Term: First Term

Week: 4-5

Class: Pre-Nursery

Topic: Strokes making: Vertical, Horizontal, Slant


At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to do the following:

Cognitive: Identify the three straight line patterns in writing.

Affective: Differentiate between the lines

Psychomotor: Arrange sticks into vertical, horizontal and slanted position to form net or a mesh.


The teacher shall collect straw (pipes) to be used for the mesh-making activities. Alternative to making all straw (pipes) mesh, a combination of four straw (pipes) and thread may be used. To make the mesh more aesthetic different colours of straw/rope may be used.


To deliver the lesson, the teacher follows the step given below:

Step: Introduction

The teacher introduces the lesson by revising the previous (2-3) week’s lesson. S/he directs them to grasp the pencil the tripod way. Thence, the teacher moves round and ascertain that the pupils have done accordingly – correcting them if necessary. Once s/he ascertains that the pupils still remember how to hold pencil correctly as s/he taught them earlier; the teacher commends them. Thereafter, s/he tells them that they have made a great effort and are rapidly moving towards becoming an expert writer – they soon will be writing like adults!

Having reminded the pupils of the end objectives in the foregoing sentences; the teacher tells the pupils that they are now going to learn another thing expert writer do when writing – that is, making different straight strokes. The teacher further explains that by learning how to make the different straight strokes, they will also learn to make many things. After this explanation, the teacher asks if they are ready to learn the strokes. Whence, proceeds to next step.

Step 2: The different straight strokes or writing patterns.

The pupils’ affirmative answer to the last question in the previous step should make the teacher lead the pupils to step 2 – “s/he tell them OK, let’s begin!”

Consequently, the teacher explains that the first thing the pupils need to know are the different straight strokes that expert writers make when writing.  In a follow up, s/he explains the meaning of the word, “straight” with examples and demonstrations. Thereafter, the teacher explains that there are three kinds of straight strokes they will learn – vertical, horizontal and slanted. Therefore, the teacher makes these strokes on the board and labels them accordingly.

After that, the teacher teaches the pupils how to pronounce each kind of the straight strokes. S/he pronounces each and the pupils pronounce after him/her.

NOTE: Pronunciation should be done gradually at first. Break each word into component syllable:

Vertical – Ver – ti – cal

Horizontal – Ho – ri – zon – tal

Slanted – S – lan – tin

For each word, pronounce and let the pupils repeat after you, a syllable at a time; then gradually combine the syllables to form the pronunciation of the word.

Succeeding the pronunciation exercise; and after the pupils demonstrate ability to pronounce each word correctly, the teacher explains the meaning of each stroke.

  • Vertical strokes are the straight lines that are standing.
  • Horizontal strokes are the straight lines that are sleeping or lying straight.
  • Slanted strokes are straight lines that are fallen – either the right or left.

To aid memorization, the teacher may make the explanation into rhyme of wordings such as this:

Slanted is falling

Horizontal is sleeping

Vertical is standing

Now I know my strokes!

Step 3: Objects with straight writing patterns or strokes

Having explained and ensured that the pupils are now able to pronounce and recognize/differentiate the strokes, the teacher explains that the strokes are all around us. Many things are made by joining parts that are vertical, horizontal and slanted. The teacher gives examples with concrete objects – door frames, window frames, net, mesh…….

For each object (which the teacher should have a sample of, either real or photographed), the teacher indentifies the vertical, horizontal and slanted side.

Succeeding this, the teacher picks one (window frame, net or mesh) and tells the pupils that they are going to make it in the class. This leads to the activity described below:


  1. Arrange four straws (pipes) into a square frame
  2. Drills holes of equal interval along the four straw (pipes)
  3. Use one colour of thread to run through the holes from left to right and vice and versa such that each thread is slanted and parallel to the diagonal.
  4. From the points where the slanted thread meets above, run another colour of thread to the corresponding meeting point of two slanted thread below such that the thread are vertical and parallel to the vertical frames. Then repeat same for the meeting point between slanted thread at the left and right side such that the thread are horizontal and also parallel to the horizontal frames.
  5. A net frame is formed.

At the end of this activity, the teacher may evaluate the pupils’ ability to identify the different straight strokes. S/he does this by asking them which colour of thread is vertical, horizontal and slanted. Also, with the instructions and materials given; the teacher may give the pupils this activity as home (work) play.

Step 4: Forming the straight writing patterns or strokes.

With the exercise in the previous step (3), the pupils should have developed adequate knowledge of vertical, horizontal and slanted strokes. Hence, they are ready to form the strokes.

Teaching A Child How to Form Vertical Strokes

The teacher begins with vertical strokes.

First, the teacher makes two or three of each of the strokes, one at a time, and directs the pupils to do so FREELY. The objective of this part is not to achieve perfect vertical strokes but to create the image of vertical strokes in their brain and lay foundation for coordination. I recommend Evans Writing Workbook

Secondly, the teacher introduces the pupils to controlled writing pattern formation as described below:

  1. Draw rectangles and liken it to the four straw (pipes) – frames
  2. Makes dots along the top and bottom lines to be likened to the holes.
  3. Then join one or two corresponding dots for the pupils to see and likens it with the rope.
  4. Directs the pupils to join other dots as in (3) above.

NOTE: The rectangles should have heights equal to the gap between two blue lines in 2M sheet of exercise book. With time, as the child progresses, the teacher eliminates the rectangles. There are already drawn lines for this activity in Evans Writing Textbook.

Teaching A Child How to Form Horizontal Strokes

  1. Draw rectangles whose height spans many blue lines in normal sheet of exercise book and whose breath is half of the gap between the blue lines.
  2. In between each blue line, mark two dots along the opposite sides of the height of the rectangle.
  3. Join one or two corresponding dots for the pupils to see.
  4. Let the pupils join other dots.

How to form slanted strokes

  1. Draw rectangles with heights equal to the gap between two blue lines in normal sheet of exercise book.
  2. Marks alternating dots along the top and bottom width of the rectangle.
  3. Join each leading alternate dots for pupils to see.
  4. Directs pupils to repeat.


Prior to concluding the lesson, the teacher revises the lesson then assesses the pupils’ understanding. S/he does the later by giving them the exercises below:


The teacher concludes the lesson by collecting and marking the pupils’ notes. Thereafter, s/he records their performance in the progress report sheet so as to serve as a guide for next activity. It necessary, the teacher may also provide feedback to parents including on the child’s achievement so far, what assistance the child may need at home and how to go about the assistance.

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