Introduction to this post with keywords: First Term Lesson Note Number Work Pre-Nursery Week 2 – 3
Number work is the foundation of Mathematics in later years. It aims to introduce mathematical concepts in a simple but scientific way to the pupils in early years. Unfortunately, most Early Years Teachers do not adopt the scientific and systematic approach in their classrooms. Learning occurs in a systematic manner – in stages. If a step is missed or skipped, learning becomes more difficult and uninteresting to learners. This lesson note adopts systematic approach to introduce number concepts. The note is written in-line with NERDC curriculum for Pre-Nursery. Thus it is meant to be delivered in regular Nursery school. However, parents and older people can also use it to guide their young ones.
2 AND 3
ORAL COUNTING OF OBJECTS 1 – 10
At the end of the lesson, the pupils should be able to:
- Counts objects between 1 – 10
- Recognize numbers 1-5
- Develop the concept of numerical values – determine the greatest of a group of objects.
Counters and number charts
The teacher presents the lesson in order of steps as given below
Step 1: Introduction
To introduce the lesson, the teacher picks a set of the same object (say pencils, sweets etc) in both hands. The number of such object in one hand should be more than the number in another hand. The teacher thence show the pupils the items in both hands and ask the pupils which hand contains more of the items. He or she receives as many attempts as possible. If a child gets it wrong, the teacher declines friendly and jokingly but encouraging further attempts. When a child gets it right, the teacher appreciates such pupil then asks politely how that child knew or was able to identify the greater.
After the ensuing discussion, the teacher tells the pupils that there is a way people use to tell the greater things from the lesser- this is called numbers. After that, the teacher tells the pupils that they are going to learn numbers and how to know the greater of two things – he/she makes them to pronounce number correctly.
Step 2: Meaning of numbers?
The teacher explains that a number is what tells us how many or how much things we have.
Teacher consolidates explanation with practical examples:
- He or she collects some (not more than two) counters and tells the pupils that he or she had that number of counters
- He or she puts down all the counters then ask the pupils how many counter has he or she now. The pupils should answer “none!” or “nothing!”
- The teacher explains that “none” or “nothing” is a number known as ‘zero’ and written as 0.
- He or she teaches them how to pronounce zero correctly by pronouncing it several while the pupils repeats after him/her.
- Again the teacher collect or pick only one of the counter then ask the pupils the number of counter in his or her hands – a child should probably get it as one. Hence, the teacher explains that one is another number which is written as 1 – Teacher reiterates with local dialect if (especially) in rural area.
After the explanation, the teacher teaches the pupils how to pronounce the number, one correctly by pronouncing it several times while the pupils repeats after him or her.
Example is repeated for number 2, 3,4,5,6,7,8,9 & 10 counters one after another.
After the last example, the teacher processes to step 3.
Step 3: Demonstration of numbers
To further help the pupils internalize the concept of number and its values, the teacher leads the pupils to demonstrate the number concept:
- The teacher distributes counters to the pupils and keeps some for himself/herself
- S/he then tells the pupils that they shall pick the number of counter s/he would name then raise it.
- After that, the teacher names numbers between 1 and 10 randomly, one after the other, for the pupils to pick and lift up. Each time, the teacher sees that the pupils picked the correct number of counter s/he has named.
After several practice with counters, the teacher directs the pupils to drop the counters. Thereafter, s/he explains or tells the pupils that there is a part of our body that is known as “fingers” – s/he asks if any of the pupils could tell the class which. After that, the teacher shows the pupils fingers – and may even refer to the name in the local dialect.
Succeeding the explanation, the teacher raises a finger and asks the pupils to say the number of fingers he/she has raised. As may be necessary, question may be directed at individual pupil at first to get their attention.
The teacher repeats the exercise with more fingers – 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10.
Following this, the teacher may direct pupils to raise a named number of fingers. S/he may also give the pupils the following stage evaluation questions.
STAGE EVALUATION QUESTIONS
- How fingers do we have on one hand?
- Both hands together, how many fingers are there?
- Display the picture of a dog or using one of the pupil’s pet dog, if there is any, the teacher may ask – how many legs has the dog?
- Count the buttons on your school uniform, how many buttons are there?
- How many legs have your chair/desk?
- How many windows do your class have?
- How many covers does your water-bottle have?
Step 4: Memorization of Numbers
At this stage, the pupils must have developed the concept of numbers. However, they may not be able to remember names of numbers and the order of numbers. Hence, the activities in this step aids memorization of the names and order of numbers.
Traditionally, rote memorization has been achieved by repetition. Hence, the first activity should be repeated counting, first in pairs:
- The teacher pairs the pupils
- S/he goes to each group, while the pupils watch on, counts different number of counters for each pupil.
- After that, the teacher directs each pupil to count a given number out of his/her and give it to the partner. Afterwards, the pupils count to confirm the number the partner has given him or her then adds it to the ones he initially had left and count the new number of counter is his/her possession. The pupils repeat this several times while the teacher monitors them and takes note of those that may not get the counting so as to decide on necessary aid.
After the pair counting, the teacher leads the pupils in general counting – by the entire class.
The teacher puts up a large counter stand or an improvised one of ten counters. Then, sliding the counters, one at a time, to the other side; s/he counts and the pupils repeat after him/her. The teacher and the class repeat this by sliding the counters back to the original position and again.
Step 5: Recognition of Numbers 0 -5
After the counting exercises, the teacher reminds the pupils that each number has a special way it is written. Thus, that they are going to learn how each number is written – for the week, starting from 0 – 5.
Following this, the teacher starts again from zero and forth; s/he explains that:
- Zero means nothing (repeat in local dialect) and it is written as 0 (teacher writes 0 or shows/places the model if there is).
- One means ______ (in local dialect) and we write one like this – 1(teacher writes 1 or shows/places the model if there is).
- Two means ____ (in local dialect) and we write two like this – 2(teacher writes 2 or shows/places the model if there is).
- Three means ______ (in local dialect) and we write three like this – 3(teacher writes 3 or shows/places the model if there is).
- Four means _____ (in local dialect) and we write four like this – 4 (teacher writes 4 or shows/places the model if there is).
- Five means ______ (in local dialect) and we write five like this – 5 (teacher writes 5s or shows/places the model if there is)..
After the forgoing explanation, the teacher points at each number and then ask the pupils to name the number. Thereafter, the teacher names a number and asks a volunteer pupils to come and points at the number.
The achievements of the objectives of the lesson are evaluated or determined in three oral activities as given below:
Activity 1: Counting of numbers 1 – 10
The teacher asks the pupils, either individually or in small groups, to count numbers 1 – 10. They first of all do so with counters or children abacus, and then do it without.
Activity 2: Recognition of Numbers
- The teacher writes numbers 1 – 5 and then asks the pupils to point at the number that s/he would name. He then names numbers 1 – 5, first serially forward and backward then randomly
- The teacher points each of the numbers then asks the pupils to name it.
- The matching exercise contained in our System Numeracy Textbook is given to the pupils.
- The teacher calls the local name of a number then asks the pupils to tell his/her the English name of the number.
Activity 3: Numerical Values
- The teacher collects some biscuits/sweets; divides it into two groups – one being more than the other; and then asks the pupils to count each group. Afterwards, the teacher reminds the pupil the number of biscuit/sweet in each group and asks the pupil to pick either the greater or lesser. The teacher regroups the items and repeats the exercise.
- The teacher gives the pupils the count and circle exercise in our Systematic Numeracy Textbook
- The teacher gives the pupils the circle the greater or lesser exercise in our Systematic Numeracy Textbook.
The teacher concludes the lesson by recording the pupils’ performance and if necessary, providing feedback to the parents of a child that needs home assistance.
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