it by comparing their answers with that of the tables. The teacher explains how the tables are used.
Thereafter s/he helps the pupils to compare their answers from the previous exercises with the tables. The comparison may be done uniformly – the teacher waits for every pupil to finish the exercise, then with their books outlaid on their desks and multiplication table distributed or displayed; the teacher directs every pupil to look up EQ One (4X4). If it is, the pupils put a check ( on the question if not, they leave it unchecked. This is repeated for each of the evaluation six questions in step 5.
Having proven to the pupils by the forgoing comparison, the teacher tells the pupils that they are going to learn to remember the answers contained on the tables so they won’t need to be using counter every time. S/he then reads the chart while the pupils repeat after him/her.
After series of readings, the teacher gives the pupils the exercises under assignment to see whether they understood topic. Nonetheless, before this exercises, the teacher should ask the questions orally in the class.
The teacher revises the entire lesson by:
- Reminding them that:
- Multiplication sign is X not +
- Multiplication means to count a number into a given places and then add all the groups together.
- Multiplication is also the same as product, multiply and times
- 2X3 may be read as “2 times 3” or “2 multiply 3” or “product of 2 and 3”
- Reading the 4, 5 and 6 multiplication table.
- Use your counters or multiplication tables to check the following. Put a tick ( in front of ones and a cancel (X) in front of wrong ones.
- 4 X 1 = 4
- 4 X 2 = 10
- 4 X 3 = 12
- 4 X 4 = 16
- 4 X 5 = 20
- 4 X 6 = 22
- 4 X 7 = 32
- 4 X 8 = 28
- 4 X 9 = 36
- Using nine different colour pencils, draw a straight line to match each to correct answers
- 5 X 1 15
- 5 X 2 30
- 5 X 3 5
- 5 X 4 30
- 5 X 5 10
- 5 X 6 20
- 5 X 7 45
- 5 X 8 25
- 5 X 9 35
- If one packet of pencil contains 6 pencils. How many pencils will be in:
- 1 packet = 6 X 1 = ____________ pencils
- 2 packets = 6 X 2 = ___________ pencils
- 3 packets = 6 X 3 = ___________ pencils
- 4 packets = 6 X 4 = ___________ pencils
- 5 packets = 6 X 5 = ___________ pencils
- 6 packets = 6 X 6 = ___________ pencils
- 7 packets = 6 X 7 = ___________ pencils
- 8 packets = 6 X 8___________ pencils
- 9 packets = 6 X 9 = ___________ pencils
The lesson is concluded by collection, marking, recording and returning pupils’ exercise books and making corrections where necessary. Finally the teacher tells the pupils that the next topic will be (counting in)/multiplying things that comes in 4s, 5s and 6s in the manner below.
“Now we have finished our class for the week. Next week, I’m going to be telling you some interesting stories of things that exist in 4s, 5s and 6s.
Would you like to listen to my stories? Well then, we will meet next week.”